List of Spanish words of Germanic origin

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This is a list of some Spanish words of Germanic origin.

The list includes words from Visigothic, Frankish, Langobardic, Middle Dutch, Middle High German, Middle Low German, Old English, Old High German, Old Norse, Old Swedish, English, and finally, words which come from Germanic with the specific source unknown.

Some of these words existed in Latin as loanwords from other languages. Some of these words have alternate etymologies and may also appear on a list of Spanish words from a different language. Some words contain non-Germanic elements (see béisbol in the Middle English section). Any form with an asterisk (*) is unattested and therefore hypothetical.

Alphabetical list[edit]

A[edit]

  • aguantar "to put up with" (< maybe It agguantare, from guanto "gauntlet" < Old Provençal < OFr guant < Frankish *want)
    aguante "patience, tolerance"

B[edit]

  • bala "bullet" (< Fr balle < MFr < Northern It balla < Lombardic balla, palla < PGmc *ballô, cf. Eng ball, Ger Ball)
    abalear "to shoot"
    balear "to shoot"
  • balcón "balcony" (< It balcone < OIt balcone "scaffold" < Lombardic *balko, *balkon- "beam" , PGmc *balkô "beam", cf. Eng balk)
  • banco "bench; bank" (OFr bank < Germanic *banki)
    banca "bench, seat"
  • banda "band, group" (< Fr bande < Old Provençal banda "regiment of troops" < WGmc *banda or maybe Gothic bandwō "flag, sign")
    bandada "flock of birds, group of animals"
    bandera "flag"
  • bando "edict, mandate" (< Fr ban < Frankish ban)
  • bando "faction, party, side" (< maybe Gothic bandwō "flag, sign")
    bandido "outlaw, bandit"
    bandolero "outlaw, bandit"
  • banquete "banquet" (< Fr banquet < It banchetto "light repast between meals", dim. of banco "bench" < Lombardic *bank, panch < PGmc *bankiz, cf. bench)
  • barón "baron" (< maybe Frankish *baro "free man")
  • bebé "baby" (< Fr bébé < maybe Eng baby)
  • bistec, bisté, biftec "steak" (< Eng beefsteak, from beef (< OFr buef "ox; beef", cf. Sp buey)+ steak (< ON steik, cf. Eng stick))
  • bigote "moustache" (< maybe German bei Gott, "by God")[1])
  • bisonte "bison" (< Latin bison, bisōntis, of Germanic origin)
  • blanco "white" (< Germanic *blank)
  • bloque "block" (< Fr bloc < Dutch blok)
    bloquear "to block"
  • bordar "to embroider" (< maybe Germanic *brŭzdan)
    bordado "embroidery"
  • borde "edge" (< Fr bord < Frankish bord "side of the ship")
    a bordo "on board"
  • botar "to bounce" (< Germanic *bōtan "to hit")
    bote "bounce"
  • bote "boat" (< OEng bāt)
  • bramar "to roar, bellow" (< maybe Gothic *bramôn)
    bramido "roar, bellow"
  • brecha= "breach, opening"
  • brindis= "toast(with drinks)"
  • brida= "bridle"
  • brío= "spirit", "brio" (Celtic?)
  • brisa= "breeze" (Old Spanish briza from East Frisian brisen, to blow fresh and strong)
  • brocha= "broach"
  • brotar= "to sprout"
  • buganvill(i)a, bugambilia= "bougainvillea"[citation needed]
  • bulevar= "boulevard" (Middle Dutch "bolwerc")
  • buque= "ship, vessel"
  • burgués= "bourgeoisie", "member of the middle class"
  • busca; buscar = "to search"

C[edit]

D[edit]

E[edit]

  • equipar "to equip"

F[edit]

  • feudal "feudal"
  • filibustero "filibuster"
  • film "film"
  • filtro; filtrar "filter" (noun; verb)
  • flotar; flota; flotilla "float"
  • folclore "folklore" (from English folklore)
  • fornido "strong, robust"
  • fornir "provide"
  • forraje a type of vegetation
  • forrar "cover"
  • frambuesa "raspberry"
  • Franco "candid"
  • Franco "franc (currency)"
  • franqueo "postage"
  • frasco "bottle"
  • fresco "cool"
  • frotar[citation needed] "rub"
  • fútbol, futbol "association football, soccer"

G[edit]

  • gabardina "raincoat"
  • gaita "bagpipes" (especially Galician bagpipes)
  • gaje
  • galán
  • galante
  • galardón
  • galope
  • ganado
  • ganar = "win"
  • ganso; gansa
  • garaje = "garage"
  • garantía
  • garbo
  • gardenia
  • garrote
  • gavilán
  • grabar (to grab/to record)
  • gripe, gripa (flu)
  • gris (grey)
  • grosella
  • grupo (group)
  • guadaña
  • guagua (bus)[citation needed]
  • guante "glove" (< Cat guant< Frankish *want)
  • guantelete "gauntlet" (< Fr gantelet, dim. of gant "glove")
  • guarcanión
  • guarda "guard" (< Germanic *warda "a search with sight" < *wardôn "to pay attention")
    aguardar "to wait for"
    guardar "to save, guard"
    guardia "the act of guarding"
  • guarir "to cure; to subsist; to recover" (< Germanic *warjan)
    guarecer "to shelter, protect"
    guarida "den, shelter for animals; shelter"
  • guarnición
  • guerra=war
  • guerrilla
  • gueto
  • guía= "a guide"
  • guiar
  • guillotina
  • guión
  • guirnalda
  • guisa
  • guisar
  • guzman=last name= guts/man= goodman

H[edit]

I[edit]

  • instalar

J[edit]

  • jabón (soap)
  • jardín (garden)

K[edit]

L[edit]

  • lápiz = "pencil
  • lastre
  • lata = can
  • líder "leader"
  • lieja = "liege"
  • lista
  • listón
  • lote
  • lotería = lottery, bingo

M[edit]

  • maleta = suitcase
  • Malta[citation needed]
  • maniquí
  • maquillaje
  • marcar
  • march
  • marchar
  • mariscal
  • marqués
  • marquesina
  • marta
  • mascota
  • masón
  • mástil

N[edit]

  • nórdico
  • Norman
  • norte

O[edit]

  • oeste= "west"
  • orgullo = pride

P[edit]

  • palco
  • papel Paper
  • paquete
  • placa

Q[edit]

  • queso, cheese, cfr. to German word Käse
  • quilla = "keel"

R[edit]

  • rachear = see rancho
  • rancho = "ranch" from French ranger, from Old French ranc, from Frankish *hring or some other Germanic source
  • raza= "race (lineage)" from Italian razza "race, lineage" from Langobard. raiza "line, race" (trans. from Latin 'linea sanguinis' "bloodline of descent"), akin to OHG reiza "line" [2]
  • raspar
  • rata[citation needed]
  • ratón = mouse
  • refrescar
  • reno
  • retaguardia
  • rico(a) = good
  • rifa
  • rifle
  • riqueza
  • robar = to rob
  • robo
  • rocín
  • rojo(a) = red
  • ron
  • ropa = clothes
  • rorcual
  • rueca
  • rufián
  • rumba
  • ruso (but see Etymology of Rus)

S[edit]

  • sacar
  • sajón = Saxon
  • sala = living room, room (in general)
  • salón = salon, room (in general)
  • saxofón (first element only)
  • sopa = soup (it comes from Sanskrit suppa)
  • sud- /sur=south
  • sueco
  • suizo

T[edit]

  • tacha
  • tachuela
  • taco
  • tacón = heel
  • talar
  • tampón
  • tapa "top"
  • tapar
  • tapia
  • tapón
  • tarjeta "card", cognate with English "target"
  • teta
  • teutón
  • toalla = towel
  • toldo
  • tope
  • torio
  • trampa
  • tregua
  • trepar
  • trombón = trombone
  • trompa
  • trompo
  • tropa
  • trotar
  • tungsteno
  • tupé

U[edit]

  • ufano

V[edit]

  • vagón "wagon"
  • valquiria
  • vals
  • vanadio
  • vandalismo "vandalism" (second element only)
  • varón[citation needed]
  • venda
  • vermut

W[edit]

  • wagneriano "Wagnerian"

X[edit]

Y[edit]

  • yate
  • yelmo = helmet
  • yodo

Z[edit]

By origin[edit]

Franconian[edit]

Old Frankish evolved to Old Dutch between 500-800 AD. Around 1200 AD Old Dutch evolved to Middle Dutch. Around the 16th century, Modern Dutch evolved out of Middle Dutch.

Frankish[edit]

  • aguantar= to endure, bear, resist: from Italian agguantare "to retain, take hold of" (originally "to detain with gauntlets"), from a- + guanto "gauntlet", from Frankish (*)want (see guante below) + verbal suffix -are (suffix changed to -ar in Spanish).
  • alojar= to lodge, to house, to provide hospitality: from Catalan allotjar, from llotja from Old French loge, see lonja below.
  • borde= border, edge: from Old French bord "side of a ship, border, edge", from Frankish (*)bord "table", from Germanic (*)burd-.
  • bordar= to embroider: from Frankish (*)bruzdon (source of Old French brouder, brosder and French broder), from Germanic (*)bruzd- "point, needle", from the IE root (*)bhrs-dh-, from (*)bhrs-, from (*)bhar-, "point, nail."
  • bosque= forest, woods: from Catalan of Provençal of Old French bosc, from Germanic (*)busk- "brush, underbrush, thicket" (source of Old High German busc).
  • bosquejo= a sketch, outline, rough draft: from Spanish bosquejar "to sketch, to outline", probably from Catalan bosquejar from bosc, see bosque above.
  • destacar= to detach troops: from French détachar (influenced by Spanish atacar), from Old French destachier "to unattach", from des- "apart, away" + atachier, a variation of estachier, from estaca, from Frankish stakka, see estaca below in Germanic section.
  • destacar= to stand out, to emphasize: from Italian staccare "to separate", from Old French destacher, destachier, see destacar above.
  • estandarte= a military standard: from Old French estandart, probably from Frankish (*)standhard "standard that marks a meeting place", (implicit sense: "that which stands firmly"), from (*)standan "to stand", (from Germanic (*)standan, from the IE root (*)sta- "to stand" [1]) + (*)hard "hard, firm", see ardid below in Germanic section.
  • guante= glove, gauntlet: from Catalan guant "gauntlet", from Frankish (*)want "gauntlet." [2]
  • lonja= market, building where merchants and sellers gather: from regional Catalan llonja (Modern Catalan llotja), from [[Old Frenchlogo "dwelling, shelter", from Frankish (*)laubja "covering, enclosure", from Germanic (*)laubja "shelter" (implicit sense "roof made of bark"), from the IE root (*)leup- "to peel."
  • oboe= an oboe: from French hautbois from haut (from Frankish *hauh "high" and Latin altus "high") + bois "wood", see bosque above.
  • ranchear, rancho= ranch, From French ranger, from Old French ranc, from Frankish *hring' or some other Germanic source (Old High German hring "circle, ring"), from Proto-Germanic *khrengaz "circle, ring". Shares the root with rank.

Old Dutch[edit]

Middle Dutch[edit]

  • amarrar= to moor a boat, to tie, to fasten: from French amarrer, "to moor", from Middle Dutch aanmarren "to fasten", from aan "on" (from Germanic (*)ana, (*)anō, from the IE root (*)an-[3]) + marren "to fasten, to moor a boat." See Modern Dutch aanmeren.
  • baluarte= bulwark: from Old French boloart "bulwark, rampart, terreplein converted to a boulevard", from Middle Dutch bolwerc "rampart". See Modern Dutch bolwerk.
  • bulevar: from French boulevard, from Middle Dutch: bolwerc "rampart". See Modern Dutch bolwerk.
  • maniquí= a mannequin, dummy, puppet: from French mannequin, from (probably via Catalan maniquí) Dutch, from Middle Dutch mannekijn "little man", from man "a man" (see alemán below in Germanic section) + the diminutive suffix -ken, -kin, -kijn, from West Germanic (*)-kin (cf. Modern German -chen) See Modern Dutch manneken (Belgium).
  • rumbo= direction, course, route, pomp, ostentation: from Old Spanish rumbo "each of the 32 points on a compass", from Middle Dutch rume "space, place, rhumb line, storeroom of a ship", from Germanic rūmaz "space, place", from the IE root (*)reu- "space, to open" [4]. See Modern Dutch ruim.

Modern Dutch[edit]

  • babor= port side of a ship: from French babord "portside", from Dutch bakboord "left side of a ship", literally "back side of a ship" (from the fact that most ships were steered from the starboard side), from bak "back, behind", (from Germanic (*)bakam) + boord "board, side of a ship", see borde below (in Germanic section). Also see estribor' "starboard" below in the Germanic section
  • berbiquí= carpenter's brace: from regional French veberquin (French vilebrequin), from Dutch wimmelken, from wimmel "auger, drill, carpenter's brace" + -ken, a diminutive suffix, see maniquí below in Middle Dutch section.

Anglo-Frisian[edit]

Old English[edit]

Middle English[edit]

Modern English[edit]

Low German[edit]

Old Low German[edit]

Middle Low German[edit]

Modern Low German[edit]

High German[edit]

Old High German[edit]

Middle High German[edit]

Modern High German[edit]

North-Germanic[edit]

Old Norse[edit]

  • bistec= steak, beefsteak: from English beefsteak, from beef (ultimately from Latin bōs, bovis "cow", from the IE root (*)gwou- "ox, bull, cow" [15]) + steak, from Middle English steyke, from Old Norse steik "piece of meat cooked on a spit", from Germanic (*)stik-, see estaca below in the Germanic section.

Old Swedish[edit]

  • carro - kärra

Other[edit]

Langobardic[edit]

Visigothic[edit]

  • agasajar= to flatter: from agasajo (see agasajo below) + the verbal suffix -ar
  • agasajo= entertainment, kind reception, friendliness, flattery: from a- + Old Spanish gasajo "reception" from Visigothic gasalja "companion, comrade", from ga- with, together (from the IE root (*)kom [16]) + sal- "room, lodging" (see sala below in the Germanic section).
  • guardia= guard, bodyguard, protection: from Visigothic wardja "a guard", from Germanic wardaz, from the IE root (*)wor-to-, see guardar below in Germanic section.
  • guardián= guardian: from Visigothic wardjan accusative of wardja, see guardia above.
  • atacar= to attack: Old Italian attaccare "to fasten, join, unite, attack (implicit sense: to join in a battle)", changed from (*)estacar (by influence of a-, common verbal prefix) "to fasten, join", from Visigothic stakka "a stick, stake", from Germanic (*)stak-, see estaca in Germanic section.

Germanic of unidentified origin[edit]

Latin words of Germanic origin[edit]

  • bisonte (from L bisont-,bison from Gmc, akin to OHG wisant, aurochs)
  • feudal (from Latin feodum, feudum of Gmc origin, akin to OE feoh, cattle, property)
  • filtro; filtrar= "filter; to filter" from ML filtrum felt from Gmc, akin to OE felt, felt
  • instalar (from ML installare from stallum of Gmc origin, akin to OHG stal, stall)
  • jabon= "soap" from Latin sapon-, sapo, soap from Gmc

Names[edit]

See: Rodriguez

Forenames[edit]

  • Adalberto
  • Adela
  • Adelaida
  • Adelia
  • Adelina
  • Adelita
  • Adolfito
  • Adolfo
  • Alberto
  • Alfonso
  • Alfredo
  • Alicia
  • Alita
  • Alonso
  • Álvaro
  • Amalia
  • Amelia
  • América
  • Américo= Italian Amerigo from Visigothic Amalric from amal "labour, work" + ric "kingdom, rule, domain"
  • Anselma
  • Anselmo
  • Armando
  • Baldomero
  • Balduino
  • Baudelio
  • Bernardino
  • Bernardita
  • Bernardo
  • Berta
  • Blanca
  • Brunilda
  • Bruno
  • Carla
  • Carlito
  • Carlitos
  • Carlos
  • Carlota
  • Carolina
  • Claudomiro
  • Conrado
  • Curro
  • Dalia
  • Eberardo
  • Edelmira
  • Edelmiro
  • Edgardo
  • Edmundo
  • Eduardo
  • Elodia
  • Eloísa
  • Elvira
  • Ema
  • Emelina
  • Enrique
  • Ernesta
  • Ernestina
  • Ernesto
  • Etelvina
  • Federico
  • Fernanda
  • Fernando
  • Fito
  • Fran
  • Francisca
  • Francisco
  • Geraldo
  • Gerardo
  • Gertrudis
  • Gervasio
  • Gilberto
  • Gisela
  • Godofredo
  • Gonzalo
  • Godino= of Visigothic origin, from Gaut 'Goth' or guþ 'god'.
  • Griselda
  • Guadalupe= from Arabic wadi "river or valley" + Latin lupus "wolf"
  • Gualterio
  • Guillermo
  • Guiomar
  • Gustavo
  • Herberto
  • Heriberto
  • Hermenegildo
  • Hernán
  • Hernando
  • Hilda
  • Hugo
  • Ida
  • Ildefonso
  • Imelda
  • Irma
  • Ivette
  • Jordán
  • Jordana
  • Lalo
  • Leonardo
  • Leopoldo
  • Lorena
  • Luis
  • Luisa
  • Luisina
  • Lupe
  • Lupita
  • Matilde
  • Nando
  • Nilda
  • Olegario
  • Olga
  • Olivia
  • Óscar
  • Osvaldo
  • Paca
  • Paco
  • Pancho
  • Paquita
  • Paquito
  • Roberto
  • Rodrigo= from Germanic Hrodric/Hrēðrīc/Rørik/Hrœrekr (Roderick, Rodrick, Roderich; a compound of hrod 'renown' + ric 'power(ful)'), from the Proto-Germanic *Hrōþirīk(i)az; it was borne by the last of the Visigoth kings and is one of the most important Spanish personal names of Germanic origin.[[3]]
  • Ronaldo

Surnames[edit]

  • Álvarez= patronymic form of Álvaro
  • Enríquez= patronymic form of Enrique
  • Fernández= patronymic form of Fernando
  • García = patronymic form of Garces
  • Godínez= patronymic form of Godino
  • Gómez= patronymic form of Gome
  • González= patronymic form of Gonzalo
  • Guerrero= occupational name meaning warrior, from Germanic werra, modern German wirre (turmoil)
  • Gutiérrez= patronymic form of Gutierre
  • Guzmán
  • Henríquez= patronymic form of Henrique
  • Hernández= patronymic form of Hernando
  • Rodríguez= patronymic form of Rodrigo
  • Ruiz= patronymic form of Ruy, variant of Rodrigo

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Diez, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der romanischen Sprachen, "Razza."
  • Breve diccionario etimológico de la lengua española by Guido Gómez de Silva (ISBN 968-16-2812-8)
  • The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. [29]