Sash

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For other uses, see Sash (disambiguation).
A painting of Captain Kidd with a red sash around his waist.

A sash is a large and usually colorful ribbon or band of material worn around the body, draping from left shoulder to right hip (or right shoulder to left hip) or else running around the waist. The sash around the waist may be worn in daily attire, but the sash from shoulder to hip is worn on ceremonial occasions only. Ceremonial sashes are also found in a V-shaped format, draping from both shoulders to the stomach like a large necklace.

Aristocratic and republican use[edit]

The personal coat of arms of the Queen of Spain surrounded by the Sash of the Order of Charles III.

In Latin America and some countries of Africa, a special presidential sash indicates a president's authority. In France and Italy, sashes, featuring the national flag tricolours and worn on the right shoulder, are used by public authorities and local officials, such as legislators, in public ceremonial events.

Sashes traditionally form part of formal military attire (compare the sword-belt known as a baldric, and the cummerbund). Most of the European Royal families wear sashes as a part of their royal (and/or military) regalia. Some orders such as the Légion d'honneur include sashes as part of the seniormost grades' insignia. Likewise Italian military officers wear light blue sashes over the right shoulder on ceremonial occasions.

Military use[edit]

Prince Louis, Duke of Nemours wearing a red sash (Legion of Honour) as part of a ceremonial military uniform. Date 1840s.
The sashes of the French Foreign Legion are blue.

Sashes are a distinctive feature of some regiments of the modern French Army for parade dress. They are worn around the waist in either dark blue or red by corps such as the Foreign Legion, the Spahis, the Chasseurs d' Afrique and the Tirailleurs which were originally raised in North Africa during the period of French colonial rule. In its traditional Franco-Algerian or zouave form the sash ("ceinture de laine") was four metres in length and forty centimetres in width. In the historic French Army of Africa, sashes were worn around the waist in either blue for European or red for indigenous troops.[1]

Elaborately emboroidered sash from 1635-1642.

At the time of the American Civil War (1861–65) silk sashes in crimson were authorized for officers and red woolen sashes for non-commissioned officers of the regular US Army (Army Regulations of 1861). U.S. Generals continued to wear buff silk sashes in full dress until 1917. In the Confederate Army of the Civil War period sash colour indicated the corps or status of the wearer. For example: gold for cavalry, burgundy for infantry, black for chaplains, red for sergeants, green or blue for medics, and grey or cream for general officers. With the exception of the West Point Band Drum Major, today the West Point cadet officer is the only person in the US Army who wears a sword and sash, the sole guardian of the tradition.[2][3]

The modern British Army retains a scarlet sash for wear in certain orders of dress by sergeants and above serving in infantry regiments, over the right shoulder to the left hip. A similar crimson silk net sash is worn around the waist by officers of the Foot Guards in scarlet full dress and officers of line infantry in dark blue "Number 1" dress. The same practice is followed in some Commonwealth armies.

The present day armies of India and Pakistan both make extensive use of waist-sashes for ceremonial wear. The colours vary widely according to regiment or branch and match those of the turbans where worn. Typically two or more colours are incorporated in the sash, in vertical stripes. One end hangs loose at the side and may have an ornamental fringe. The practice of wearing distinctive regimental sashes or cummerbunds goes back to the late nineteenth century.[4]

In addition to those detailed above, several other modern armies retain waist-sashes for wear by officers in ceremonial uniforms. These include the armies of Norway (crimson sashes), Sweden (yellow and blue), Greece (light blue and white), the Netherlands (orange), Portugal (crimson) and Spain (red and gold for generals, light blue for general staff and crimson for infantry officers).[5] The Spanish Regulares (infantry descended from colonial regiments formerly recruited in Spanish Morocco) retain their historic waist-sashes for all ranks in colours that vary according to the unit.[6]

Until 1914 waist-sashes in distinctive national colours were worn as a peace-time mark of rank by officers of the Imperial German, Austro-Hungarian and Russian armies, amongst others. Japanese officers continued the practice in full dress uniform until 1940.[7]

Cross-belts resembling sashes are worn by Drum Majors in the Dutch, British and some Commonwealth armies. These carry scrolls bearing the names of battle honours.

Modern civilian and cultural use[edit]

Winner of a beauty pageant wearing a pair of sashes.

In the United States, the sash has picked up a more ceremonial and less practical purpose. Sashes are used at higher education commencement ceremonies, by high school homecoming parade nominees, in beauty pageants, as well as by corporations to acknowledge high achievement.

In Canada, hand woven sashes (called ceintures fléchées and sometimes "L'Assumption sash" after a town in which they were mass-produced) were derived from Iroquoiuan carrying belts sometime in the 18th century. As a powerful multi-use tool this sash found use in the fur trade which brought it into the North West. In this period the weave got tighter and size expanded, with some examples more than four metres in length. Coloured thread was widely used. Today it is considered to be primarily a symbol of the 1837 Lower Canada Rebellion Patriotes and the Métis peoples.

In Ireland, especially Northern Ireland, the sash is a symbol of the Orange Order. Orange Order sashes were originally of the ceremonial shoulder-to-hip variety as worn by the British military. Over the 20th century the sash has been mostly replaced by V-shaped collarettes, which are still generally referred to as sashes. The item is celebrated in the song 'The Sash my Father Wore'.

Sashes are also worn by Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts and Beauty Pageant Participants. Badges are sewn onto the sash, to indicate achievements of the Scout.

Many modern schools of Chinese martial arts use sashes of various colors to denote rank as a reflection of the Japanese ranking system using belts.

The Japanese equivalent of a sash, obi, serves to hold a kimono or yukata together.

Honorific orders[edit]

Sashes are indicative of holding the class of Grand Cross or Grand Cordon in an Order of Chivalry or Order of Merit. The sash is usually worn from the right shoulder to the left hip. A few orders do the contrary, according to their traditional statute.

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge wearing Garter Riband and Star.
1720s Garter sash.

Orders with the sash worn on the left shoulder[edit]

Europe :

Asia :

Malaysia :

Malaysia Kingdom of Malaysia
Decorations Post-nominal Grade Ribbon Sources
The Most Exalted and Most Illustrious Royal Family Order of Malaysia
Darjah Kerabat Diraja Malaysia
DKM Recipient MY Darjah Kerabat Diraja Malaysia - Royal Family Order of Malaysia - DKM.svg [18][19]
The Most Exalted Order of the Crown of the Realm
Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara
DMN Recipient MY Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara (Crown of the Realm) - DMN.svg [19][20]
Kedah Sultanate of Kedah
The Most Illustrious Royal Family Order of Kedah
Darjah Kerabat Yang Amat Mulia Kedah
DK Member MY-KED Royal Family Order of Kedah (DK).svg [21]
Kelantan Sultanate of Kelantan
The Most Esteemed Royal Family Order (Kelantan) (Al-Yunusi Star)
Darjah Kerabat Yang Amat di-Hormati (Bintang al-Yunusi)
DK Recipient MY-KEL Royal Family Order - Star of Yunus - DK.svg [22][23]
Negeri Sembilan Sultanate of Negeri Sembilan
The Most Illustrious Royal Family Order of Negeri Sembilan
Darjah Kerabat Neegri Sembilan Yang Amat di-Mulia
DKNS Member MY-NEG Royal Family Order of Negeri Sembilan - DKNS.svg [24]
The Order of Negeri Sembilan - Darjah Negeri Sembilan
Darjah Tertinggi Negeri Sembilan DTNS Paramount MY-NEG Order of Negeri Sembilan - DTNS.svg [25]
Darjah Mulia Negeri Sembilan DMNS Illustrious MY-NEG Order of Negeri Sembilan - DMNS.svg
Pahang Sultanate of Pahang
The Most Illustrious Royal Family Order of Pahang
Darjah Kerabat Yang Maha Mulia Utama Kerabat di-Raja Pahang
DKP Member (Ahli) MY-PAH Royal Family Order of Pahang - DKP.svg [26][27]
The Most Esteemed Family Order of the Crown of Indra of Pahang
Darjah Kerabat Sri Indra Mahkota Pahang Yang Amat di-Hormati
DK I Member 1st class MY-PAH Family Order of the Crown of Indra of Pahang - DK I.svg
Perak Sultanate of Perak
The Most Esteemed Royal Family Order of Perak
Darjah Kerabat di-Raja Yang Amat di-Hormati
DK Member (Ahli) MY-PERA Royal Family Order of Perak - DK (before 2001).svg
(before 2001)
MY-PERA Royal Family Order of Perak - DK.svg
(after 2001)
[28][29]
[30]
The Most Esteemed Perak Family Order of Sultan Azlan Shah
Darjah Kerabat Sultan Azlan Shah Perak Yang Amat di-Hormati
DKSA Superior class MY-PERA Perak Family Order of Sultan Azlan Shah - DKSA.svg [31][32]
The Most Esteemed Azlanii Royal Family Order
Darjah Yang Teramat Mulia Darjah Kerabat Azlanii
DKA I Member First Class MY-PERA Azlanii Royal Family Order - Member First Class - DKA I.svg [33]
Perlis Sultanate of Perlis
The Most Esteemed Royal Family Order of Perlis
Darjah Kerabat di-Raja Perlis Yang Amat Amat di-Hormati
DKP Recipient MY-PERL Royal Family Order of Perlis - DKP.svg [34]
The M. Est. Perlis Family Order of the Gallant Prince Syed Putra Jamalullail
Darjah Kerabat Perlis Baginda Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail Yang Amat Amat di-Hormati
DK Recipient MY-PERL Perlis Family Order of the Gallant Prince Syed Putra Jamalullail - DK.svg [35]
Selangor Sultanate of Selangor
The Most Esteemed Royal Family Order of Selangor - Darjah Kerabat Selangor Yang Amat di-Hormati
Darjah Kerabat Selangor Pertama DK I First Class MY-SEL Royal Family Order of Selangor - DK I.svg [36][37]
Darjah Kerabat Selangor Kedua DK II Second Class MY-SEL Royal Family Order of Selangor - DK II.svg [38]
Terengganu Sultanate of Terengganu
The Most Exalted Supreme Royal Family Order of Terengganu (10/03/1981)
Darjah Utama Kerabat di-Raja Terengganu Yang Amat di-Hormati
DKT Member (Ahli) MY-TER Supreme Royal Family Order of Terengganu - DKT.svg [39]
The Most Distinguished Family Order of Terengganu (19/06/1962)
Darjah Kebesaran Kerabat Terengganu Yang Amat Mulia
DK I Member 1st class
Ahli Yang Pertama
MY-TER Family Order of Terengganu 1st class - DK I.svg [40]

Classified examples of current orders' sash[edit]

Colours classified in
the order of the rainbow :
White Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet Black
                                            
WHITE
DNK Order of Danebrog Knight BAR.png (Denmark)
Order of the Dannebrog
MCO Order of Grimaldi - Knight BAR.png (Monaco)
Order of Grimaldi
LTU Order of Vytautas the Great - Knight's Cross BAR.png (Lithuania)
Order of Vytautas the Great
Order of Isabella the Catholic - Sash of Collar.svg / ESP Isabella Catholic Order CROSS.svg (Spain)
Order of Isabella the Catholic
PRT Order of Liberty - Knight BAR.png (Portugal)
Order of Liberty
RED
Order of the Golden Fleece Rib.gif (Spain)
Order of the Golden Fleece
PRT Order of Christ - Knight BAR.png (Portugal)
Order of Christ (Portugal)
Legion Honneur Chevalier ribbon.svg (France)
Order of the Legion of Honour
FIN Order of the Lion of Finland 5Class BAR.png (Finland)
Order of the Lion of Finland
LUX Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg - Knight BAR.png (Luxembourg)
Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
AUT Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria - Bronze Medal BAR.png (Austria)
Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria
MCO Order of Saint-Charles - Knight BAR.png (Monaco)
Order of Saint-Charles
ARG Order of May - Knight BAR.png (Argentina)
Order of May
Order of the White Lion.svg (Czech Republic)
Order of the White Lion
Order of the Crown of Tonga - ribbon bar.gif (Tonga)
Order of the Crown of Tonga
Tonga - Order of Pouono - ribbon bar.svg (Tonga)
Royal Order of Pouono
Order Sint Olaf 5 kl.png (Norway)
Order of St. Olav
The Royal Order of King Sobhuza II. Sash.gif (Swaziland)
Royal Order of King Sobhuza II
Military Order of weSwatini.gif (Swaziland)
Military Order of weSwatini
KHM Ordre Royal du Cambodge - Chevalier BAR.png (Cambodia)
Royal Order of Cambodia
GER Bundesverdienstkreuz 2 BVK.svg (Germany)
Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
Order of Logohu - Grand Companion (PNG) ribbon.png / Order of Logohu (PNG) ribbon.png (Papua New Guinea)
Order of Logohu
Order of the White Elephant - Medal (Thailand) ribbon.png (Thailand)
Order of the White Elephant
PHL Order of the Golden Heart Member BAR.png (Philippines)
Order of the Golden Heart
Order of the Burning Spear.svg (Kenya)
Order of the Burning Spear
Order Chrysantemum Sash.svg (Japan)
Order of the Chrysanthemum
Ancient / Current (Liechtenstein)
Order of Merit of the Principality of Liechtenstein
Star of Romania Ribbon.PNG (Romania)
Order of the Star of Romania
Order of St. Gregory the Great.png (Holy See)
Order of Saint Gregory the Great
Ordo Militia Aurata or Ordine dello Speron d'Oro o Milizia Aurata.png (Holy See)
Order of the Golden Spur
OTHER SHADES OF RED : CRIMSON / PINK
Order of the Bath UK ribbon.png (United Kingdom)
Order of the Bath
BEL Kroonorde Ridder BAR.svg (Belgium)
Order of the Crown
EST Order of the White Star - 5th Class BAR.png (Estonia)
Order of the White Star
Order of the Most Holy Annunciation BAR.svg (Kingdom of Italy)
Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
Order of Chula Chom Klao - Special Class (Thailand) ribbon.png (Thailand)
Order of Chula Chom Klao
ORANGE
The Order of the Phoenix of Tonga.gif (Tonga)
Order of the Phoenix (Tonga)
Ribbon bar Order of the House of Orange.jpg (Netherlands)
Order of the House of Orange
Ribbon bar Order of the House of Orange.jpg (Netherlands)
Order for Loyalty and Merit
BHT Order of the Dragon King Ribbon.svg (Bhutan)
Order of the Dragon King
BHT National Order of Merit of Bhutan Ribbon.svg (Bhutan)
National Order of Merit (Bhutan)
JPN Hokan-sho blank BAR.svg (Japan)
Order of the Precious Crown
LTU Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas - Knight's Cross BAR.png (Lithuania)
Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas
Neth odrorangenassau rib.png (Netherlands)
Order of Orange-Nassau
Order of the Crown (Netherlands).svg (Netherlands)
Order of the Crown
GRE Order of the Phoenix - Silver Cross BAR.png (Greece)
Order of the Phoenix (Greece)
YELLOW / GOLD / YELLOW-ORANGE
MEX Order of the Aztec Eagle 5Class BAR.png (Mexico)
Order of the Aztec Eagle
Order of the Royal House of Chakri (Thailand) ribbon.png (Thailand)
Order of the Royal House of Chakri
Royal Order of the Ndlovukazi.gif (Swaziland)
Royal Order of the Ndlovukazi
BHT Druk Ugyel Ribbon.svg (Bhutan)
Medal of Victory of the Thunder Dragon
KHM Order of Moniseraphon BAR.svg (Cambodia)
Order of Moniseraphon
The Royal Household Order of Tonga.gif (Tonga)
Royal Household Order of Tonga
Order of the Rajamitrabhorn (Thailand) ribbon.png (Thailand)
Order of the Rajamitrabhorn
MLI National Order - Knight BAR.png (Mali)
National Order of Mali
Order of Merit (Cameroon).svg (Cameroon)
Order of Merit (Cameroon)
Royal Family Order (Swaziland).gif (Swaziland)
Royal Household Order of Swaziland
Ord.Lion.Nassau.jpg (Luxembourg-Netherlands)
Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau
GRE Order of Beneficence - Silver Cross BAR.png (Greece)
Order of Beneficence (Greece)
GBR Family Order Elizabeth II BAR.png (United Kingdom)
Royal Family Order of Queen Elizabeth II
Order of the Golden Heart of Kenya.svg (Kenya)
Order of the Golden Heart (Kenya)
POR Ordem da Instrucao Publica Medalha BAR.svg (Portugal)
Order of Public Instruction (Portugal)
GREEN
Order of the Thistle UK ribbon.png (United Kingdom)
Order of the Thistle
PRT Military Order of Aviz - Knight BAR.png (Portugal)
Order of Aviz
BOL Order of Condor of the Andes - Knight BAR.png (Bolivia)
Order of the Condor of the Andes
Cavaliere SSML BAR.svg (Italy)
Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
SEN Order of the Lion - Knight BAR.png (Senegal)
Order of the Lion (Senegal)
MCO Order of the Crown (Monaco) - Knight BAR.png (Monaco)
Order of the Crown (Monaco)
ITA OMRI 2001 Cav BAR.svg (Italy)
Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
HUN Order of Merit of the Hungarian Rep (civil) 5class BAR.svg (Hungary)
Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary
Order of the Direkgunabhorn (Thailand) ribbon.png (Thailand)
Order of the Direkgunabhorn
Order of the Star of Jordan ribbon bar.png (Jordan)
Order of the Star of Jordan
BLUE
NOR Royal Norwegian Order of Merit - Knight 2nd Class BAR.png (Norway)
Royal Norwegian Order of Merit
Order of the White Rose Ribbon.PNG (Finland)
Order of the White Rose of Finland
EST Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana - 5th Class BAR.png (Estonia)
Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
Ribbon bar Order of the Tower and Sword.jpg (Portugal)
Order of the Tower and Sword
POL Order Zaslugi RP kl5 BAR.png (Poland)
Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland
Fr Nat Order of Merit ribbon.jpg (France)
Ordre national du Mérite
CHL Order of Merit of Chile - Knight BAR.png (Chile)
Order of the Merit of Chile
Order of the Garter UK ribbon.png (United Kingdom)
Order of the Garter
Ordre du Saint-Esprit Chevalier ribbon.svg (France)
Order of the Holy Spirit
POL Order Orła Białego BAR.svg (Poland)
Order of the White Eagle (Poland)
Seraphimerorden ribbon.svg (Sweden)
Royal Order of the Seraphim
The Most Illustrious Order of Queen Salote Tupou III Member.gif (Tonga)
Order of Queen Salote Tupou III
DEN Elefantordenen BAR.png (Denmark)
Order of the Elephant
Order of the Southern Cross Knight (Brazil) Ribbon.png (Brazil)
Order of the Southern Cross
Most Dignified Order of Moshoeshoe (1987).gif (Lesotho)
Most Dignified Order of Moshoeshoe
BRA Medalha do Merito de Rio Branco BAR.svg (Brazil)
Order of Rio Branco
GRE Order Redeemer 5Class.png (Greece)
Order of the Redeemer
ARG Order of the Liberator San Martin - Knight BAR.png (Argentina)
Order of the Liberator General San Martín
Order of Civil Merit (Spain) - Sash of Grand Collar.svg / Order of Civil Merit (Spain) - Crosses.svg (Spain)
Order of Civil Merit
Order of Charles III - Sash of Collar.svg / ESP Charles III Order CROSS.svg (Spain)
Order of Charles III
Order of Faithful Service (Romania) - ribbon bar.gif (Romania)
Order of Faithful Service
BEL Order of the African Star - Knight BAR.png (Belgium-Congo Free State)
Order of the African Star
ISL Icelandic Order of the Falcon - Knight BAR.png (Iceland)
Order of the Falcon
UK Royal Victorian Order ribbon.svg (United Kingdom)
Royal Victorian Order
Order of the Crown of Thailand - Special Class (Thailand) ribbon.png / Order of the Crown of Thailand - Medal (Thailand) ribbon.png (Thailand)
Order of the Crown of Thailand
MY Darjah Yang Mulia Pangkuan Negara (Defender of the Realm) - SMN.svg / MY Darjah Yang Mulia Pangkuan Negara (Defender of the Realm)- PMN.svg (Malaysia)
Order of the Defender of the Realm
Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Malaysia - SSM.svg / Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Malaysia - PSM.svg (Malaysia)
Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Malaysia
UK Order St-Michael St-George ribbon.svg (United Kingdom)
Order of St Michael and St George
UK Order St-Michael St-George ribbon.svg (Slovakia)
Order of the White Double Cross
VA Ordine Piano BAR.svg (Holy See)
Order of Pius IX
LUX Order of Adolphe of Nassau ribbon bar.svg (Luxembourg)
Order of Adolphe of Nassau
GRE Order of Honour Silver Cross BAR.png (Greece)
Order of Honour
Ord.Neth.Lion.jpg (Netherlands)
Order of the Netherlands Lion
LVA Order of the Three Stars - Knight BAR.png (Latvia)
Order of the Three Stars
Ukraine-republic007.png (Ukraine)
Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise
SWE Order of the Polar Star (after 1975) - Knight 2nd Class BAR.png (Sweden)
Order of the Polar Star
BEL Order of Leopold II - Knight BAR.png (Belgium)
Order of Leopold II
MY Darjah Yang Mulia Pangkuan Negara (Defender of the Realm) - SMN.svg (Malaysia)
Order of the Crown of the Realm
Den kongelige norske fortjenstorden.svg (Norway)
Royal Norwegian Order of Merit
EGY Order of the Nile - Knight BAR.png (Egypt)
Order of the Nile
VIOLET - PURPLE
PRT Order of Saint James of the Sword - Knight BAR.png (Portugal)
Order of Saint James of the Sword
Chevalier Ordre de Leopold.png (Belgium)
Order of Leopold (Belgium)
PER Order of the Sun of Peru - Knight BAR.png (Peru)
Order of the Sun (Peru)
JOR Al-Hussein ibn Ali Order BAR.svg (Jordan)
Order of al-Hussein bin Ali
Order of Queen Maria Luisa (Spain) - ribbon bar.png (Spain)
Order of Queen Maria Luisa
Order of Independence Jordan.svg (Jordan)
Order of Independence (Jordan)
PAN Order of Vasco Nunez de Balboa - Knight BAR.png (Panama)
Order of Vasco Núñez de Balboa
BEL Royal Order of the Lion - Knight BAR.png (Belgium-Congo Free State)
Royal Order of the Lion
JPN Order of Culture BAR.svg (Japan)
Order of Culture
Legion of Merit ribbon.svg (United States)
Legion of Merit
BLACK
Equestrian order of the Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem BAR.svg (Holy See)
Order of the Holy Sepulchre
SMOM-gc.svg (Sovereign Military Order of Malta)
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Order of Rama 6th Class ribbon.png (Thailand)
Order of Rama
POR Ordem do Merito Medalha BAR.svg (Portugal)
Order of Merit (Portugal)
Order of Pope Sylvester BAR.svg (Holy See)
Order of Saint Sylvester
TRICOLOR / MORE COMPLEX
Order of the Star of Melanesia.png (Papua New Guinea)
Order of the Star of Melanesia
PRT Order of Prince Henry - Knight BAR.png (Portugal)
Order of Prince Henry
Star of the Solomon Islands.png (Solomon Islands)
Star of the Solomon Islands
Royal Order of the Crown (Swaziland).gif (Swaziland)
Order of the Crown (Swaziland)
BHT Royal Order of Bhutan Ribbon.svg (Bhutan)
Royal Order of Bhutan
Jordan004.gif (Jordan)
Supreme Order of the Renaissance
Ribbon of an order of king Tomislav.png (Croatia)
Grand Order of King Tomislav
Ribbon of a Grand Order of Queen Jelena.png (Croatia)
Grand Order of Queen Jelena
Ukraine-republic050.png (Ukraine)
Order of Liberty (Ukraine)
Most Meritorious Order of Mohlomi (1987).gif (Lesotho)
Most Meritorious Order of Mohlomi

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ André Jouineau, pages 45-63, "The French Army in 1914", ISBN 978-2-352-50104-6
  2. ^ Fredrick Todd Col USAR Cadet Gray page 40
  3. ^ West Point Band
  4. ^ John Gaylor, "Sons of John Company - the Indian and Pakistan Armies", ISBN 0-946771-98-7
  5. ^ Rinaldo D'Ami, "World Uniforms in Colour - the European Nations", ISBN 0-85059-031-0
  6. ^ José Bueno, Ejército Español, Uniformes Contemporáneos",ISBN 84-7140-186-X
  7. ^ Ritta Nakanishi, "Japanese Military Uniforms 1930-1945, 1991 Dai Nippon Kaiga
  8. ^ Photo, King Albert II of Belgium, Queen Sofia of Spain and Queen Paola of Belgium wearing the order
  9. ^ Royal Swedish Family during a State visit in Iceland
  10. ^ "Noblesse et Royautés" blog, Victoria of Sweden's wedding, June 2010, Prince Alexander wearing it on left shoulder
  11. ^ Photo of Princess Anne wearing the Thistle at King Harald V's 70th birthday in 02/2007
  12. ^ South Korea's honour System, click on "Methods of Wear"
  13. ^ Royal Cabinet Website
  14. ^ Royal Cabinet Website
  15. ^ State visit of Sweden in Thailand, 2003, Gala dinner
  16. ^ Royal Cabinet Website, Order of the White Elephant
  17. ^ Royal Cabinet Website, Order of the Crown of Thailand
  18. ^ "Noblesse et Royautés", article showing photos of guests invited to Prince William's wedding. A photo shows the king wearing it on the left shoulder
  19. ^ a b General visual table of decorations
  20. ^ Photo on a royal news forum showing the King and Queen of Sweden wearing it on left shoulder
  21. ^ Photo of Sultan Abdul Halim and Sultanah Haminah
  22. ^ The Royal Ark, Late Sultan Ismail Petra's photograph
  23. ^ The Royal Ark, Sultan Muhammad V's photograph
  24. ^ The Royal Ark, Late Sultan Jaafar's photograph
  25. ^ Besar of Tampin and his wife wearing respectively the DTNS and the DMNS
  26. ^ Group photo : DKP & DK I : left shoulder - DK II : right shoulder
  27. ^ Sultanah wearing DK I
  28. ^ The Royal Ark, Sultan of Perak wearing former DK sash
  29. ^ Sultanah of Perak wearing former DK sash
  30. ^ Raja di Hilir wearing nowadays DK sash
  31. ^ Heir Apparent of Kedah wearing DKSA
  32. ^ Crown Princess of Kedah wearing DKSA
  33. ^ The Admire Hunkz, Photo of Crown Princess wearing DKA I
  34. ^ Sultan with DKP
  35. ^ The Royal Ark, Sultan Sirajuddin
  36. ^ Sultan of Selangor's photograph
  37. ^ Selangor Official Website, DK I
  38. ^ Selangor Official Website, DK II
  39. ^ The Royal Ark, late Sultan Mahmud's photograph and Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin's photograph
  40. ^ Photo of the Heir Apparent of Terengganu

Bibliography[edit]