List of antidepressants

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This is a complete list of clinically-approved antidepressants, as well as drugs used to augment antidepressants, by pharmacological and/or structural classification. Chemical/generic names are listed first with brand names in parentheses.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)[edit]

Zimelidine (Normud, Zelmid) and indalpine (Upstene) were also formerly used as antidepressants, but were withdrawn from the market.

Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)[edit]

Serotonin modulators and stimulators (SMSs)[edit]

These drugs act as serotonin reuptake inhibitors and agonize/antagonize various serotonin receptors.

Serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors (SARIs)[edit]

  • Etoperidone (Axiomin, Etonin)
  • Trazodone (Desyrel)
  • Nefazodone (Nefadar, Serzone) has been withdrawn from some markets but remains prescribed in the U.S.

These drugs act as antagonists of various serotonin receptors and as weak serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs)[edit]

Atomoxetine (Strattera) is also sometimes used as an antidepressant, but is not specifically approved for this purpose.

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)[edit]

Butriptyline (Evadyne), demexiptiline (Deparon, Tinoran), imipraminoxide (Imiprex, Elepsin), iprindole (Prondol, Galatur, Tetran), metapramine (Timaxel), propizepine (Depressin, Vagran), and quinupramine (Kinupril, Kevopril) were also formerly markted, but have since been discontinued.

The following are also TCAs, but are atypical pharmacologically:

Amineptine (Survector, Maneon) is another atypical TCA, acting as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), but was withdrawn from the market.

Tiazesim (Altinil) is not a TCA, but is a bicyclic antidepressant that is closely related structurally and pharmacologically. Similarly to many TCAs, it is no longer marketed.

Tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs)[edit]

Mianserin, mirtazapine, and setiptiline are also sometimes described as noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs).

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)[edit]



Many others, including benmoxin (Neuralex), iproclozide (Sursum), iproniazid (Marsilid), mebanazine (Actomol), nialamide (Niamid), octamoxin (Ximaol), pheniprazine (Catron), phenoxypropazine (Drazine), pivhydrazine (Tersavid), and safrazine (Safra) were used as antidepressants in the past, but have since been discontinued.

Selective for MAO-B[edit]



Caroxazone (Surodil, Timostenil) was formerly used as an antidepressant, but has been discontinued.

Selective for MAO-A[edit]

These drugs are sometimes described as reversible inhibitors of MAO-A (RIMAs).

Eprobemide (Befol) and minaprine (Brantur, Cantor) were also formerly used as antidepressants, but have been discontinued.



Discontinued/withdrawn from the market[edit]


The following antidepressants are available both with a prescription and over-the-counter:

Adjunctive treatments[edit]

This category includes drugs that are generally not considered to be significantly effective as treatments for depression alone, but have demonstrated effectiveness in the augmentation of other antidepressants.

Atypical antipsychotics[edit]


  • Buspirone (BuSpar) – 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist
  • Lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid) – mood stabilizer; exact mechanism of action unknown
  • Thyroxine (T4) – thyroid hormone (THR agonist)
  • Triiodothyronine (T3) – thyroid hormone (THR agonist)
  • Levomefolic acid (L-methylfolate) – In two randomized controlled trials, Deplin®, a formulation of L-methylfolate classified as a medical food in the U.S., showed superior efficacy to placebo as add-on therapy in patients with major depression that had responded inadequately to an SSRI.[1]

Combination products[edit]

Currently in clinical trials (investigational)[edit]

See also[edit]