|Seal of Kamehameha Schools
I Mua Kamehameha
|1887 Makuakāne Street
Honolulu, Hawaiʻi, 96817
Primary and Secondary
|Religious affiliation(s)||Nondenominational Protestant|
|Founder||Bernice Pauahi Bishop|
|Headmaster||Earl T. Kim (Kapālama), Stan Fortuna, Jr. (Hawaiʻi), Lee Ann DeLima (Maui)|
|Grades||Preschool to 12|
|Campus||Kapālama, Maui, Hawaiʻi|
|Campus size||600 acres (2.4 km2) (Kapālama), 180 acres (0.73 km2) (Maui), 300 acres (1.2 km2) (Hawaiʻi)|
|Song||Sons of Hawaiʻi|
|Fight song||I Mua Kamehameha|
|Athletics conference||Interscholastic League of Honolulu Division I|
|Accreditation||Western Association of Schools and Colleges|
|Yearbook||Ka Naʻi Aupuni|
|Distinctions||Largest endowment of all secondary schools in the United States. At the end of the 2011 fiscal year, the endowment was estimated at $9.06 billion.|
Kamehameha Schools, formerly called Kamehameha Schools Bishop Estate (KSBE), is an educational school designed to educate the children of Hawaiʻi that is designed to serve students from preschool to Twelfth . It focuses on an excellent education both in english and hawaiian as well as teaches the children the hawaiian culture and practices. It operates 31 preschools statewide and three grade K–12 campuses in Kapālama, Oʻahu, Pukalani, Maui, and Keaʻau, Hawaiʻi.
Kamehameha was founded under the terms of the will of Bernice Pauahi Bishop, a direct descendant of Kamehameha the Great and the last living member of the House of Kamehameha. Bishop's will established a trust called the "Bernice Pauahi Bishop Estate" that is Hawaiʻi's largest private landowner. Originally established as an all-boys school on the grounds of the current Bishop Museum, Kamehameha opened its girls' school in 1894 and became coeducational in 1965. The 600-acre (2.4 km2) Kapālama campus opened in 1931, while the Maui and Hawaiʻi campuses opened in 1996 and 2001, respectively.
The schools' controversial admissions policy prefers applicants with Native Hawaiian ancestry and has excluded all but two non-Hawaiians from attending since 1965. A lawsuit challenging the school's admission policy resulted in a narrow victory for Kamehameha in the Ninth Circuit Court; however, Kamehameha ultimately settled, paying the plaintiff $7 million.
As of the 2011–12 school year, Kamehameha had an enrollment of 5,398 students at its three campuses and 1,317 children at its preschools, for a total enrollment of 6,715. Beyond its campuses, Kamehameha served an estimated 46,923 Hawaiians in 2011 through its support for public schools, charter schools, and families and caregivers throughout Hawaii.
In 1883, Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop directed that the remainder of her estate, primarily inherited from her cousin Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani, be held in trust "to erect and maintain in the Hawaiian Islands two schools... one for boys and one for girls, to be known as, and called the Kamehameha Schools." She named her husband Charles Reed Bishop, Samuel Mills Damon, William Owen Smith, Charles Montague Cooke and Charles McEwen Hyde as the original five trustees to invest her estate at their discretion, use the income to operate the schools, and also "to devote a portion of each year's income to the support and education of orphans, and others in indigent circumstances, giving the preference to Hawaiians of pure or part aboriginal blood." She also directed the Hawaiʻi Supreme Court to appoint replacement trustees and required that all teachers be Protestant, without regard to denomination.
After Bishop's death in 1884, her husband Charles Reed Bishop carried out her will. Reverend William Brewster Oleson (1851–1915), former principal of the Hilo boarding school founded by David Belden Lyman in 1836, helped organize the schools on a similar model.:46 The original Kamehameha School for Boys opened in 1887 on a site currently occupied by Bishop Museum. The girls' school opened nearby in 1894. The preparatory school, originally serving grades K–6, opened in 1888 adjacent to the boys' school. By 1955, all three schools had moved to the current 600-acre (2.4 km2) campus in Kapālama Heights. In 1996, the 180-acre (0.73 km2) campus on Maui opened, followed by the 300-acre (1.2 km2) campus on Hawaiʻi in 2001.
In 1991, The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) brought suit against Kamehameha Schools alleging that its requirement that all teachers be Protestant was religious discrimination in violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Although Kamehameha Schools conceded the practice was discriminatory, the School maintained that it was bound by the provisions of Bernice Pauahi Bishop's will which established the charitable trust creating the School as well as mandating that all the teachers "be persons of the Protestant religion." Accordingly, the School sought to fall within one of the applicable exemptions to the Civil Rights Act. The United States District Court for the District of Hawaii found in the School's favor ruling that the religious education exemption, the religious curriculum exemption and the bona fide occupational qualification exemption were each applicable to Kamehameha Schools. The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit reversed the decision of the District Court holding that none of the exemptions to the Civil Rights Act were applicable since the School was essentially a secular and not primarily a religious institution despite certain historical traditions that included Protestantism. As a result, the requirement that all teachers be Protestant was held to be a violation of the Civil Rights Act.
According to the will, the Hawaiʻi State Supreme Court appointed trustees. However, many trustees were political insiders, and by 1997 trustees were paid $800,000 to $900,000 annually. At that time, critics alleged that the trustees were micromanaging the schools. Trustees were appointed "lead trustee" of a particular part of estate operations. In particular, Lokelani Lindsey, lead trustee for educational affairs, was blamed for low morale among students and faculty.
On August 9, 1997, University of Hawaiʻi (UH) Board of Regents Chair (and former Kamehameha Schools Principal) Gladys Brandt, retired judge Walter Heen, Msgr. Charles Kekumano, federal judge Samuel Pailthorpe King, and UH William S. Richardson School of Law professor Randall Roth published a report titled "Broken Trust" in the Honolulu Star Bulletin which, among other things, called on the State Attorney General to fully investigate KSBE management. The report alleged, among other things, that:
- the method of selecting trustees (appointment by the Hawaiʻi Supreme Court) was flawed
- the trustees did not fully understand their responsibilities
- the trustees were not accountable for their actions.
On August 12, 1997, Governor Ben Cayetano directed Attorney General Margery Bronster to perform a preliminary investigation into the allegations. In her report on September 10, 1997, she found that "the rights of the beneficiaries may be at substantial risk," and that there were "credible allegations that the intent of Bernice Pauahi Bishop is not being implemented." Another essay appeared in November, with Brandt, UH Professor Isabella Abbott, respected Hawaiian cultural educator Winona Beamer, and others as authors. Its headline was "Tyranny, distrust, poor decisions reign at Kamehameha".
The investigation continued through 1998, when Bronster sought the permanent removal of Lindsey and fellow trustees Richard Wong and Henry Peters. On May 6, 1999, after a six-month trial, Lindsey was permanently removed as trustee (Lindsey later appealed her removal). A day later, trustees Wong, Peters, and Gerard Jervis were also temporarily removed. The fifth trustee, Oswald Stender, voluntarily resigned. An interim board was appointed by the Hawaii Probate Court to run the estate.
Bronster had been re-appointed by Cayetano who was a Democrat, and since twenty-three of the twenty-five senators were Democrats, some political observers thought approval of Bronster's renomination would be assured. However, the investigation proved costly for Bronster, whose confirmation was defeated by the Hawaii State Senate on April 28, 1999 by a vote of 14-11.:256–257
Things finally started to change when the US Internal Revenue Service retroactively revoked Bishop Estate's tax exempt status for the trustees breach of duties and unlawful use of tax exempt charitable trust assets for political lobbying, triggering about $1 billion in back taxes and penalties.:254
Jervis resigned permanently on August 20, 1999. The trials for permanent removal of the remaining three trustees were set for December 13, 1999. Wong offered his permanent resignation on December 3, 1999; Peters did the same on December 13; and Lindsey voluntarily resigned on December 17. Many of the court files relating to Bishop Estate were ordered sealed citing the need for "closure and healing.":281
The replacement Bishop Estate trustees continued to use the same attorneys and law firms as their predecessors. Deputy attorneys general tried to explain to the replacement trustees that these attorneys and law firms either provided flawed legal advice or stood by silently while they ignored good advice. Some claimed "there had been no thorough housecleaning; instead, the old guard had been put in charge and handed the keys.":268 In 2002, the Hawaii Supreme Court threw out the criminal indictments against three Bishop Estate trustees on procedural grounds and ruled no new charges could be brought.
In 2005 two of the authors of the newspaper series published a book about the issues in this investigation. In 2009, after a large decline in the endowment, trustee compensation ranged from $97,500 to $125,000 per year, and trustees turned down any pay increases.
Campuses and governance
Kamehameha Schools operates three campuses, which together served 5,398 students K-12 in the 2011–12 school year. The main campus, established in 1887 as the Kamehameha Schools for Boys, occupies 600 acres (2.4 km2) on Kapālama Heights in Honolulu and served 3,196 students, including 550 boarding students from neighbor islands. The campus has more than 70 buildings, including numerous classroom buildings, dormitories, and maintenance shops. It also features extensive athletic facilities, including a 3,000-seat stadium, an Olympic-size swimming pool, three gymnasiums, and several tennis courts. In 2010, Kamehameha undertook a $118.5 million construction project featuring a brand-new middle school, a Hawaiian cultural center, a new athletics building, and a parking structure. While the Kaʻiwakīloumoku Hawaiian Cultural Center was opened in October 2012, the entire project is expected to be completed in 2013.
The 180 acres (0.73 km2) Maui campus, established in 1996 in Pukalani, served 1,084 students. The 300 acres (1.2 km2) campus on the island of Hawaiʻi, established in 2001 in Keaʻau, served 1,118 students. In addition to three campuses, Kamehameha Schools operates thirty-one preschools throughout Hawaiʻi, which served 1,317 students statewide.
The five-member Board of Trustees of the Estate of Bernice Pauahi Bishop administers the Schools. Each trustee may serve up to two five-year terms. The 1999 reorganization limited Board micromanagement. A Chief Executive Officer manages day-to-day operations and has autonomy over educational matters.
Bishop's original bequest consisted of 375,000 acres (1,520 km2) of land worth around $474,000. A 1995 Wall Street Journal article described Bishop Estate as "the nation's wealthiest charity," with an endowment estimated at $10 billion - greater than the combined endowments of Harvard and Yale universities. As of June 2011, the endowment was US$9.06 billion. Approximately 75% of the endowment is in financial assets, and 25% is in real estate (as of 22 October 2013 KS announced it would be selling the buildings (not the underlying lands - Helumoa) of its largest single (in terms of value) real estate property, the Royal Hawaiian Center, that lucrative shopping complex encompassing three blocks of prime Waikiki real estate on Kalakua Avenue) ; over 365,000 acres (1,480 km2) remain. However, the book value of the land for accounting purposes is probably much lower than fair market value. When compared against the endowments of major U.S. colleges and universities, only six schools (Harvard University, Yale University, Stanford University, Princeton University, University of Texas System, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology), each with much higher enrollments, have higher endowments than Kamehameha Schools.
Because Kamehameha Schools is a private school, admission is by application. At the Kapālama campus, the process is highly selective. Acceptance rates range from approximately 6.7% to 14.7% depending on the grade for which a student applies. Acceptance rates at the Maui and Hawaiʻi campuses are generally higher, ranging from approximately 9.2% to 24%, due to those islands' smaller populations and the lack of boarding students.
In accordance with a century-old interpretation of the will of Bernice Pauahi Bishop, Kamehameha Schools prefers applicants of Native Hawaiian descent "to the extent permitted by law." Orphans and indigents receive special consideration. Preference applicants must submit evidence verifying that at least one of their pre-1959 ancestors is Hawaiian.
The schools' admissions policy has been a subject of controversy. Because far more applicants claim Hawaiian ancestry than the schools can admit, virtually all students have some Hawaiian blood. Non-Hawaiians have attended, but this is extremely rare. In 2002, Kamehameha admitted one non-Hawaiian student, Kalani Rosell, to its Maui campus, for the first time in 40 years. Rosell was admitted after all qualified Hawaiian applicants had been admitted. This decision sparked alumni protest.
Kamehameha's admissions policy was the focus of two federal lawsuits, which contended that preferring Native Hawaiians is a race-based exclusion that violates U.S. civil rights law. Both lawsuits have since settled.
The plaintiff in one suit, filed by attorney John Goemans in August 2003, was Brayden Gay Mohica-Cummings, a seventh-grader admitted to Kapālama Heights after his mother, who had been adopted by a Hawaiian family, said he was Hawaiian. The school rescinded its offer when his mother was unable to document his ancestry. Because Kamehameha rescinded the offer only a week before the school year started, District Judge David Ezra issued a temporary restraining order requiring Kamehameha to admit Mohica-Cummings. The case was settled out-of-court in November 2003, when Kamehameha Schools agreed to let Mohica-Cummings attend, in exchange for dropping the lawsuit.
John Doe v. Kamehameha
Another lawsuit, filed by Goemans in June 2003 on behalf of an unidentified non-Hawaiian student, claimed that preferring Hawaiian applicants violates a federal statute prohibiting racial discrimination in private contracts. In November, District Judge Alan Cooke Kay dismissed the lawsuit, finding that Kamehameha Schools' policy served a "legitimate, remedial purpose by improving native Hawaiians' socioeconomic and educational disadvantages".
In August 2005, however, a three-judge panel of the 9th Circuit of Appeals reversed 2–1, ruling the policy racially exclusionary. A protest march to ʻIolani Palace and rally on the palace grounds attracted an estimated 10–15,000 participants, including Hawaiʻi's governor and lieutenant governor.
The Ninth Circuit agreed to rehear the appeal before a 15-judge en banc panel in February 2006. On December 5, 2006, by a vote of 8–7, the en banc panel reversed the earlier decision by the three-judge panel, affirming Kay's ruling.
The majority ruled that Kamehameha's policy does not run afoul of a civil rights law, citing what it said were unique factors in the history of Hawaiʻi, the plight of Native Hawaiians and the schools' distinctively remedial mission, which Congress has repeatedly endorsed. The dissent stated that civil rights law "prohibits a private school from denying admission to prospective students because of their race", and was very skeptical of the majority interpretation, stating, "The fact that Congress has passed some measures promoting Native Hawaiian education says nothing about whether Congress intended to exempt Native Hawaiian schools from § 1981 [civil rights law]".
Following the decision, attorneys appealed to the United States Supreme Court. However, before the Supreme Court decided whether to hear the case, Doe v. Kamehameha was also settled. Both this settlement and the Ninth Circuit's decision prompted a procession at the Kapalama High School, leading to an all-school assembly. On February 8, 2008, Goemans disclosed that the amount of the settlement was $7 million USD.
On August 6, 2008, Kamehameha announced that it had sued John Doe for releasing the settlement amount. On the same day, John Doe's attorneys, Eric Grant and David Rosen, filed another lawsuit against Kamehameha on behalf of four non-Hawaiian children who wanted to attend the school.
All three of Kamehameha's campuses are college-preparatory and offer honors courses. In addition, the Kapālama campus offers 15 Advanced Placement courses, while the Hawaiʻi campus offers four. The Kapālama high school administered 290 Advanced Placement exams in 2007.
Upperclass students at the Maui and Hawaiʻi high schools select a "Career Academy" based on their individual interests. They develop course schedules designed to enhance skills for potential careers within their academy's scope. Currently, the campuses offer academies for arts and communication, business and leadership, engineering and design, health and wellness, and science and natural resources.
Approximately 70% of Kamehameha graduates enroll in four-year universities, while 25% enroll in two-year colleges or technical schools. Students in the 2010 graduating class of the Kapālama campus had an average composite SAT score of 1560 out of 2400. In the 2011 graduating class, there were 4 National Merit semi-finalists and 7 commended students.
As the only private school to prefer Native Hawaiian students, Kamehameha emphasizes Hawaiian language and culture in its curriculum. The Kapālama high school offers a six-year program in Hawaiian language and various supplementary courses in Hawaiian literature, culture, history, song composition and performance, chant, and dance.
Kamehameha offers several distance learning programs for high school students, adults, and educators to learn Hawaiian language and culture over the Internet. The program includes an archived series of instructional videos entitled Kulāiwi for learning the Hawaiian language that are available for free online streaming. Kamehameha also operates Kamehameha Publishing, which prints and sells Hawaiian books, posters, multimedia.
Kamehameha also offers several programs and services for high school graduates. Along with the Ke Aliʻi Pauahi Foundation, Kamehameha offers a variety of need- and merit-based scholarships for those pursuing undergraduate and postgraduate education. Its career counseling program provides advice and counseling for post-high school students and operates an internship program for various companies statewide. The First Nations' Futures Program, operated in conjunction with Stanford University and the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, is a fellowship program designed to develop "a select team of emerging leaders... to become significant community contributors in natural, cultural and land stewardship."
Held annually in March, the Kamehameha Schools Song Contest is an a cappella choral competition between the graduating high school classes of the Kapālama campus. Students participate as a graduation requirement. Each class, directed by one of its students, sings Hawaiian songs as a single, cohesive choir. Each class sings a coed arrangement, and students in grades 10–12 perform a men's and a women's song. Five judges evaluate the musical performance and use of the Hawaiian language. After the hōʻike, an exhibition of hula and Hawaiian music, six trophies are awarded to the best performances.
- Isabella Abbott – Class of 1937, authority on Central Pacific Algae and Hawaiian Plants
- Daniel K. Akaka – Class of 1942, United States Senator from Hawaii (1990–2012)
- David Cooper – Retired Brigadier General, President of Pacific American Foundation
- Brian Ching – Class of 1996, professional Major League Soccer player
- Makoa Freitas – Professional American football player for Indianapolis Colts
- Blane Gaison – Class of 1976, professional American football player for Atlanta Falcons (1981–1985)
- Brickwood Galuteria – Class of 1973, Hawaii State Senator
- Heather Giugni – Hawaii State Representative
- Clayton Hee – Class of 1971, Hawaii State Senator
- Don Ho – Class of 1949, musician and entertainer
- Radasha Ho'ohuli – Miss Hawaii USA 2006
- Kelly Hu – Class of 1986, Actress and Miss Teen USA 1985, Miss Hawaii USA 1993
- David Hughes – Class of 1977, National Football League running back for the Seattle Seahawks and Pittsburgh Steelers (1981–86)
- Anuhea Jenkins – Class of 2003, singer and songwriter
- Duke Kahanamoku – Class of 1910, Olympic swimmer
- Brook Mahealani Lee – Class of 1989, Miss Hawaii USA 1997, Miss USA 1997 and Miss Universe 1997
- Dee Jay Mailer – Class of 1970, CEO of Kamehameha Schools
- Marlene Sai – musician and performer
- Bronson Sardinha – Professional MLB outfielder
- Louis Keouli Thompson – Class of 1900, musician and performer
- Haunani-Kay Trask – Class of 1967, Hawaiian activist
- Mililani Trask – Class of 1969, Hawaiian activist
- Malama Solomon Ph.D. - Class of 1969, First OHA Trustee, Hawaii State Senator
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kamehameha Schools.|
- "About Kamehameha Schools: Religious Affiliation". Kamehameha Schools. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- Stan Fortuna, Jr., Ed.D.
- Lee Ann DeLima
- "Kamehameha Schools - Campuses". Kamehameha Schools. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- "Endowment Figures". New York Times. 25 January 2008. Retrieved 2010-03-10.
- Kamehameha Schools (2011-06-30). "Kamehameha Schools 2010-2011 Annual Report". Retrieved 2012-07-31.
- "Will and Codicils of Ke Ali'i Bernice Pauahi Paki Bishop". Kamehameha Schools. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
- Jim Dooley (8 February 2008). "Kamehameha Schools settled lawsuit for $7M". The Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved 2010-03-10.
- "Kamehameha Schools - Facts". Kamehameha Schools. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- Annual report. Volume 63. The Hawaiian Mission Children's Society. 1915.
- Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate, 780 F.Supp. 1317 (D.Haw.1991).
- Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate, 780 F.Supp. 1317 (D.Haw.1991)
- Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate 990 F.2d 458 (9th Cir.1993); http://ftp.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/990/990.F2d.458.91-16586.html
- Rick Daysog (February 29, 2009). "Kamehameha Schools trustees take 10% pay cut, reject raise". Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
- Samuel Pailthorpe King, Msgr. Charles Kekumano, Walter Heen, Gladys Brandt and Randall Roth (August 9, 1997). "Broken Trust: The community has lost faith in Bishop Estate trustees, in how they are chosen, how much they are paid, how they govern". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
- "Bronster releases preliminary report". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. September 10, 1997. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
- Isabella Abbott, Winona Beamer, Gladys A. Brandt, Roderick F. McPhree and Winona Ellis Rubin (November 27, 1997). "Schools' gross mismanagement must stop: Tyranny, distrust, poor decisions reign at Kamehameha". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
- Samuel Pailthorpe King; Randall W. Roth (March 2006). Broken Trust: Greed, Mismanagement, and Political Manipulation at America’s Largest Charitable Trust. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-3014-4.
- State v. Wong, 97 Haw. 512, 40 P.3d 914 (Haw. 2002)
- I Mua e Kamehameha ma ke Aʻo Hawaiʻi
- "Kamehameha Schools Breaks Ground on New Kapalama Master Plan". Kamehameha Schools. 24 May 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- "Ke Kupu Malamalama Updates". Kamehameha Schools. 21 April 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- "Broken Trust: Greed, Mismanagement & Political Manipulation at America's Largest Charitable Trust".
- "Kamehameha Schools 2007-2008 Annual Report". Retrieved 2010-03-10.
- Wikipedia contributors (2012-07-30). "List of colleges and universities in the United States by endowment". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
- "Admissions: A Brief History of Kamehameha Schools". official web site. Kamehameha Schools. Retrieved 2009-12-10.
- "Ho‘oulu Hawaiian Data Center Frequently Asked Questions". official web site. Kamehameha Schools. Retrieved 2009-12-10.
- Rick Daysog (November 29, 2003). "School lets non-Hawaiian stay; In exchange, the student will drop his suit against Kamehameha Schools". Star-Bulletin.
- Rick Daysog and Debra Barayuga (November 18, 2003). "Federal judge upholds Hawaiians-only school; The court rules that Kamehameha Schools' admission policy serves a legitimate purpose". Star Bulletin.
- "John Doe v. Kamehameha Schools". Honolulu Advertiser. August 3, 2005.
- Gordon Y.K. Pang and Will Hoove (August 7, 2005). "Rally cry: 'Justice now!'". Honolulu Advertiser.
- Sally Apgar (February 23, 2006). "Court will rehear school case; The challenge to Kamehameha Schools' policy will go before 15 judges of the 9th Circuit Court". Star Bulletin.
- "Trustee Message: KS sues John Doe for Breach of Contract; Receives demand letter threatening new lawsuit from Eric Grant". Kamehameha Schools. August 6, 2008. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
- "Kamehameha Sues Over Breach Of Confidentiality". KITV Honolulu. August 6, 2008. Retrieved 2009-12-10.
- "Kamehameha Schools Kapālama High School Catalog of Courses". Kamehameha Schools. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- "Kamehameha Schools Hawaiʻi Course Catalog". Kamehameha Schools. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- "Kamehameha Schools Kapālama High School Profile 2007-2008". Kamehameha Schools. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- "Kamehameha Kapalama Opportunity Statement". Wickenden Associates. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- "Isle students vie for national award". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- "KSDL - Kulaiwi". Kamehameha Schools. 2008-09-29. Retrieved 2008-12-14.
- "Kamehameha Publishing". Kamehameha Schools. Retrieved 2008-12-14.
- "First Nations' Futures Program 2012 flyer". Kamehameha Schools. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- Election profile: State House District 4
- J. Arthur Rath (2005). Lost generations:A Boy, a School, a Princess. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-3010-6.
- Gavan Daws (2009). Wayfinding Through the Storm: Speaking Truth to Power at Kamehameha Schools 1993-1999. Watermark Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9821698-3-4.
- Kamehameha Schools official web site
- Honolulu Star-Bulletin Bishop Estate archive
- Kamehameha "Warrior" Marching Band and Color Guard
- Randall W. Roth (2006). "Broken Trust". Book web site. Retrieved 2010-03-10.