List of Burmese monarchs

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This is a list of the monarchs of Burma (Myanmar), covering the monarchs of all the major kingdoms that existed in the present day Burma (Myanmar). Although Burmese chronicle tradition maintains that various monarchies of Burma (Mon, Burman, Arakanese), began in the 9th century BCE, historically verified data date back only to 1044 CE at the accession of Anawrahta of Pagan. The farther away the data are from 1044, the less verifiable they are. For example, the founding of the city of Pagan (Bagan) in the 9th century is verifiable–although the accuracy of the actual date, given in the Chronicles as 849, remains in question–but the founding of early Pagan dynasty, given as the 2nd century, is not.[1] For early kingdoms, see List of early and legendary monarchs of Burma.

The names of monarchs and their English spellings generally follow those given by G.E. Harvey and Htin Aung. The reign dates follow the latest available dates as discussed in each section.

Early kingdoms[edit]

Pagan (849–1297)[edit]

Early Pagan (to 1044)[edit]

Below is a partial list of early Pagan kings as reported by Hmannan Yazawin (the Glass Palace Chronicle), shown in comparison with Hmannan dates adjusted to inscriptionally verified Anawrahta's accession date of 1044 and the list of Zatadawbon Yazawin (the Royal Horoscopes Chronicle).[2][3] Prior to Anawrahta, inscriptional evidence exists thus far only for Nyaung-u Sawrahan and Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu. The list starts from Pyinbya, the fortifier of Pagan (Bagan) according to Hmannan.

Name Image Reign per Hmannan Yazawin / Hmannan adjusted to 1044 Reign per Zatadawbon Yazawin Relationship with predecessor(s)
Pyinbya 846–878 /
874–906
846–886
Tannet 878–906 /
906–934
886–904 Son
Sale Ngahkwe 906–915 /
934–943
904–934 Usurper
Theinhko 915–931 /
943–959
934–956 Son
Nyaung-u Sawrahan 931–964 /
959–992
956–1001 Usurper
Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu Htibyusaung Nat.jpg 964–986 /
992–1014
1001–1021 Son of Tannet
Kyiso Pareinma Shin Mingaung Nat.jpg 986–992 /
1014–1020
1021–1038 Son of Nyaung-u Sawrahan
Sokkate 992–1017 /
1020–1044
1038–1044 Brother

Pagan Empire[edit]

The list generally follows the chronicle reported order and reign dates except for Kyansittha and from Kyaswa to Narathihapate for whom Luce's revised reign dates are used. Luce does not recognize Naratheinkha, and proposes an interregnum of nine years between 1165 and 1174. But Luce's gap has been rigorously questioned.[4]

Name Image Reign From Reign Until Relationship with predecessor(s)
Anawrahta Pyinoolwin -- DSA Anawrahta.JPG 16 December 1044 23 March 1078 Son of Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu
Sawlu 23 March 1078 c. April 1084 Son
Kyansittha Statue of Kyan Sit Thar.JPG c. April 1084 1112 Half-brother
Sithu I Min Sithu Nat.jpg 1112 1167 Grandson
Narathu Dhammayangyi Paya, Bagan, Myanmar.jpg 1167 c. February 1171 Son
Naratheinkha c. February 1171 May 1174 Son
Sithu II Gawdawpalin Temple Bagan Myanmar.jpg May 1174 18 August 1211 Brother
Htilominlo Htilominlo Temple Bagan Myanmar.jpg 18 August 1211 19 July 1235 Son
Kyaswa 19 July 1235 c. May 1251 Son
Uzana c. May 1251 May 1256 Son
Narathihapate May 1256 December 1287 Son
Interregnum (1287–1289)
Kyawswa 30 May 1289 17 December 1297[5] Son

Small kingdoms[edit]

Myinsaing (1297–1310)[edit]

According to the chronicles, Yazathingyan died after five years of reign c. 1302/03.[6] But a contemporary commemorative inscription of King Athinhkaya's death states that Yazathingyan was still alive when Athinhkaya died on 13 April 1310, and that the two remaining brothers continued to rule the country. Historian Than Tun believes the Hmannan narratives that Yazathingyan was already dead in 1310, and that Athinhkaya was poisoned by Thihathu are both incorrect.[7] However, no other inscriptional evidence of Yazathingyan's existence beyond 1310 has been discovered. (The chronicles indeed do not mention Yazathingyan beyond 1302/03 since he was already dead according to them.)

Name Image Reign From Reign Until Relationship with predecessor(s)
Athinhkaya
Yazathingyan
Thihathu
17 December 1297
17 December 1297
17 December 1297
13 April 1310
1302/03?
13 April 1310
Founders, brothers and co-regents

Pinya (1310–1364)[edit]

Thihathu reigned at Pinle from 13 April 1310 to 11 February 1313 when he moved his capital to Pinya. The dates below are by Than Tun and Gordon Luce who had checked the chronicle reported dates with inscriptions. Myinsaing Sithu does not appear in any of the chronicles.[8]

Name Image Reign From Reign Until Relationship with predecessor(s)
Thihathu 13 April 1310 c. February 1325 Brother of Athinhkaya and Yazathingyan
Uzana I c. February 1325 1 September 1340 Adopted son of Thihathu; Son of Kyawswa of Pagan
Myinsaing Sithu 1 September 1340 29 March 1344 Maternal uncle?
Kyawswa I (Thihathu II) Ngazishin Nat.jpg 29 March 1344 12 December 1350 Nephew and son-in-law
Kyawswa II 12 December 1350 19 March 1359 Son
Narathu of Pinya (Thihathu III) 19 March 1359 June 1364 Brother
Uzana II June 1364 September 1364 Brother

Sagaing (1315–1364)[edit]

Most of the dates are by Than Tun and Gordon Luce who had checked the dates provided in the chronicles against the inscriptions.[8] Sawyun's start of reign date and Minbyauk's end of reign date are per Hmannan.

Name Image Reign From Reign Until Relationship with predecessor(s)
Sawyun 16 May 1315 5 February 1327 Son of Thihathu
Tarabya I 5 February 1327 1335 Maternal half-brother
Shwetaungtet 1335 1339 Son
Kyaswa of Sagaing 1339 1348 Uncle; Son of Sawyun
Nawrahta Minye 1348 c. March 1350 Brother
Tarabya II c. March 1350 23 February 1352 Brother
Minbyauk Thihapate 23 February 1352 April 1364 Brother-in-law

Ava (1364–1555)[edit]

Different Burmese chronicles give similar but not identical dates for the regnal dates of the Ava period.[9] The following table largely follows the dates given in Hmannan Yazawin and the table of regnal dates given in (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 352–355). The regnal dates by G.E. Harvey (Harvey 1925: 366) for the most part are off by a year (a year later) than chronicle and inscriptionally-verified dates.

Name Image Reign From Reign Until Relationship with predecessor(s)
Thadominbya April 1364 c. 5 September 1367 Grandson of Sawyun
Swasawke 5 September 1367 April 1400 Grandson of Kyawswa of Pagan and grandnephew of Thihathu
Tarabya Mintara Nat.jpg April 1400 25 November 1400 Son
Minkhaung I 25 November 1400 c. February 1422 Half-brother
Thihathu Aung Pinle Hsinbyushin.jpg c. February 1422 August 1425 Son
Minhlange August 1425 November 1425 Son
Kale Kyetaungnyo November 1425 20 May 1426 Uncle
Mohnyin Thado 20 May 1426 May 1439 Descended from Kyawswa I of Pinya
Minyekyawswa May 1439 January 1442 Son
Narapati I 25 April 1442 24 July 1468 Brother
Thihathura I 24 July 1468 c. August 1480 Son
Minkhaung II c. August 1480 7 April 1501 Son
Thihathura II 1485 4 March 1501 Son
Joint-king during Minkhaung II's reign
Narapati II 7 April 1501 14 March 1527 Son of Minkhaung II
Thohanbwa 14 March 1527 May 1542 Son of Sawlon I of Mohnyin
Hkonmaing June 1542 c. September 1545 Saopha of Thibaw
Narapati III c. September 1545 c. October 1551 Son
Narapati IV c. October 1551 22 January 1555 Governor of Salin and Viceroy of Sagaing

Prome (1482–1542)[edit]

See List of rulers of Prome for governors of Prome between the late Pagan and early Restored Toungoo periods.
Name Image Reign From Reign Until Relationship with predecessor(s)
Thado Minsaw 1482 1526 Son of Narapati of Ava
Bayin Htwe 1526 c. December 1532 Son
Narapati c. December 1532 February 1539 Son
Minkhaung February 1539 19 May 1542 Brother

Hanthawaddy (1287–1539, 1550–1552)[edit]

Name Image Reign From Reign Until Relationship with predecessor(s)
Wareru 4 April 1287 January 1307 Founder
Hkun Law January 1307 March 1311 Brother
Saw O 10 April 1311 September 1323 Nephew
Saw Zein September 1323 April 1330 Brother
Zein Pun April 1330 April 1330 Usurper
Saw E April 1330 May 1330 Nephew of Saw Zein
Binnya E Law May 1330 1348 Uncle; Son of Hkun Law
Binnya U 1348 2 January 1384 Nephew; Son of Saw Zein
Razadarit Rajadhirat.jpg 2 January 1384 c. February 1421 Son
Binnya Dhammaraza c. February 1421 1424 Son
Binnya Ran I 1424 1446 Brother
Binnya Waru 1446 30 May 1451 Nephew
Binnya Kyan 30 May 1451 c. June 1453 Cousin; Son of Binnya Dhamaraza
Leik Munhtaw c. June 1453 c. January 1454 Cousin; Son of Binnya Ran
Shin Sawbu c. January 1454 1471 Aunt; Daughter of Razadarit
Dhammazedi 1471 1492 Son in law
Binnya Ran II 1492 1526 Son
Takayutpi 1526 c. January 1539 Son
Toungoo rule (1539–1550)
Smim Sawhtut June 1550 August 1550 Claimant to throne
Smim Htaw August 1550 12 March 1552 Brother of Takayutpi

Mrauk-U (1429–1785)[edit]

The reign dates are per the Arakanese chronicle Rakhine Razawin Thit (Sandamala Linkara Vol. 2 1931), converted into Western dates using (Eade 1989). The converted dates after 1582 are on the Gregorian calendar. (Some Arakanese chronicles state the foundation of the kingdom a year later, 1430. Moreover, the end of the kingdom is given per Burmese records, 2 January 1785. Arakanese records give a day earlier, 1 January 1785.)

Name Image Reign From Reign Until Relationship with predecessor(s)
Saw Mon 18 April 1429 9 May 1433 Founder
Khayi 9 May 1433 c. January 1459 Brother
Ba Saw Phyu c. January 1459 5 August 1482 Son
Dawlya 5 August 1482 c. February 1492 Son
Ba Saw Nyo c. February 1492 c. January 1494 Uncle, son of Khayi
Ran Aung c. January 1494 c. July 1494 Nephew, son of Dawlya
Salingathu c. July 1494 February 1502 Maternal uncle
Raza February 1502 c. November 1513 Son
Gazapati c. November 1513 January 1515 Son
Saw O January 1515 July 1515 Granduncle; brother of Salingathu
Thazata July 1515 c. April 1521 Son of Dawlya
Minkhaung c. April 1521 27 May 1531 Brother
Min Bin Shitthaung001.jpg 27 May 1531 11 January 1554 Son of Min Raza
Dikkha 11 January 1554 6 March 1556 Son
Saw Hla 6 March 1556 24 July 1564 Son
Sekkya 24 July 1564 7 February 1572 Brother
Phalaung 7 February 1572 4 July 1593 Son of Min Bin
Razagri 4 July 1593 4 July 1612 Son
Khamaung 4 July 1612 14 May 1622 Son
Thiri Thudhamma 14 May 1622 29 May 1638 Son
Sanay 29 May 1638 17 June 1638 Son
Narapati 17 June 1638 13 December 1645 Great grandson of Min Bin
Thado 13 December 1645 c. May 1652 Son
Sanda Thudhamma c. May 1652 11 June 1674 Son
Thiri Thudhamma 11 June 1674 16 April 1685 Son
Wara Dhammaraza 16 April 1685 20 June 1692 Brother
Muni Thudhammaraza 20 June 1692 20 December 1694 Elder brother
Sanda Thuriya I 20 December 1694 4 August 1696 Brother
Nawrahta 4 August 1696 18 August 1696 Son
Mayuppiya 18 August 1696 13 May 1697 Usurper
Kalamandat 16 May 1697 5 June 1698 Usurper
Naradipati I 5 June 1698 17 June 1700 Son of Sanda Thuriya
Sanda Wimala I 18 June 1700 30 March 1707 Grandson of Thado
Sanda Thuriya II 3 April 1707 September 1710 Grandson of Sanda Thudhamma
Interregnum ~2 months
Sanda Wizaya I November 1710 April 1731 Usurper
Sanda Thuriya III April 1731 1734 Son-in-law
Naradipati II 1734 1735 Son
Narapawara 1735 September 1737 Usurper
Sanda Wizaya II September 1737 25 March 1738 Cousin
Madarit 28 March 1738 6 February 1743 Brother
Nara Apaya 6 February 1743 28 October 1761 Uncle
Thirithu 28 October 1761 3 February 1762 Son
Sanda Parama 3 February 1762 1 May 1764 Brother
Apaya 1 May 1764 17 January 1774 Brother-in-law
Sanda Thumana 17 January 1774 5 May 1777 Brother-in-law
Sanda Wimala II 6 May 1777 5 June 1777 Usurper
Sanda Thaditha 5 June 1777 1 December 1782 Usurper
Maha Thammada 2 December 1782 2 January 1785 Usurper

Toungoo (1510–1752)[edit]

See List of rulers of Toungoo for the viceroys and governors of Toungoo between 1279 and 1612.

The following are based on the reign dates in the Burmese calendar given in Maha Yazawin and Hmannan Yazawin chronicles. (The converted dates after 1582 are on the Gregorian calendar. Some books, e.g., Than Tun's Royal Orders of Burma (1983–1990), use old-style Julian dates for the entire Toungoo period.)

Name Image Reign From Reign Until Relationship with predecessor(s)
Mingyi Nyo 16 October 1510 24 November 1530 Founder
Tabinshwehti Tabinshwehti Nat.jpg 24 November 1530 30 April 1550 Son
Bayinnaung Pyinoolwin -- DSA Bayinnaung.JPG 30 April 1550 10 October 1581 Brother-in-law
Nanda 10 October 1581 19 December 1599 Son; nephew of Tabinshwehti
Nyaungyan 19 December 1599 5 November 1605 Half-brother
Anaukpetlun 5 November 1605 9 July 1628 Son
Minye Deibba 9 July 1628 19 August 1629 Son
Thalun 19 August 1629 27 August 1648 Uncle
Pindale 27 August 1648 3 June 1661 Son
Pye 3 June 1661 14 April 1672 Brother
Narawara 14 April 1672 27 February 1673 Son
Minye Kyawhtin 27 February 1673 4 May 1698 Nephew
Sanay 4 May 1698 12 September 1714 Son
Taninganway 12 September 1714 12 December 1733 Son
Mahadhammaraza Dipadi 12 December 1733 23 March 1752 Son

Restored Hanthawaddy (1740–1757)[edit]

Name Image Reign From Reign Until Relationship with predecessor(s)
Smim Htaw Buddhaketi November 1740 December 1747 Cousin of Mahadhammaraza Dipadi
Binnya Dala December 1747 6 May 1757 Elected

Konbaung (1752–1885)[edit]

Name Image Reign From Reign Until Relationship with predecessor(s)
Alaungpaya Alaungpaya.png 29 February 1752 11 May 1760 Founder
Naungdawgyi 11 May 1760 28 November 1763 Son
Hsinbyushin 28 November 1763 10 June 1776 Brother
Singu 10 June 1776 6 February 1782 Son
Phaungka 6 February 1782 11 February 1782 Cousin; Son of Naungdawgyi
Bodawpaya Amarapura palace British Embassy Michael Symes 1795.jpg 11 February 1782 5 June 1819 Uncle; Alaungpaya's fourth son
Bagyidaw 5 June 1819 15 April 1837 Grandson
Tharrawaddy 15 April 1837 17 November 1846 Brother
Pagan 17 November 1846 18 February 1853 Son
Mindon -Mindon Min-2.JPG 18 February 1853 1 October 1878 Brother
Thibaw Konbang-Thibaw.jpg 1 October 1878 29 November 1885 Son

Pretenders to the Burmese throne since 1885[edit]

Konbaung dynasty[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Harvey 1925: 364
  2. ^ Aung-Thwin 1985: 21–22
  3. ^ Maha Yazawin 2006: 346–347
  4. ^ Htin Aung 1970: 40–44
  5. ^ Than Tun 1959: 119–120
  6. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 369
  7. ^ Than Tun 1959: 123
  8. ^ a b Than Tun 1959: 123–131
  9. ^ See (Maha Yazawin Vol. 1 2006: 352–355) for a comparative table of Ava period regnal dates as given in Maha Yazawin, Myanmar Yazawin Thit, Hmannan Yazawin and Zatadawbon Yazawin.

References[edit]

  • Aung-Thwin, Michael (1985). Pagan: The Origins of Modern Burma. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-0960-2. 
  • Aung-Thwin, Michael (2005). The mists of Rāmañña: The Legend that was Lower Burma (illustrated ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 9780824828868. 
  • Charney, Michael W. (2006). Powerful Learning: Buddhist Literati and the Throne in Burma's Last Dynasty, 1752–1885. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. 
  • Eade, J.C. (1989). Southeast Asian Ephemeris: Solar and Planetary Positions, A.D. 638–2000. Ithaca: Cornell University. ISBN 0-87727-704-4. 
  • Hall, D.G.E. (1960). Burma (3rd ed.). Hutchinson University Library. ISBN 978-1-4067-3503-1. 
  • Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. 
  • Htin Aung, Maung (1967). A History of Burma. New York and London: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Htin Aung, Maung (1970). Burmese History before 1287: A Defence of the Chronicles. Oxford: The Asoka Society. 
  • Kala, U (1724). Maha Yazawin Gyi (in Burmese) 1–3 (2006, 4th printing ed.). Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. 
  • Lieberman, Victor B. (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800–1830, volume 1, Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80496-7. 
  • Phayre, Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P. (1883). History of Burma (1967 ed.). London: Susil Gupta. 
  • Royal Historians of Burma (c. 1680). U Hla Tin (Hla Thamein), ed. Zatadawbon Yazawin (1960 ed.). Historical Research Directorate of the Union of Burma. 
  • Royal Historical Commission of Burma (1832). Hmannan Yazawin (in Burmese) 1–3 (2003 ed.). Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar. 
  • Sandamala Linkara, Ashin (1931). Rakhine Yazawinthit Kyan (in Burmese) 1–2 (1997 ed.). Yangon: Tetlan Sarpay. 
  • Than Tun (December 1959). "History of Burma: A.D. 1300–1400". Journal of Burma Research Society XLII (II). 
  • Than Tun (1964). Studies in Burmese History (in Burmese) 1. Yangon: Maha Dagon.