Paiza

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Paiza or Paizi or Gerege (Middle Mongolian: Гэрэгэ, Mongolian: Пайз, Persian: پایزهpāiza, Chinese: 牌子 páizi) is a tablet of authority for the Mongol officials and envoys. This enabled the Mongol nobles and officials to demand goods and services from civilian populations.

Although, only someone with paiza was allowed to supply with remounts and served specified rations, those carrying military rarities used the yam (route) even without a paiza. The officials and nobles of the Mongol Empire issued paizas unofficially and abused civils. Therefore, Ögedei Khan (r. 1229–1241) prohibited the nobility from issuing paizas and jarliqs.

To attract foreign or overseas merchants and talents, the Great Khans gave them paiza exempting taxes and allowed to use relay stations.[1] However, Möngke Khan (r. 1251–1259) limited notorious abuses and sent imperial investigators to supervise the business of the merchants who were sponsored by the Mongols. He prohibited them from using the imperial relay stations or yam (zam) and paizas.

Marco Polo who visited the Yuan Dynasty during the reign of Kublai Khan (r. 1260–1294) left a good description of paiza.[2]

The Ilkhan Ghazan (r. 1295–1304) reformed the issuance of jarliqs, creating set forms and graded seals, ordering that all jarliqs be kept on file at court and canceling jarliqs older than 30 years and old paizas.[3] He fashioned new paizas into two ranks, contained the names of the bearers on them to prevent them from being transferred and were to be turned in at the end of the official's term.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ata Malik Juvaini, trans. and ed. John Andrew Boyle, David Morgan-Genghis Khan: the history of the world conqueror, p.29
  2. ^ Laurence Bergreen Marco Polo: from Venice to Xanadu, p.341
  3. ^ George Lane Genghis Khan and Mongol rule, p.34