List of biographies of Muhammad
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This is a chronological listing of biographies of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, ranging from the earliest traditional writers to modern times. The focus is on historical and academic-quality works that refer directly to the primary sources.
The following is a list of the earliest known Hadith collectors who specialized in collecting Sīra and Maghāzī reports.
7th and early 8th century (1st century of Hijra)
- Sahl ibn Abī Ḥathma (d. in Mu'awiya's reign, i.e., 41-60 AH), was a young companion of the Prophet. Parts of his writings on Maghazi are preserved in the Ansāb of al-Baladhuri, the Ṭabaqāt of Ibn Sa'd, and the works of Ibn Jarir al-Tabari and al-Waqidi.
- Abdullah ibn Abbas (d. 78 AH), a companion of Muhammad, his traditions are found in various works of Hadith and Sīra.
- Saʿīd ibn Saʿd ibn ʿUbāda al-Khazrajī, another young companion, his writings have survived in the Musnad of Ibn Hanbal and Abī ʿIwāna, and the Tārīkh of al-Tabari.
- ʿUrwa ibn al-Zubayr (d. 713). He wrote letters replying to inquiries of the Umayyad caliphs, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan and al-Walid I, involving questions about certain events that happened in the time of the Prophet. Since Abd al-Malik did not appreciate the maghāzī literature, these letters were not written in story form. He is not known to have written any books on the subject. He was a grandson of Abu Bakr and the younger brother of Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr.
- Saʿīd ibn al-Masīb al-Makhzūmī (d. 94 AH), a famous Tābiʿī and one of the teachers of al-Zuhri. His traditions are quoted in the Six major hadith collections, and in the Sīra works of Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Sayyid al-Nās, and others.
- Abū Fiḍāla ʿAbd Allāh ibn Kaʿb ibn Mālik al-Anṣārī (d. 97 AH), his traditions were mentioned in Ibn Ishaq and al-Tabari.
- Abbān ibn Uthmān ibn Affān (d. 101-105 AH), the son of Uthman. His traditions are transmitted through Malik ibn Anas in his Muwaṭṭaʾ, the Ṭabaqāt of Ibn Sa'd, and in the histories of al-Tabari and al-Yaʿqūbī.
- ʿĀmir ibn Sharāḥīl al-Shaʿbī (d. 103 AH), his traditions were transmitted through Abu Isḥāq al-Subaiʿī, Saʿīd ibn Masrūq al-Thawrī, al-Aʿmash, Qatāda, Mujālid ibn Saʿīd, and others.
8th and early 9th century (2nd century of Hijra)
- Al-Qāsim ibn Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr (d. 107 AH), another grandson of Abu Bakr. His traditions are mainly found in Tabari, Al-Balathuri, and al-Waqidi.
- Wahb ibn Munabbih (d. during 725 to 737, or 114 AH). Several books were ascribed to him but none of them are now extant. Some of his works survive as quotations found in works by Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisham, Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Abū Nuʿaym al-Iṣfahānī, and others.
- Ibn Shihāb al-Zuhrī (d. c. 737), a central figure in sīra literature, who collected both ahadith and akhbār. His akhbār also contain chains of transmissions, or isnad. He was sponsored by the Umayyad court and asked to write two books, one on genealogy and another on maghāzī. The first was canceled and the one about maghāzī is either not extant or has never been written.
- Musa ibn ʿUqba, a student of al-Zuhrī, wrote Kitāb al-Maghāzī, a notebook used to teach his students; now lost. Some of his traditions have been preserved, although their attribution to him is disputed.
- Muhammad ibn Ishaq (d. 767 or 761), another student of al-Zuhrī, who collected oral traditions that formed the basis of an important biography of the Prophet. His work survived through that of his editors, most notably Ibn Hisham and Ibn Jarir al-Tabari.
- Abū Ishāq al-Fazarī (d. 186) wrote Kitāb al-Siyar.
Others (710 CE - 921 CE)
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- Zubayr ibn al-Awam, the husband of Asma bint Abi Bakr.
- Abaan ibn Uthman ibn Affan, the son of Uthman wrote a small booklet.
- Hammam ibn Munabbih, a student of Abu Hurayrah
- Asim Ibn Umar Ibn Qatada Al-Ansari
- Ma'mar Ibn Rashid Al-Azdi, pupil of Al-Zuhri
- Abdul Rahman ibn Abdul Aziz Al-Ausi, pupil of Al-Zuhri
- Muhammad ibn Salih ibn Dinar Al-Tammar was a pupil of Al-Zuhri and mentor of Al-Waqidi.
- Hashim Ibn Urwah ibn Zubayr, son of Urwah ibn Zubayr, generally quoted traditions from his father but was also a pupil of Al-Zuhri.
- Ali ibn mujahid Al razi Al kindi.
- Al-Bakka'iِِArabic [البكائي] was a disciple of Ibn Ishaq and teacher of Ibn Hisham and thus forms a very important link in Sira between two great scholars.
- Abdul Malik Ibn Hisham, his work incorporated the text of Ibn Ishaq; he was a pupil of Al-Bakkaa'i.
- Salama ibn Al-Fadl Al-Abrash Al-Ansari, pupil of Ibn Ishaq.
- Al-Waqidi, whose surviving works "Kitab alTarikh wa al-Maghazi" (Book of History and Campaigns) and Futuh al-Sham have been published.
- Abu Isa Muhammad Al-Tirmidhi wrote compilations of Shamaail (Characteristics of Muhammad)
- Ibn Sa'd wrote the 8-volume work called Tabaqat or The Book of the Major Classes; he was also a pupil of Al-Waqidi.
- Imam al-Bayhaqi, wrote Dala'il al-Nabuwwa (Proof of Prophethood).
- Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari wrote the well-known work History of the Prophets and Kings, whose earlier books include the life of Muhammad, which cite Ibn Ishaq.
- Abu Sa`d al-Naysaburi wrote Sharaf al-Mustafa
- Abu Nu`aym wrote Dala'il al-Nubuwwa
- Al-Asbahani wrote Dala'il al-Nubuwwa
- Al-Baghawi wrote al-Anwar fi Shama'il al-Nabi al-Mukhtar
- Faryabi wrote Dala'il al-Nubuwwa
Later writers and biographies (1100 CE- 1517 CE)
- Al-Hafiz Abdul Mu'min Al-Dimyati, wrote the book "al-Mukhtasar fi Sirati Sayyid Khair al-Bashar" but is commonly referred to as Sira of Al-Dimyati.
- Ala'al-Din Ali ibn Muhammad Al-Khilati Hanafi,wrote Sirat of Al-Khilati.
- Sheikh Zahir al-Din ibn Muhammad Gazaruni.
- Abu-al-Faraj ibn Al-Jawzi,wrote books on Sira such as al-Wafa bi-ahwal al-Mustafa and Sharaf al-Mustafa (actual full Title of book(s):Uyun al-hikayat fi Sirat Sayyid al-Bariyya).
- Ibn Kathir, wrote Al-Sira Al-Nabawiyya (Ibn Kathir).
- Abu Rabi Sulaiman ibn Musa Al-Kala'i compiled a book titled "Iktifa fi Maghazi al-Mustafa wal-Khulafa al-Thalatha".
- Ibn Sayyid Al-Nas, wrote Uyun al-Athar.
- Qadi `Iyad, wrote the famous [ash-Shifa|al-Shifa bi ta`rif huquq al-Mustafa – Healing by the Recognition of the Rights of or News of the Chosen One.
- Zain al-Din Iraqi was a teacher of Ibn Hajar and he wrote Sira Manzuma.
- Al-Qastallani, his book on Sira is al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya.
- Al-Zurqani wrote a commentary on the al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya by Qastallani and it was called al-Zurqani 'ala al-Mawahib.
- `Allama Burhanuddin al-Halabi,wrote Sirah al-Halabiyya.
- Al-Mawardi wrote I`lam al-Nubuwwa.
- `Abd al-Haqq al-Muhaddith al-Dahlawi wrote Madarij al-Nubuwwa.
- Mulla Nuruddin Jami wrote Shawahid al-Nubuwwa.
- Al-Aydurusi wrote Nur al-Safir.
- Bajuri wrote Sharh al-Mawahib al-laduniyya.
- Ibn Abdul-Barr wrote al-Durar fi ikhtisar al-maghazi was-siyar.
- Ibn Hajar al-Haytami wrote Ashraf al-wasa'il ila faham al-Shama'il.
- Ibn Mulaqqan wrote Ghayat al-sul fi Khasa'is al-Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).
- Ahmad Sirhindi al-Faruqi wrote Ithbat al-Nubuwwa.
- Ibn Dihya wrote Nihaya al-Sul fi Khasa'is al-Rasul.
- Jalaluddin al-Suyuti wrote Al Khasais-ul-Kubra, al-Khasa'is al-Sughra and Shama'il al-Sharifa.
- `Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi wrote al-Durra al-Mudiyya.
- Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Salihi al-Shami wrote Subul al-huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirah Khayr al-`Ibad.
- Nuruddin `Ali ibn Ahmad al-Samhudi wrote Khulasa al-Wafa bi-Akhbar Dar al-Mustafa.
- Abu al-Qasim `Abdur-Rahman al-Suhayli wrote al-Rawd al-anf fi Sharh al-Sirah al-Nabawiyya li-Ibn Hisham.
- `Izzuddin ibn Badruddin ibn Jama`ah al-Kinani wrote al-Mukhtasar al-kabir fi Sirah al-Rasul.
Modern biographies (1800 AD – Present)
- Dr. Muhammad Asadullah Al-Ghalib wrote Nobider Kahini (the most reliable collection in Bangla, based on the Glorious Quran and authentic Hadeeth).
- Dr. Mohamed Hesham Yousef wrote The beloved book series.
- Ahmad ibn Zayni Dahlan al-Shafi`i al-Makki (Shaykh-ul-Islam) wrote Sirah al-Nabi.
- Sayyid Muhammad `Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki wrote Muhammad Rasulallah.
- Prof Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri wrote Sirah al-Rasul (14 volumes, largest collection in Urdu).
- Anwarullah Haidarabadi wrote Anwar-e-Ahmadi.
- Al-Sayyid Muhammad `Uthman al-Mirghani wrote Fath al-Rasul.
- Muhammad Rida wrote Muhammad Rasulallah.
- As'ad Muhammad Sa`id al-Sagharji wrote Muhammad Rasulallah.
- Yusuf al-Nabhani wrote Fada'il al-Muhammadiyya, al-Anwar al-Muhammadiyya and Shawahid al-Haqq.
- Muhammad Yasin al-Fadani al-Makki wrote Hashiyya al-Mawahib al-Laduniyya.
- Pir Muhammad Karam Shah al-Azhari wrote Ziya al-Nabi.
- Shibli Nomani, wrote his famous 5 volume book Sirat-un-Nabi in Urdu with the help of his disciple Syed Sulaiman Nadvi.The book was translated in English by M. Tayyib Bakhsh Budayuni:ISBN 978-81-7151-282-9.
- Muhammad Husayn Haykal,wrote The Life of Muhammad in Arabic, 1933; with English translation by Isma'il Raji A. al-Faruqi.
- Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, wrote Muhammad The Ideal Prophet and Muhammad The Prophet Of Peace translated by Rauf Luther.
- N Tawheedi, wrote A Glance At The Life Of The Holy Prophet Of Islam .
- Mohammad Amin, wrote A Spark From The Dynamo Of Prophethood .
- Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall, wrote Al-Amin A Life-Sketch Of The Prophet Muhammad
- Syed M. Nadvi,wrote An Easy History Of The Prophet Of Islam.
- Khwaja Shamsuddin Azeemi, wrote Muhammad-ur-Rasoolullah in 4 volumes.
- Abdul Hameed Siddiqui,wrote Life Of Muhammad .
- Dr Muhammad Shamsul Haque, wrote Life Of Prophet Muhammad The Final Messenger
- Fazal-ur-Rahman Ansari wrote 3 books namely, Muhammad As A Military Leader ; Muhammad Encyclopedia Of Seerah and Muhammad Blessing For Mankind. These books were gifted by the then government of Pakistan to diplomatic visitors to Pakistan.
- Zahir Ahmed Muhammad,wrote the Glimpses Of The Prophet's Life & Times.
- Abu Bakr Siraj Ad-Din a.k.a. Martin Lings, wrote Muhammad : His Life Based on the Earliest Sources (1983), Islamic Texts Society, ISBN 978-0-04-297042-4
- Osman Kartal, wrote The Prophet's Scribe(2009), Athena Press, ISBN 978-1-84748-629-5
- Ali Musa Raza, wrote Muhammad In The Qur'an.
- Seyyed Hossein Nasr, wrote Muhammad Man Of Allah.
- Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi, wrote Muhammad Rasulullah .
- Muhammad Iqbal,wrote Muhammad The Beloved Prophet.
- Naeem Siddiqui,wrote Muhammad The Benefactor Of Humanity.
- Dr M.H. Durrani,wrote two books namely Muhammad The Biblical Prophet and The Holy Prophet Muhammad.
- Dr Majid Ali Khan,wrote Muhammad The Final Messenger.
- Ahmed Deedat,wrote Muhammad the Greatest and Muhammad the Natural Successor to Christ.
- Jamal Badawi, wrote Muhammad A Blessing For Mankind,a Short Biography and Commentary.
- Mustafa Ahmad al-Zarqa,wrote Muhammad The Perfect Model For Humanity.
- Wahiduddin Khan,wrote Muhammad The Prophet Of Revolution.
- Syed Iqbal Zaheer,wrote Muhammad The Unlettered Prophet Who Changed The World.
- Abdur Rahman Lutz,wrote Muhammad Upon Whom Be Peace.
- Syed Athar Husain, wrote Prophet Muhammad & His Mission.
- Fethullah Gulen,wrote Prophet Muhammad As Commander and Prophet Muhammad The Infinite Light.
- Kais al-Kalby, wrote Prophet Muhammad The Last Messenger In The Bible.
- Mufti Shafi,wrote Seerat Khaatmul-Ambiyaa – Life Of Rasulullah translated by Abbas Zuber Ali.
- Dr Mohamed Abdulla Pasha,wrote Sixth Century & Beyond – The Prophet & His Times.
- Zakaria Bashier,wrote Sunshine At Madinah: Studies In Life Of Prophet and The Makkan Crucible.
- Dr Ata Mohy-ud-din, wrote The Arabian Prophet.
- Fakir Syed Waheeduddin,wrote The Benefactor & The Rightly-Guided.
- Mustafa as-Sibaa'ie,wrote The Life of Prophet Muhammad – Highlights and Lessons.
- Muhammad Bashiruddin Mahmood, wrote The First & The Last – Muhammad.
- Abdul Majeed,wrote The Last Prophet & His Message
- Mohammad Yusuf,wrote The Last Prophet Of Islam .
- Muhammad Abdul Rauf, wrote The Life & Teaching Of The Prophet Muhammad.
- Syed Ameer Ali, wrote The Life & Teachings Of Mohammad .
- Tahia Al-Ismail,wrote The Life Of Muhammad – Based On Earliest Sources.
- Sarwar Saulat, wrote The Life Of The Prophet.
- Abdal Rahman Azzam,wrote The Life Of The Prophet Muhammad.
- Muhammad Al-Kidari,wrote The Light Of Certitude.
- Muhammad Hamidullah,wrote 4 books on Sira Muhammad Rasulullah: A concise survey of the life and work of the founder of Islam ; The prophet of Islam: Prophet of migration ; The Prophet's establishing a state and his succession ; Battlefields of the Prophet Muhammad.
- Ayatullah Jafar Subhani,wrote The Message – The Holy Prophet Of Allah.
- Khalifa Abdul Hakim, wrote The Prophet & His Message.
- Syed Abdul Wahab, wrote The Shadowless Prophet Of Islam.
- Muhammad Abdul Hai,wrote Uswai Rasool-e-Akram (Life & Teachings Of Prophet).
- Safdar Hosain,wrote Who Was Muhammad?.
- K.L. Gauba, wrote The Prophet of the Desert. (1962)
- Allama Syed Saadat Ali Qadri, wrote Jaan-e-Aalam – Soul of the worlds. (2006)
- Safiur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri,wrote Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar).
- Ali al-Sallabi, wrote The Noble Life of the Prophet (3 Vol.). (2005)
- Mahdi Rizqullah Ahmad,wrote The Prophet of Islam in the Light of the Original Sources: An Analytical Study.
- Muhammad Mohar Ali,wrote Sirat al-Nabi and the Orientalists – with special reference to the writings of William Muir, D.S. Margoliouth and W. Montgomery Watt.
- Khalid Masud, wrote Hayat e Rasul e Ummi in Urdu (translated as: The Unlettered Prophet by Saadia Malik)
- Maulana Wahiduddin Khan wrote Prophet of Revolution
- Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhab Najdi wrote Mukhtasar Sirah al-Rasul.
- Karen Armstrong,wrote Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet (1991), and Muhammad: A Prophet for Our Time (2006).
- Allama Azad Subhani(1897-1964) wrote Tazkeratul Muhammadi.
- M. R. Ahmad (1992). Al-sīra al-nabawiyya fī ḍawʾ al-maṣādir al-aṣliyya: dirāsa taḥlīliyya (1st ed.). Riyadh: King Saud University. pp. 20–34.
- Raven, Wim (2006). "Sīra and the Qurʾān". Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 29–49.
- Published from Lebanon, Beirut: Mu'assasa al-Risāla, 1987.
- Preamble to the book