List of Atlantic hurricane records

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Since the reliable record keeping of tropical cyclone data within the North Atlantic Ocean began in 1851,[1] there have been 1,505 systems of at least tropical storm intensity and 879 of at least hurricane intensity. Though a majority of these tropical cyclones have fallen within climatological averages, prevailing atmospheric conditions occasionally lead to anomalous tropical systems which at times reach extremes in statistical record-keeping including in duration and intensity.[2] The scope of this list is limited to tropical cyclone records solely within the Atlantic Ocean north of the equator and is subdivided by their reason for notability.

Tropical cyclogenesis[edit]

Earliest/latest formations for each category[edit]

Monochrome radar image of a hurricane. Rain, which the radar detects, is shown as white regions. Concentric circles denote distances from the radar site, located slightly offset from the center of the image.
Hurricane Alice was both the latest and earliest recorded hurricane to exist in any given calendar year.

Climatologically speaking, approximately 97 percent of tropical cyclones that form in the North Atlantic develop between the dates of June 1 and November 30 – dates which delimit the modern-day Atlantic hurricane season. Though the beginning of the annual hurricane season has historically remained the same, the official end of the hurricane season has shifted from its initial date of October 31. Regardless, on average once every few years a tropical cyclone develops outside the limits of the season;[3] as of August 2013 there have been 65 tropical cyclones in the off-season, with the most recent being Tropical Storm Beryl in 2012.[1] The first tropical cyclone of the 1938 Atlantic hurricane season, which formed on January 3, became the earliest forming tropical storm and hurricane after reanalysis concluded on the storm in December 2012.[4] In 1951, Hurricane Able became the earliest forming major hurricane – a tropical cyclone with winds exceeding 115 mph (185 km/h)[nb 1] – after it reached the equivalent of Category 3 intensity on May 21.[1] Though it developed within the bounds of the Atlantic hurricane season,[3][1], Hurricane Audrey in 1957 became the earliest developing Category 4 hurricane on record after it reached the intensity on June 27.[6] The earliest-forming Category 5 hurricane, Emily, reached the highest intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale on July 17, 2005.[7]

Though the official end of the Atlantic hurricane season occurs on November 30, the dates of October 31 and November 15 have also historically marked the official end date for the hurricane season.[3] December, the only month of the year after the hurricane season, has featured the cyclogenesis of fourteen tropical cyclones.[1] Tropical Storm Zeta in 2005 was the latest tropical cyclone to attain tropical storm intensity as it did so on December 30. However, the second Hurricane Alice in 1954 was the latest forming tropical cyclone to attain hurricane intensity. Both Zeta and Alice were the only two storms to exist in two calendar years – the former from 1954 to 1955 and the latter from 2005 to 2006.[8] No storms have been recorded to exceed Category 1 hurricane intensity in December.[1] In 1999, Hurricane Lenny reached Category 4 intensity on November 17 as it took an unprecedented west to east track across the Caribbean; its intensity made it the latest developing Category 4 hurricane, though this was well within the bounds of the hurricane season.[9] Hurricane Hattie (October 27-November 1, 1961) was initially thought to have been the latest forming Category 5 hurricane ever documented,[10] though reanalysis indicated that a devastating hurricane in 1932 reached such an intensity at a later date.[4][1] Consequently, this made the hurricane the latest developing tropical cyclone to reach all four Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale classifications past Category 1 intensity.[1]

Earliest formation records by storm number[edit]

Earliest formation of Atlantic Basin tropical cyclones by storm number
Storm number Earliest Next earliest
Name Date of formation Name Date of formation
1 Unnamed January 3, 1938 Unnamed January 18, 1978
2 Unnamed May 17, 1887 TIE Unnamed May 26, 1908
Beryl May 26, 2012
3 Unnamed June 12, 1887 Unnamed June 18, 1959
4 Debby June 23, 2012 Dennis July 5, 2005
5 Emily July 11, 2005 Danny July 16, 1997
6 Franklin July 21, 2005 TIE Unnamed August 4, 1936
Florence August 4, 2012
7 Gert July 24, 2005 Unnamed August 7, 1936
8 Harvey August 3, 2005 Unnamed August 15, 1936
9 Irene August 7, 2005 Unnamed August 20, 1936
10 Jose August 22, 2005 TIE Jerry August 23, 1995
Joyce August 23, 2012
11 Katrina August 24, 2005 TIE Unnamed August 28, 1936
Karen August 28, 1995
Kirk August 28, 2012
12 Luis August 29, 1995 Leslie August 30, 2012
13 TIE Maria - September 2, 2005 Michael September 4, 2012
Lee - September 2, 2011
14 Nate September 5, 2005 Maria September 7, 2011
15 TIE Ophelia - September 7, 2005 Unnamed September 19, 1936
Nate - September 7, 2011
16 Philippe September 17, 2005 Ophelia September 21, 2011
17 Rita September 18, 2005 Philippe September 24, 2011
18 Stan October 2, 2005 Sebastien October 21, 1995
19 Unnamed October 4, 2005 Tony October 24, 2012
20 Tammy October 5, 2005 Unnamed November 15, 1933
21 Vince October 9, 2005 N/A N/A
22 Wilma October 17, 2005 N/A N/A
23 Alpha October 22, 2005 N/A N/A
24 Beta October 27, 2005 N/A N/A
25 Gamma November 18, 2005 N/A N/A
26 Delta November 23, 2005 N/A N/A
27 Epsilon November 29, 2005 N/A N/A
28 Zeta December 30, 2005 N/A N/A
Based on data from: U.S. NOAA Coastal Service Center - Historical Hurricane Tracks Tool
  • Note: Storms that originally form as tropical depression will not be posted unless they reach tropical storm status (for example, Hurricane Michael in 2012 formed on September 3 as tropical depression, but was not named until it reached tropical storm status, on September 4, thus putting Hurricane Michael on the list with the date September 4).

Location[edit]

Extreme latitudes and longitudes[edit]

Black and white image of a hurricane. Rainbands to the top of the hurricane are extended out to the upper-right, and the center of the hurricane itself is located at center-left. Clouds appear as shades of white and the sea as shades of black. However, sunglint is visible at center-right.
Hurricane Faith traversed a greater distance and retained tropical cyclone status further north than any other Atlantic hurricane.

This list contains tropical cyclones that formed at or moved to an extraordinary latitude or longitude. This list may include storms that reach extreme north latitude, or very equatorial cyclones. It should be noted that before the satellite era, analysis of distant tropical cyclones was extremely difficult.

  • 1958 - Hurricane Cleo was the easternmost forming Category 5 hurricane, at around 49.2°W.
  • 1960 - Hurricane Ethel reached Category 5 intensity at 28.1° N, farther north than any other storm in the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea or Atlantic Ocean. Ethel's intensity is debatable and Hurricane Carla in 1961 may hold the record, becoming a Category 5 at 27°N.
  • 1966 - Hurricane Faith retained tropical cyclone status further north than any other storm, being classified as extratropical at about 62°N. It also retained Category 2 intensity through this period.
  • 1971 - Hurricane #2 became a hurricane at 46°N, the highest latitude a tropical storm has been upgraded in the Atlantic.
  • 1973 - Tropical Storm Christine developed as a tropical depression at 14°W over western Africa, the eastern-most tropical depression formation in the Atlantic basin.
  • 1973 - Hurricane Ellen became a major hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale at 42.1°N, further north than any other storm.
  • 1978 - Tropical Storm Amelia developed into a tropical depression at 96.7°W while located 30 miles (48 km) south of Brownsville, Texas, the western-most forming tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin.
  • 1978 - Hurricane Ella retained Category 4 intensity further north than any other Atlantic hurricane, reaching about 45°N before weakening.
  • 1980 - Hurricane Frances intensified into a Category 3 hurricane further south and east than any other storm on record, doing so at 29.8°W.
  • 1982 - Hurricane Debby reached Category 4 strength at 38.8°N, eclipsing the previous record set by Hurricane Ella in 1978.
  • 1988 - Tropical Storm Alberto was classified a tropical storm off the coast of Massachusetts, which is further north than any other tropical storm on record.
  • 1990 - Hurricane Isidore formed at a lower latitude than any other tropical cyclone on record for the North Atlantic, 7.2°N.
  • 2004 - Hurricane Ivan became a Category 3 at 9.6°N latitude, the lowest latitude ever recorded for a major hurricane. It also set the record for southernmost Category 4 and 5 hurricanes, reaching these intensities at 10.6°N and 13.7°N respectively.
  • 2005 - Hurricane Vince formed at a record northeast point in the Atlantic, however, this record was later broken by Grace in 2009. Vince also became a hurricane further east than any storm in Atlantic history at 18.9°W.
  • July 3, 2008 – Hurricane Bertha reached tropical storm intensity at 24.0°W, becoming the easternmost developing tropical storm in the month of July. Bertha would later reach hurricane and major hurricane intensity at 49.4°W and 51.6°W, respectively, also attaining monthly easternmost records for those categories.[12]
  • October 4, 2009 – Tropical Storm Grace developed into a tropical storm near the Azores at 38.5°N latitude by 29.5°W longitude, making it the furthest northeast that a storm has ever intensified into a tropical storm in the Atlantic. Grace would persist as a tropical storm for roughly two days before transitioning into an extratropical storm just southwest of Ireland at 12.7°W longitude by 48.8°N latitude.[13]
  • September 15, 2010 – Hurricane Julia reached Category 4 intensity at 31.4°W longitude, making it the easternmost tropical cyclone to reach such an intensity. This also makes it the strongest known tropical cyclone in the Atlantic east of the 40th meridian west.[14]
  • June 21, 2012 – Hurricane Chris was upgraded to hurricane intensity at 39.5°N latitude, attaining the record for the farthest-north for an Atlantic June hurricane to reach such an intensity; Chris would maintain hurricane intensity as far north as 41.9°N before weakening back to tropical storm strength.[15]

Distance traveled[edit]

Greatest Travels
Sources: NOAA,[16][17][18]
Distance
(Miles)
Name Date
6850 Hurricane Faith 1966
6500 Hurricane Alberto 2000
6000 Hurricane Cleo 1964
Hurricane Chloe 1967
5500 Hurricane Carrie 1957
Hurricane Flora 1963
Hurricane Dora 1964

Intensity[edit]

Most intense[edit]

By pressure[edit]

Most intense Atlantic hurricanes
Rank Hurricane Season Pressure
hPa inHg
1 Wilma 2005 882 26.05
2 Gilbert 1988 888 26.23
3 "Labor Day" 1935 892 26.34
4 Rita 2005 895 26.43
5 Allen 1980 899 26.55
6 Camille 1969 900 26.58
7 Katrina 2005 902 26.64
8 Mitch 1998 905 26.73
Dean 2007 905 26.73
10 "Cuba" 1924 910 26.88
Ivan 2004 910 26.88
Source: HURDAT[1]

Generally speaking, the intensity of a tropical cyclone is determined by either the storm's maximum sustained winds or lowest barometric pressure. The following table lists the most intense Atlantic hurricanes in terms of their lowest barometric pressure. In terms of wind speed, hurricanes Allen and Camille (in 1980 and 1969, respectively) were the strongest Atlantic tropical cyclones on record, with maximum sustained winds of 190 mph (310 km/h). However, these measurements are suspect since instrumentation used to document wind speeds at the time would likely succumb to winds of such intensity.[19] Nonetheless, their central pressures are low enough to rank them among the strongest recorded Atlantic hurricanes.[1]

Owing to their intensity, the strongest Atlantic hurricanes have all attained Category 5 classification. Hurricane Opal, the strongest Category 4 hurricane recorded, intensified to reach a minimum pressure of 916 mbar (hPa; 27.05 inHg),[20] a pressure typical of Category 5 hurricanes.[21] Nonetheless, the pressure remains too high to list Opal as one of the ten strongest Atlantic tropical cyclones.[1] Presently, Hurricane Wilma is the strongest Atlantic hurricane ever recorded, after reaching an intensity of 882 mbar (hPa; 26.05 inHg) in October 2005;[19] this also makes Wilma the strongest tropical cyclone worldwide outside of the West Pacific,[22][23][24][25][26] where seven tropical cyclones have been recorded to intensify to lower pressures.[27] Preceding Wilma is Hurricane Gilbert, which had also held the record for most intense Atlantic hurricane for 17 years.[28] The 1935 Labor Day hurricane, with a pressure of 892 mbar (hPa; 26.34 inHg), is the third strongest Atlantic hurricane and the strongest documented tropical cyclone prior to 1950.[1] Since the measurements taken during Wilma and Gilbert were documented using dropsonde, this pressure remains the lowest measured over land.[29]

Hurricane Rita is the fourth strongest Atlantic hurricane in terms of barometric pressure and one of three tropical cyclones from 2005 on the list, with the others being Wilma and Katrina at first and sixth, respectively.[1] However, with a barometric pressure of 895 mbar (hPa; 26.43 inHg), Rita is the strongest tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Gulf of Mexico.[30] Hurricanes Camille, Mitch, and Dean share intensities for the seventh strongest Atlantic hurricane at 905 mbar (hPa; 26.73 inHg).[29] Sharing tenth place for most intense Atlantic tropical cyclone are Hurricane Ivan and an unnamed hurricane from 1932, which both are listed to have deepened to a pressure as low as 910 mbar (hPa; 26.88 inHg).[1]

Many of the strongest recorded tropical cyclones weakened prior to their eventual landfall or demise. However, three of the storms remained intense enough at landfall to be considered some of the strongest landfalling hurricanes – three of the eleven hurricanes on the list constitute the three most intense Atlantic landfalls in recorded history. The 1935 Labor Day hurricane made landfall at peak intensity, making it the most intense Atlantic landfall. Though it weakened slightly before its eventual landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula, Hurricane Gilbert maintained a pressure of 900 mbar (hPa; 26.58 inHg) at landfall, making its landfall the second strongest. Similarly, Hurricane Dean made landfall on the peninsula, though it did so at peak intensity and with a higher barometric pressure; its landfall marked the third strongest in Atlantic hurricane history.[29]

By highest sustained winds[edit]

Highest 1 minute sustained winds (175 mph or greater)
Hurricane Season Winds
mph km/h
Allen 1980 190 305
Gilbert 1988 185 295
Wilma 2005 185 295
Mitch 1998 180 285
Rita 2005 180 285
Janet 1955 175 280
Carla 1961 175 280
Camille 1969 175 280
Anita 1977 175 280
David 1979 175 280
Andrew 1992 175 280
Katrina 2005 175 280
Dean 2007 175 280
Felix 2007 175 280

Most intense by month[edit]

The Atlantic hurricane season runs from June 1 to November 30. Intensity is measured solely by central pressure.

Most intense Atlantic tropical cyclones by month
Month Storm Year Minimum pressure Classification Notes
January Alice 1955 987 mbar (hPa; 29.15 inHg) Category 1 [nb 3]
February Unnamed 1952 1004 mbar (hPa; 29.65 inHg) Tropical storm [nb 4]
March Unnamed 1908 <991 mbar (hPa; 29.27 inHg) Category 2 [nb 4]
April Ana 2003 994 mbar (hPa; 29.36 inHg) Tropical storm
May Able 1951 <980 mbar (hPa; 28.94 inHg) Category 3
June Audrey 1957 946 mbar (hPa; 27.94 inHg) Category 4 [nb 5]
Alex 2010 Category 2 [nb 5]
July Emily 2005 929 mbar (hPa; 27.44 inHg) Category 5
August Allen 1980 899 mbar (hPa; 26.55 inHg) Category 5
September Gilbert 1988 888 mbar (hPa; 26.23 inHg) Category 5
October Wilma 2005 882 mbar (hPa; 26.05 inHg) Category 5
November Unnamed 1932 918 mbar (hPa; 27.11 inHg) Category 5
December Nicole 1998 979 mbar (hPa; 28.91 inHg) Category 1

Hurricane Severity Index[edit]

Most severe landfalling Atlantic hurricanes in the United States
based on size and intensity for total points on the Hurricane Severity Index
Rank Hurricane Year Intensity Size Total
1 Carla 1961 17 25 42
2 Hugo 1989 16 24 40
Betsy 1965 15 25 40
4 Camille 1969 22 14 36
Katrina 2005 13 23 36
Opal 1995 11 25 36
7 Miami 1926 15 19 34
8 Audrey 1957 17 16 33
Fran 1996 11 22 33
Wilma 2005 12 21 33
Source: Hurricane Severity Index

Fastest intensification[edit]

  • Fastest Intensification from a Tropical Storm to a Category 5 Hurricane: 16 hours - 70 mph to 155 mph - Hurricane Wilma 2005
  • Maximum pressure drop in 12 hours: 87mb - Wilma 2005
  • Maximum pressure drop in 24 hours: 98mb - Wilma 2005 - 1200 UTC October 18 to October 19
  • Fastest Intensification from a Tropical Depression to a Hurricane: 12 hours - Lorenzo 2007
  • Fastest Intensification from a Depression to a Category Five Hurricane: 51 Hours - Felix 2007

Largest in diameter[edit]

Below are the five largest hurricanes (by gale diameter) ever observed in the Atlantic basin.

Known Atlantic hurricanes with gale diameter of 750 miles
Storm Season Diameter
(mi) (km)
Sandy 2012 945 1,520
Igor 2010 920 1,480
Olga 2001 865 1,390
Lili 1996 805 1,295
Karl 2004 780 1,255
Sources:[1], [2], [3], [4]

Seasonal records[edit]

Highest number of named storms[edit]

Number of named storm occurrences by month
Month
Storms Season
January 1 1938 and 1978
February 1 1952
March 1 1908
April 1 1992 and 2003
May 2 1887 and 2012
June 3 1886, 1936 and 1968
July 5 2005
August 8 2004 and 2012
September 8 2002 and 2010
October 8 1950
November 3 2005
December 2 1887 and 2003
Based on data from: U.S. NOAA Coastal Service Center - Historical Hurricane Tracks Tool
† – Highest number for month by virtue of being only known season to see a storm form

Naming[edit]

Seasonal activity[edit]

A hurricane with a peak intensity of Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is classified as major. The table on the right excludes seasons prior to 1965 due to lack of accurate data for the period.

Number of tropical storms and hurricanes per season[edit]

This bar chart shows the number of named storms and hurricanes per year from 1851-2013:

Effects[edit]

Costliest Atlantic hurricanes[edit]

Costliest U.S. Atlantic hurricanes
Cost refers to total estimated property damage
Rank Hurricane Season Damage
1 Katrina 2005 $108 billion
2 Sandy 2012 $65 billion
3 Ike 2008 $29.5 billion
4 Andrew 1992 $26.5 billion
5 Wilma 2005 $21 billion
6 Ivan 2004 $18.8 billion
7 Irene 2011 $15.6 billion
8 Charley 2004 $15.1 billion
9 Rita 2005 $12 billion
10 Frances 2004 $9.51 billion
Source: National Hurricane Center[31][32][33][nb 6]


Most tornadoes spawned[edit]

Number of tornadoes spawned[34]
Count Name Year
117 Hurricane Ivan 2004
115 Hurricane Beulah 1967
101 Hurricane Frances 2004[35]
86 Hurricane Rita 2005
81 Tropical Storm Fay 2008
62 Hurricane Katrina 2005
39 Hurricane Danny 1985
34 Hurricane David 1979
34 Hurricane Isaac 2012
33 Hurricane Cindy 2005
31 Hurricane Opal 1995
29 Hurricane Allen 1980
29 Hurricane Gilbert 1988
29 Tropical Storm Lee 2011
25 Tropical Storm Debby 2012
23 Hurricane Alicia 1983
21 Hurricane Audrey 1957
20 Hurricane Carla 1961

Miscellaneous records[edit]

Fastest forward speed[edit]

Fastest forward speed
Rank Speed Name Year Day Time
1 70 mph (110 km/h) 1938 New England hurricane 1938 September 15 0600 UTC
2 66 mph (102 km/h) Tropical Storm Four 1970 August 18 1800 UTC
3 65 mph (100 km/h) Hurricane Luis 1995 September 11 1200 UTC
Hurricane Emily 1987 September 26 1200 UTC
5 63 mph (98 km/h) Hurricane Lisa 1998 October 9 1800 UTC
8 62 mph (97 km/h) Hurricane Fox 1951 September 10 0600 UTC
Tropical Storm Helene 2000 September 25 1200 UTC
Hurricane Irene 1999 October 19 0000 UTC
[1]
Notes
These are the fastest estimated recorded speeds of any tropical system (including tropical depressions, tropical storms, and hurricanes) between 1851 and 2005. It does not include extratropical systems which routinely reach very high forward speeds.

Longest duration[edit]

Greatest duration
Sources: NOAA HRD,[36] NHC[37]
Duration
(days)
Name Date
27.75 Hurricane San Ciriaco August 1899
27.25 Hurricane Ginger September 1971
24.75 Hurricane Inga September 1969
22.25 Hurricane Nadine September 2012
22 Hurricane Kyle September 2002
21 Storm 4 September 1926
20.75 Hurricane Carrie September 1957
Storm 9 September 1893
20.25 Hurricane Inez September 1966
19.75 Hurricane Alberto August 2000
Notes
Fluctuated between tropical and post-tropical at some point in its existence, so the number of days are non-consecutive.

Worldwide cyclone records set by Atlantic storms[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A major hurricane is a storm that ranks as Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale.[5]
  2. ^ The first storm of 1938 was the earliest instance of a tropical cyclone reaching tropical storm intensity during the year. However, the 1952 Groundhog Day tropical storm was the earliest instance of a tropical cyclone to have peaked at tropical storm intensity; it did so on February 2.[1]
  3. ^ Alice formed in December 1954 but persisted into January 1955.
  4. ^ a b These are the strongest systems in their respective months by virtue of being the only known systems.
  5. ^ a b Hurricanes Audrey (1957) and Alex (2010) had the same minimum pressure, though Audrey was a Category 4 hurricane at peak strength while Alex peaked as a high-end Category 2.
  6. ^ All damage figures are in USD amounts of their respective year.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. "NOAA Revisits Historic Hurricanes". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hurricane Research Division. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  2. ^ National Hurricane Center. "Tropical Cyclone Climatology". Miami, Florida: United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c Dorst, Neal (January 21, 2010). "G1) When is hurricane season?". Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). 4.6. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Landsea, Chris et al. (June 2013). "Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT" (TXT). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hurricane Research Division. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  5. ^ Goldenburg, Stan (June 1, 2012). "A3) What is a super-typhoon? What is a major hurricane? What is an intense hurricane?". Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). 4.5. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 
  6. ^ a b Hurricanes: Science and Society. "1957 – Hurricane Audrey". Storms in the 1950s. University of Rhode Island. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Franklin, James L.; Brown, Daniel P. (March 10, 2006). "Hurricane Emily" (PDF). National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Report (Miami, Florida: United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Hurricane Center). http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL052005_Emily.pdf. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
  8. ^ Hurricane.com. "Atlantic Hurricane and Tropical Storm Records". Hurricane.com. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  9. ^ Chambers, Gillan (December 1999). "Late Hurricanes: a Message for the Regio". Environment and development in coastal regions and in small islands. Coast and Beach Stability in the Lesser Antilles. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  10. ^ Paolino, JJ; Myrie, Donovan (2011). "Category Five Notables". Stormfacts.net. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  11. ^ Beven, John L.; Avila, Lixion A.; Blake, Eric S.; Brown, Daniel P.; Franklin, James L.; Knabb, Richard D.; Pasch, Richard J.; Rhome, Jamie R.; Stewart, Stacy R. (March 2008). "Atlantic Hurricane Season of 2005". Monthly Weather Review. Monthly Weather Review Atlantic Hurricane Season Summary (Miami, Florida: American Meteorological Society) 136 (3): 1109–1173. doi:10.1175/2007MWR2074.1. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  12. ^ Lindsey, Rebecca. "Hurricane Bertha". United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 28 September 2013. 
  13. ^ Berg, Robbie (November 28, 2009). "Tropical Storm Grace" (PDF). National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Report (Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center). http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL092009_Grace.pdf. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  14. ^ Beven II, John L.; Landsea, Christopher W. (December 9, 2010). "Hurricane Julia" (PDF). National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Report (Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center). http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL122010_Julia.pdf. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  15. ^ Stewart, Stacy R. (January 22, 2013). "Hurricane Chris" (PDF). National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Report (Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center). http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL032012_Chris.pdf. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  16. ^ Faq : Hurricanes, Typhoons, And Tropical Cyclones
  17. ^ Hurricane Ivan -September 2-26, 2004
  18. ^ TPC ATLANTIC ALBERTO 2000 TROPICAL CYCLONE REPORT
  19. ^ a b Landsea, Chris (April 21, 2010). "E1) Which is the most intense tropical cyclone on record?". Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). 4.6. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  20. ^ Mayfield, Max (November 29, 1995). Hurricane Opal Preliminary Report (Preliminary Report). National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1995opal.html. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  21. ^ Louisiana Geographic Information Center. "The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale". Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University. Retrieved 23 September 2013. 
  22. ^ National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Central Pacific Hurricane Center (July 7, 2014). "The Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database 1949-2013". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved July 10, 2014. 
  23. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Best Track Information for the North Indian Ocean 1990-2008" (XLS). India Meteorological Department. 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  24. ^ Royer, Stephane (7 February 2003). "Very Intense Tropical Cyclone Gafilo". Météo France. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  25. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Information for the Australian Region". Bureau of Meteorology. 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  26. ^ RSMC Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre, TCWC Brisbane, TCWC Wellington (May 22, 2009). "TCWC Wellington Best Track Data 1967–2006". Fiji Meteorological Service, Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited, Australian Bureau of Meteorology. United States: International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship. 
  27. ^ "Western North Pacific Typhoon best track file 1951-2014". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  28. ^ Willoughby, H,E,; Masters, J. M.; Landsea, C. W. (December 1, 1989). "A Record Minimum Sea Level Pressure Observed in Hurricane Gilbert". Monthly Weather Review (Miami, Florida: American Meteorological Society) 117 (12): 2824–2828. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<2824:ARMSLP>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 23 September 2013. 
  29. ^ a b c Franklin, James L. (January 31, 2008). "Hurricane Dean" (PDF). National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Reports. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 23 September 2013. 
  30. ^ National Weather Service (November 14, 2005). "Post Storm Data Acquisition – Hurricane Rita Peak Gust Analysis and Storm Surge Data" (PDF). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 23 September 2013. 
  31. ^ Blake, Eric S; Landsea, Christopher W; Gibney, Ethan J; National Climatic Data Center; National Hurricane Center (August 10, 2011). The deadliest, costliest and most intense United States tropical cyclones from 1851 to 2010 (and other frequently requested hurricane facts) (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC-6). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. p. 47. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/nws-nhc-6.pdf. Retrieved August 10, 2011.
  32. ^ Blake, Eric S; Kimberlain, Todd B; Berg, Robert J; Cangialosi, John P; Beven II, John L; National Hurricane Center (February 12, 2013) (PDF). Hurricane Sandy: October 22 – 29, 2012 (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Archived from the original on February 17, 2013. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL182012_Sandy.pdf. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
  33. ^ Hurricane/Post-Tropical Cyclone Sandy, October 22–29, 2012 (Service Assessment). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. May 2013. p. 10. Archived from the original on June 2, 2013. http://www.nws.noaa.gov/os/assessments/pdfs/Sandy13.pdf. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
  34. ^ Grazulis, Thomas P. (1993). "11". Significant Tornadoes 1680-1991, A Chronology and Analysis of Events. St. Johnsbury, VT: The Tornado Project of Environmental Films. pp. 124–127. ISBN 1-879362-03-1. 
  35. ^ John L. Beven II. Hurricane Frances. Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
  36. ^ Neal Dorst (January 26, 2010). "Subject: E6) Which tropical cyclone lasted the longest?". Hurricane Research Division. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 3, 2012. 
  37. ^ Lixion Avila and Robbie Berg (October 4, 2012). "Remnants of Nadine Discussion Eighty-Eight (Final)". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 4, 2012.