Tarkhan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about Tarkhan, an ancient Central Asian title. For other uses, see Tarkan and Darkhan

Tarkhan (Old Turkic Tarqan;[1] Mongolian: Darqan or Darkhan;[2][3] Persian: ترخان‎, Tarxān; Chinese: 達干, Dá-gān, Ta-kan; Arabic: طرخان‎; alternative spellings Tarkan, Tarkhaan, Tarqan, Tarchan, Tarxan, Tarcan or Targan) is an ancient Central Asian title used by various Indo-European (i.e. Iranian and Tokharian) and Altaic (i.e. Turkic, Mongolic, incl. Hunnic and Xiongnu) peoples, especially in the medieval era, and prominent among the successors of the Mongol Empire.

Etymology[edit]

The origin of the word is not known. Various historians identify the word as either East Iranian (Sogdian, Alanic or Khotanese Saka),[4][5][6] Turkic (Khazar, Bulgar, Gokturk or Avar),[1][7][8][9] or Mongolic (Rourans).

Although Richard Frye reports that the word "was probably foreign to Sogdian", hence considered to be a loanword from Turkic, Gerhard Doerfer points out that even in Turkic languages, its plural is not Turkic (sing. tarxan --> plur. tarxat), suggesting a non-Turkic origin.[10] L. Ligeti comes to the same conclusion, saying that "tarxan and tegin [prince] form the wholly un-Turkish plurals tarxat and tegit".[11] Taking this into consideration, the word is most likely derived from medieval Mongolian darqat (Mongolian plural suffix -at), itself perhaps derived from the earlier Sogdian word *tarxant ("free of taxes").[10] A. Alemany gives the additional elaboration that the related East Iranian Scytho-Alanic word *tarxan still survives in Ossetic tærxon ("argument, trial") and tærxon kænyn ("to judge").[6] Harold Walter Bailey also proposes an Iranian (Khotanese Saka) root for the word,[12] whereas linguist Sevan Nişanyan lists Old Turkic tarḳan as a cognate word with Khotanese Saka ttarkana, Sogdian tarχān and Hunnic tarḳan/tarχan, all having the same meaning "nobility, nobleness, commander".[13] L. Rogers bears in mind that the word may have originated among the Xiongnu and Huns where it was associated with a title for nobility.[14] Edwin G. Pulleyblank also suggests that both, Turkic tarqan and Mongolian darxan/daruyu, may preserve an original Hunnic word.[15]

Korean scholar Han-Woo Choi suggests a common Altaic root for the Turkic, Mongolian and Korean forms, indicating some kind of relationship with a primitive religion or shamanism, cf. Korean tarku-/tarho-/taru- "to heat a piece of iron in the flames / to deal with a thing, matter or sombody".[1][16] Räsänen (JSFOu L, 7,5) proposed that this word was borrowed from Sino-Korean 達官 (tar-kwan) "emeritus", referring to Gustaf J. Ramstedt's article (1935: 87),[17] however Annemarie von Gabain (1950: 48)[18] and Ramstedt (1951: 63) also suggested that Turkic Tarqan consists of two morphemes, *tar and qan. Dénes Zsinór (JA 1939: 548, 1963: Nr.2564) traces this word to the Mongolian verb root tar- "disperse, divide up".[1] The original Turkic derivative form is preserved as *dar- (“to go apart, scatter, spread; to branch, be forked; branch; claw; finger”).[19] Though modern Kypchak forms like Kyrgyz tara-, tarqa- (“to become scattered” etc.) are most probably borrowed from Mongolian tara-, tarqa-. English orientalist Gerard Clauson is against an etymological connection between Turkic *dar- and Mongolian tara-, tarqa- (“disperse”).[20]

The word was borrowed by many languages, including Armenian tʿarxan, Georgian t’arxani and Russian тархан through the Mongolian conquests, and survived in the name of the Russian city Astrakhan, originally Haj or Hajji Tarkhan. As a Hunnic title, tarxan also occurs in the Armenian History of Caucasian Albania by Movses Kaghankatvatsi.[21]

History[edit]

It was used among the various Iranian (Sogdians, Khotanese, incl. Hephthalites) Turkic and Mongol peoples of Central Asia and other steppe people, and was a high rank in the army of Tamerlane. Tarkhans commanded military contingents (roughly of regimental size under the Khazar khan) and were, roughly speaking, generals. They could also be assigned as military governors of conquered regions.

The Göktürks probably adopted the title of Darqan (Mongolian spelling) from the Mongol-speaking Rourans or Avars.[22] The Tarkhan were cited in inscription of Kul Tigin (d. c. 731 CE). They were given high honors such as entering the ger of Khagan without any prior appointment and shown unusual ninefold pardon to the 9th generation from any crime they committed.[23] Although the etymology of the word is unknown, it is attested under the Khitans who ruled most of Mongolia and North China between 916 and 1125.[24]

Like many titles, Tarkhan (Turkic spelling) also occurs as a personal name, independent of a person's rank, which makes some historical references confusing. For example, Arab texts refer to a "Tarkhan, king of the Khazars" as reigning in the mid ninth century. Whether this is a confused reference to a military official or the name of an individual Khazar khagan remains unclear. The name is occasionally used today in Turkish and Arabic speaking countries.

In the Mongol Empire, the Darkhan were exempted from taxation, socage and requisitioning. Genghis Khan made those who helped his rise Darkhans in 1206. The families of the Darkhan played crucial roles later when the succession crisis occurred in Yuan Dynasty and Ilkhanate. Abaqa Khan (1234–82) made an Indian Darkhan after he had led his mother and her team all the way from Central Asia to Persia safely. A wealthy merchant of Persia was made of Darkhan by Ghazan (1271–1304) for his service during the early defeat of the Ilkhan. In Russia, the Khans of the Golden Horde assigned important tasks to the Darkhan. A jarliq of Temur Qutlugh (ca. 1370–1399) which authorized rights of the Tarkhan found in Crimea.[25]

During the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368), the title was bestowed mainly on the late Darkhans' families and the government officials.

After suppressing the rebellion of the right three tumens in Mongolia, Dayan Khan exempted his soldiers, who participated the battle of Dalan-Terqin, from imposts and made them Darkhan in 1513. Even after the collapse of the Northern Yuan with the death of Ligdan Khan in 1635, the title of Darkhan was bestowed on religious dignitaries, sometimes on persons of low birth. For example, in 1665, the Khotgoid Altan Khan Lubsan bestowed the title on a Russian interpreter and requested the Russian Tsar to exempt the interpreter from all tax obligations.[3]

A Tarkhan established the Tarkhan Dynasty, ruling Northern India from 1554 to 1591 AD.

All craftsmen held the status of darkhan and were immune to occasional requisitions levied incessantly by passing imperial envoys.[26] From then on, the word referred to craftsmen or blacksmiths[27] in Mongolian language now and is still used in Mongolia as privilege.[28] People who served the Orda (Palace) of Emperors were granted darkhan and their descendants called Darkhad in Ordos, Inner Mongolia (not to be confused with the Mongolian People's Republic).

In fiction[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Choi, Han-Woo (Oct 2005), A Study of the Ancient Turkic "TARQAN" (PDF), KR: Handong University 
  2. ^ Rogers, Leland Liu, The Golden Summary of Cinggis Qayan: Cinggis Qayan-u Altan Tobci, p. 80 
  3. ^ a b Ratchnevsky, Paul, Genghis Khan: his life and legacy, p. 82 
  4. ^ Qarīb, Badr-az-Zamān (1995), Sogdian dictionary: Sogdian – Persian – English, Tehran: Farhangan 
  5. ^ Doerfer, Gerhard (1993), "Chaladschica extragottingensia", Central Asiatic Journal 37 (1–2): 43 
  6. ^ a b Alemany, Agustí (2000), Sources on the Alans, Brill, p. 328, Abaev considers this word (lacking in a Turco-Mongolian etymology), as well Old Hungarian tarchan “olim judex”, borrowing from Scythians (Alans) *tarxan “judge” -> Ossetian. Taerxon “argument, trial”; cf. the Ossete idioms taerxon kaenyn “to judge” (+ kӕnyn “to do”) and tӕrxon lӕg “judge” (+l ӕg man). Iron ævzag 
  7. ^ Laufer, Berthold, "Sino-Iranica: Chinese Contributions to the History of Civilization in Ancient Iran, with Special Reference to the History of Cultivated Plants and Products", Anthropological series, vol. 15, issue 3, Harvard University 1919, p.592-593.
  8. ^ Róna-Tas, András; "Hungarians and Europe in the early Middle Ages", Central European University Press, p 228, 1999, ISBN 9639116483
  9. ^ Frye, Richard N, "Tarxun-Turxun and Central Asian History", Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 14 (1/2): 105–29, doi:10.2307/2718297 
  10. ^ a b Doerfer, Gerhard (1985), Harrassowitz, O, ed., Mongolo-Tungusica, University of Virginia 
  11. ^ Ligeti, L (1975), Kiadó, A, ed., Researches in Altaic languages, University of Michigan, p. 48 
  12. ^ Bailey, Harold W (1985), Indo-Scythian Studies: being Khotanese Texts VII, Cambridge Univ. Press 
  13. ^ tarkan in Nişanyan Sözlük (Turkish Etymological Dictionary)
  14. ^ Leland Liu Rogers: The Golden Summary of Cinggis Qayan: Cinggis Qayan-u Altan Tobc. In: Tunguso-Sibirica, vol. 27, Wiesbaden Harrassowitz , 2009, p.80
  15. ^ Universität Bonn. Seminar für Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaft Zentralasiens: Zentralasiatische Studien, Vol. 24-26, p.21
  16. ^ Choi, Han-Woo (2005), Evidences of the affinity of Korean and Turkic (PDF), KR: Handong University 
  17. ^ Ramstedt, G.J., Über den Ursprung der türkischen Sprache, SFAW, 1935, p.87.
  18. ^ von Gabain, Annemarie: Alttürkische Grammatik 1950; p.48.
  19. ^ "*dar-", "*t`ájri" in Sergei Starostin, Vladimir Dybo, Oleg Mudrak (2003), Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers.
  20. ^ G. Clauson, Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth Century Turkish, Oxford 1972, p.529.
  21. ^ H. Hübschmann in: Laufer, Berthold - Sino-Iranica, Anthropological series, vol. 15, issue 3, The Museum 1919, p.593
  22. ^ Pelliot, Neuf Notes [Nine notes] (in French), p. 250 
  23. ^ Eberhard, Conquerors and Rulers, p. 98 
  24. ^ Wittfogel; et al, Liao dynasty, p. 433 
  25. ^ http://reff.net.ua/26327-YArlyki_hanov_Zolotoiy_Ordy_kak_istochnik_prava_i_kak_istochnik_po_istorii_prava.html
  26. ^ Atwood, Christopher, Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, p. 25 
  27. ^ Ratchnevsky, Paul, Genghis Khan: his life and legacy, p. 243 
  28. ^ Kohn, Michael, Mongolia, p. 126 

External links[edit]