List of people indicted in the International Criminal Court

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The list of people who have been indicted in the International Criminal Court includes all individuals who have been indicted on any counts of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, or contempt of court in the International Criminal Court (ICC) pursuant to the Rome Statute. An individual is indicted when a Pre-Trial Chamber issues either an arrest warrant or a summons after it finds that "there are reasonable grounds to believe that the person has committed a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court".[1] An arrest warrant is issued where it appears necessary "to ensure the person's appearance at trial, to ensure that the person does not obstruct or endanger the investigation or the court proceedings, or, where applicable, to prevent the person from continuing with the commission of that crime or a related crime which is within the jurisdiction of the Court and which arises out of the same circumstances".[1] The Pre-Trial Chamber issues a summons if it is satisfied that a summons is sufficient to ensure the person's appearance.[1] Individuals can only be charged with genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes. Although mentioned in the Statute, the Court cannot currently prosecute individuals for the crime of aggression. While this crime has been defined at the Review Conference of the Rome Statute in 2010, the conditions for the ICC to exercise jurisdiction are not yet fulfilled.

Overview[edit]

To date, the ICC has opened investigations into eight situations (shown in the table below under the column titled S) in: the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1); Uganda (2); the Central African Republic (3); Darfur, Sudan (4); the Republic of Kenya (5); Libya (6); the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (7); and the Republic of Mali (8).[2] The ICC has publicly indicted 36 people. The ICC has issued arrest warrants for 28 individuals and summonses to eight others. Ten persons are in detention. Proceedings against 26 are ongoing: eleven are at large as fugitives; one has been arrested, but is not in the Court's custody; nine are in the pre-trial phase; another three are at trial; one is appealing his sentence; and one individual's acquittal is being appealed by the prosecution. Proceedings against ten have been completed: one has been convicted, four have had the charges against them dismissed, one has had the charges against him withdrawn, one has had his case declared inadmissible before the Court, and three have died before trial.

The list below details the counts against each individual indicted in the Court and his or her current status. The column titled G lists the number of counts (if any) of the crime of genocide with which an individual has been charged. H list the number of counts of crimes against humanity and W the number of counts of war crimes. C lists the number of counts of contempt of the Court and other offenses against the administration of justice. Note that these are the counts with which an individual was indicted, not convicted. The column titled Ind. provides a link to an indictment, arrest warrant, summons, or other document listing the final charges against the individual before the beginning of the confirmation of charges hearing.

Name S Indicted G H W C Transferred
to the ICC
Current status Ind.
Kony, JosephJoseph Kony 2 8 July 2005 12 21 Fugitive [3]
Lukwiya, RaskaRaska Lukwiya 2 8 July 2005 1 3 Died on 12 August 2006; proceedings terminated on 11 July 2007[4] [5]
Odhiambo, OkotOkot Odhiambo 2 8 July 2005 3 7 Fugitive [6]
Ongwen, DominicDominic Ongwen 2 8 July 2005 3 4 Fugitive [7]
Otti, VincentVincent Otti 2 8 July 2005 11 21 Fugitive; reported to have died on 2 October 2007[8] [9]
Lubanga Dyilo, ThomasThomas Lubanga Dyilo 1 10 February 2006 3 17 March 2006 Appealing sentence of 14 years' imprisonment[10] [11]
Ntaganda, BoscoBosco Ntaganda[A] 1 22 August 2006 5 13 22 March 2013 Case in pre-trial stage[13][14] [15]
Haroun, AhmedAhmed Haroun 4 27 April 2007 20 22 Fugitive [16]
Kushayb, AliAli Kushayb 4 27 April 2007 22 28 Fugitive [17]
Katanga, GermainGermain Katanga 1 2 July 2007 4 9 17 October 2007 Serving sentence of 12 years' imprisonment[18][19] [20]
Ngudjolo Chui, MathieuMathieu Ngudjolo Chui 1 6 July 2007 4 9 6 February 2008 Acquittal pending appeal (released on 21 December 2012)[21][22][23] [20]
Bemba, Jean-PierreJean-Pierre Bemba[B] 3 23 May 2008 3 5 2 3 July 2008 Trial began on 22 November 2010[26] [27]
Bashir, OmarOmar al-Bashir[C] 4 4 March 2009 3 5 2 Fugitive [29]
Abu Garda, BahrBahr Abu Garda 4 7 May 2009 3 Summoned Charges dismissed on 8 February 2010[30] [31]
Banda, AbdallahAbdallah Banda 4 27 August 2009 3 Summoned Fugitive; case in pre-trial stage[32][33] [34]
Jerbo, SalehSaleh Jerbo 4 27 August 2009 3 Summoned Died on 19 April 2013; proceedings terminated on 4 October 2013[35] [36]
Mbarushimana, CallixteCallixte Mbarushimana 1 28 September 2010 5 6 25 January 2011 Charges dismissed on 16 December 2011 (released on 23 December 2011)[37] [38]
Ali, MohammedMohammed Ali 5 8 March 2011 5 Summoned Charges dismissed on 23 January 2012[39] [40]
Kenyatta, UhuruUhuru Kenyatta 5 8 March 2011 5 Summoned Case in pre-trial stage[39] [40]
Kosgey, HenryHenry Kosgey 5 8 March 2011 3 Summoned Charges dismissed on 23 January 2012[41] [42]
Muthaura, FrancisFrancis Muthaura 5 8 March 2011 5 Summoned Charges withdrawn on 18 March 2013[43] [40]
Ruto, WilliamWilliam Ruto 5 8 March 2011 3 Summoned Trial began on 9 September 2013[44] [42]
Sang, JoshuaJoshua Sang 5 8 March 2011 3 Summoned Trial began on 9 September 2013[44] [42]
Gaddafi, MuammarMuammar Gaddafi 6 27 June 2011 2 Died on 20 October 2011; proceedings terminated on 22 November 2011[45] [46]
Gaddafi, Saif al-IslamSaif al-Islam Gaddafi 6 27 June 2011 2 Arrested in Libya on 19 November 2011[47] [48]
Senussi, AbdullahAbdullah Senussi 6 27 June 2011 2 Case declared inadmissible on 11 October 2013[49] [50]
Gbagbo, LaurentLaurent Gbagbo 7 23 November 2011 4 30 November 2011 Case in pre-trial stage[51] [52]
Blé Goudé, CharlesCharles Blé Goudé 7 21 December 2011 4 23 March 2014 Case in pre-trial stage[53][54] [55]
Gbagbo, SimoneSimone Gbagbo 7 29 February 2012 4 Arrested in Côte d'Ivoire on 11 April 2011[56] [57]
Hussein, Abdel RahimAbdel Rahim Hussein 4 1 March 2012 7 6 Fugitive [58]
Mudacumura, SylvestreSylvestre Mudacumura 1 13 July 2012 9 Fugitive [59]
Barasa, WalterWalter Barasa 5 2 August 2013 3 Fugitive [60]
Arido, NarcisseNarcisse Arido 3 20 November 2013 2 18 March 2014 Case in pre-trial stage[61] [25]
Kabongo, Jean-JacquesJean-Jacques Kabongo 3 20 November 2013 2 4 December 2013 Case in pre-trial stage[62] [25]
Kilolo Musamba, AiméAimé Kilolo Musamba 3 20 November 2013 2 25 November 2013 Case in pre-trial stage[24] [25]
Wandu, FidèleFidèle Wandu 3 20 November 2013 2 25 November 2013 Case in pre-trial stage[24] [25]
Notes
  1. ^ A second arrest warrant was issued against Bosco Ntaganda on 13 July 2012.[12]
  2. ^ The charges listed against Jean-Pierre Bemba also include those from a second arrest warrant issued on 20 November 2013; that case is in the pre-trial stage.[24][25]
  3. ^ The charges listed against Omar al-Bashir also include those from a second arrest warrant issued on 12 July 2010.[28]

List of indictees[edit]

Bahr Abu Garda[edit]

Main article: Bahr Idriss Abu Garda

Bahr Abu Garda was indicted on 7 May 2009 on three counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in Darfur, Sudan. Abu Garda was alleged to have been a commander of a splinter group of the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), a rebel group fighting in the Darfur conflict against the Sudanese government. He was accused of leading JEM forces under his command (in conjunction with other rebel forces) in a raid on the Haskanita base of the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) on 29 September 2007, in which 12 AMIS peacekeepers were killed and eight were seriously injured; the base was also extensively damaged.[31] Abu Garda was accused of being criminally responsible for murder, pillaging, and "intentionally directing attacks against personnel, installations, materials, units and vehicles involved in a peacekeeping mission".[31] Abu Garda was summoned to appear before the Court on 18 May 2009 and the confirmation of charges hearing was held from 19 October 2009 to 30 October 2009. On 8 February 2010 Pre-Trial Chamber I ruled that the charges against him would not be confirmed.[30] On 23 April 2010 Pre-Trial Chamber I rejected the Prosecutor's application to appeal its decision, thus ending the proceedings in the case.[63]

Mohammed Ali[edit]

Main article: Mohammed Hussein Ali

Mohammed Ali was indicted on 8 March 2011 on five counts of crimes against humanity with regard to the situation in the Republic of Kenya. Ali, who at the time was the Commissioner of the Kenya Police, was alleged to have conspired with Francis Muthaura, an adviser of Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki, to order the police forces that he commanded not to intervene in stopping violence perpetrated by Mungiki forces loyal to President Kibaki during post-election violence from 27 December 2007 to 29 February 2008.[40] Ali was alleged to be criminally responsible for murders, deportations, rapes and other forms of sexual violence, persecutions, and other inhumane acts perpetrated by Mungiki against civilians who were perceived to be loyal to the Orange Democratic Movement (the political party of President Kibaki's rival) in the towns of Kibera, Kisumu, Naivasha, and Nakuru.[40] Ali was summoned to appear before the Court on 8 April 2011 and the confirmation of charges hearing was held from 21 September 2011 to 5 October 2011, in conjunction with the cases against Muthaura and Uhuru Kenyatta. On 23 January 2012, Pre-Trial Chamber II decided not to confirm the charges against Ali, thus ending the proceedings against him.[39]

Abdallah Banda[edit]

Main article: Abdallah Banda

Abdallah Banda was indicted on 27 August 2009 on three counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in Darfur, Sudan. Banda is alleged to have been a commander of a splinter group of the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), a rebel group fighting in the Darfur conflict against the Sudanese government. He is accused of leading JEM forces under his command (in conjunction with other rebel forces) in a raid on the Haskanita base of the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) on 29 September 2007, in which 12 AMIS peacekeepers were killed and eight were seriously injured; the base was also extensively damaged.[34] Banda is accused of ordering murders, pillaging, and "intentionally directing attacks against personnel, installations, materials, units and vehicles involved in a peacekeeping mission".[34] Banda was summoned to appear before the Court on 17 June 2010 and the confirmation of charges hearing was held on 8 December 2010, in conjunction with the case against Saleh Jerbo. On 7 March 2011 Pre-Trial Chamber I confirmed all the charges against him.[32] On 11 September 2014, Trial Chamber IV replaced the summons to appear with an arrest warrant and suspended the case until Banda appears in court.[33]

Walter Barasa[edit]

Walter Barasa was indicted on 2 August 2013 on three counts of offences against the administration of justice (contempt of court) with regard to the situation in the Republic of Kenya. The warrant of arrest against Barasa was unsealed on 2 October 2013.[64] Barasa was "a former intermediary for the Prosecutor in the context of the investigation on the situation in Kenya" and is accused of two counts of corruptly influencing a witness and one count of attempting to corruptly influence a witnesses. The Prosecutor alleges that from 20 May to 25 July 2013 in Kampala, Uganda, Barasa persuaded or attempted to persuade three protected witnesses to withdraw their cooperation to the prosecution. Specifically, he offered one witness between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000 Kenyan shillings, a second witness 1,400,000 shillings, and a third witness an inducement to meet with an intermediary "for the purpose of offering her a bribe".[60] Barasa is currently in Kenya, where the government initiated extraditions proceedings against him. In January 2014, the High Court of Kenya ruled that he can be extradited, but he is currently appealing the ruling.[65]

Omar al-Bashir[edit]

Main article: Omar al-Bashir

Omar al-Bashir was indicted on 4 March 2009 on five counts of crimes against humanity and two counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in Darfur, Sudan.[29] On 12 July 2010 he was additionally charged with three counts of genocide.[28] During the Darfur conflict (specifically from April 2003 to 14 July 2008), al-Bashir, from his position as President of Sudan, is accused of implementing a government policy that used the state apparatus (the military, police, security, and Janjaweed forces) to attack Fur, Masalit, and Zaghawa populations that were perceived to be sympathetic to rebel groups. Al-Bashir is accused of ordering the rape, murder, extermination, forcible transfer, and torture of civilians, as well as the pillaging of numerous villages and camps.[29] Additionally, he is accused of intending to partially destroy the Fur, Masalit, and Zaghawa ethnic groups by killings, "causing serious bodily or mental harm", and "deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about physical destruction" of the ethnic groups.[28] The Court has issued two arrest warrants for al-Bashir and he is currently a fugitive openly living in Sudan, where he serves as President. As such Sudanese state policy has been not to cooperate with the Court. Since the warrants have been issued, al-Bashir has traveled to several other countries and has not been arrested. Among the counties he traveled to include Chad, Kenya, Djibouti, and Malawi which are states parties to the Rome Statute, and were therefore obligated to have arrested him.[66][67][68][69] On 26 March 2013, Pre-Trial Chamber II made a finding that Chad had failed to cooperate with the Court and therefore referred the non-compliance to the Security Council.[70] On 5 September 2013, however, Pre-Trial Chamber II found that a similar visit to Nigeria did not constitute non-compliance, but it requested Nigeria "to immediately arrest Omar Al Bashir and surrender him to the Court should a similar situation arise in the future".[71]

Jean-Pierre Bemba[edit]

Main article: Jean-Pierre Bemba

Jean-Pierre Bemba was indicted on 23 May 2008 on two counts of crimes against humanity and four counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in the Central African Republic (CAR).[72] On 10 June 2008, the arrest warrant was amended and the charges changed to three counts of crimes against humanity and five counts of war crimes.[27] Bemba is alleged to have led the Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (MLC), a Congolese rebel group, into the CAR after Central African President Ange-Félix Patassé sought Bemba's assistance in suppressing a rebellion led by François Bozizé. Bemba was accused of being criminally responsible for acts of rape, torture, "outrages upon personal dignity", murder, and pillage that occurred in the towns and cities of Bangui, Bossangoa, Bossembélé, Damara, and Mongoumba from 25 October 2002 to 15 March 2003.[27] Bemba was arrested in Belgium on 24 May 2008, transferred to the Court's custody on 3 July 2008, and first brought before the Court the next day. The confirmation of charges hearing was held from 12 to 15 January 2009, and on 15 June 2009 Pre-Trial Chamber II partially confirmed the charges against Bemba, finding that he would stand trial for two counts of crimes against humanity and three counts of war crimes. Specifically, Pre-Trial Chamber II declined to confirm the charges of torture or "outrages upon personal dignity".[73] The trial against Bemba began on 22 November 2010 and is ongoing.[26]

Charles Blé Goudé[edit]

Main article: Charles Blé Goudé

Charles Blé Goudé was indicted on 21 December 2011 with four courts of crimes against humanity with regard to the situation in the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. As the leader of the Congrès Panafricain des Jeunes et des Patriotes, the youth organization that supported Ivorian President Laurent Gbagbo, Blé Goudé is alleged to have been "an indirect co-perpetrator" in Gbagbo's organized plan of systematic attacks against civilians in and around Abidjan, including in the vicinity of the Golf Hotel, during post-election violence that began on 28 November 2010. Fighters under the command of Gbagbo are alleged to have murdered, raped, persecuted, and inhumanly treated civilians who were perceived to be supporters of Alassane Ouattara, Gbagbo's opponent in the 2010 presidential election.[55] Blé Goudé was arrested on 17 January 2013 in Ghana, and extradited to Côte d'Ivoire the next day.[74] On 22 March 2014, the Ivorian government transferred Blé Goudé to the Court's custody.[53] He arrived at the Court's detention center in The Hague on 23 March.[54]

Muammar Gaddafi[edit]

Main article: Muammar Gaddafi

Muammar Gaddafi was indicted on 27 June 2011 on two counts of crimes against humanity with regard to the situation in Libya. As the Leader of the Revolution (the de facto head of state) and Commander of the Armed Forces of Libya he allegedly planned, in conjunction with his inner circle of advisers, a policy of violent oppression of popular uprisings in the early weeks of the Libyan civil war.[46] He allegedly formulated a plan in response to the 2011 Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions whereby Libyan state security forces under his authority were ordered to use all means necessarily to quell public protests against his government.[46] From 15 February 2011 until at least 28 February 2011, forces from government-organized militias, the national police, the Libyan Armed Forces, the Revolutionary Guard Corps, and other security services, acting under Gaddafi's orders, allegedly murdered hundreds of civilians and committed "inhuman acts that severely deprived the civilian population of its fundamental rights" in the cities of Ajdabiya, Bayda, Benghazi, Derna, Misrata, Tobruk, and Tripoli.[46] Gaddafi was killed in the Libyan city of Sirte on 20 October 2011 and the Court terminated proceedings against him on 22 November 2011.[45]

Saif al-Islam Gaddafi[edit]

Main article: Saif al-Islam Gaddafi

Saif al-Islam Gaddafi was indicted on 27 June 2011 on two counts of crimes against humanity with regard to the situation in Libya. Although not an official member of the Libyan government, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi is alleged to have been the de facto prime minister and the "unspoken successor and the most influential person" to Muammar Gaddafi, the de facto head of state.[48] Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, in conjunction with Muammar Gaddafi and his inner circle of advisers, allegedly planned a policy of violent oppression in response to the 2011 Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions that was implemented in the early weeks of the Libyan civil war. From 15 February 2011 until at least 28 February 2011, forces from government-organized militias, the national police, the Libyan Armed Forces, the Revolutionary Guard Corps, and other security services allegedly followed the policy and used all means necessarily to quell public protests against Muammar Gaddafi's government. They allegedly murdered hundreds of civilians and committed "inhuman acts that severely deprived the civilian population of its fundamental rights" in the cities of Ajdabiya, Bayda, Benghazi, Derna, Misrata, Tobruk, and Tripoli.[48] Saif al-Islam Gaddafi was detained by members of a revolutionary militia on 19 November 2011 near the Libyan town of Ubari and taken to the city of Zintan.[47] Libyan authorities stated their intention to try Gaddafi in Libya, however they did not successfully challenge the admissibility of the case before the Court.[75]

Laurent Gbagbo[edit]

Main article: Laurent Gbagbo

Laurent Gbagbo was indicted on 23 November 2011 on four counts of crimes against humanity with regard to the situation in the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. As the President of Côte d'Ivoire, Gbagbo is alleged to have organized, along with members of his inner circle, systematic attacks against civilians during post-election violence that began on 28 November 2010.[52] National security forces, the National Armed Forces, militias, and mercenaries under the command of Gbagbo are alleged to have murdered, raped, persecuted, and inhumanly treated civilians who were perceived to be supporters of Alassane Ouattara, Gbagbo opponent in the 2010 presidential election.[52] According to the arrest warrant for Gbagbo, the crimes occurred in and around Abidjan, including in the vicinity of the Golf Hotel, and in the western part of the country from 16 December 2010 to 12 April 2011.[52] Gbagbo was detained by forces loyal to Ouattara in the presidential residence on 11 April 2011.[76] On 29 November 2011, Gbagbo was transferred to the Court. On 5 December 2011 he made his first appearance before the Court and the confirmation of charges hearing took place from 19 to 28 February 2013 before the pre-trial chamber and on 12 June 2014 it confirmed all the charges against him.[51]

Simone Gbagbo[edit]

Main article: Simone Gbagbo

Simone Gbagbo was indicted on 29 February 2012 on four counts of crimes against humanity with regard to the situation in the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. As the wife of Ivorian President Laurent Gbagbo, Ms. Gbagbo is alleged to have co-organized, as a member of her husband's inner circle of advisers, a policy targeting against civilians during post-election violence that began on 28 November 2010.[57] National security forces, the National Armed Forces, militias, and mercenaries acting pursuant to the policy are alleged to have murdered, raped, persecuted, and inhumanly treated civilians who were perceived to be supporters of Alassane Ouattara, Laurent Gbagbo opponent in the 2010 presidential election.[57] According to the arrest warrant, the crimes occurred in and around Abidjan, including in the vicinity of the Golf Hotel, and in the western part of the country from 16 December 2010 to 12 April 2011.[57] Gbagbo was detained by Ivorian forces loyal to Ouattara in the presidential residence on 11 April 2011.[56] On 22 November 2012 the warrant of arrest was unsealed.[57] She has not been transferred to the Court and the Ivorian government has yet to extradite her. Additionally, a case against her with regard to the post-election violence is being prepared by Ivorian prosecutors.[77]

Ahmed Haroun[edit]

Main article: Ahmed Haroun

Ahmed Haroun was indicted on 27 April 2007 on 20 counts of crimes against humanity and 22 counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in Darfur, Sudan. He is alleged to have coordinated the operations of Sudanese military, police, security, and Janjaweed forces in the Darfur region while he was Minister of State for the Interior from April 2003 to September 2005 during the Darfur conflict. These forces were allegedly aided and encouraged by Haroun to attack Fur civilian populations, specifically those in the towns of Arawala, Bindisi, Kodoom, Mukjar, and the surrounding areas. Civilian populations were subject to persecution, murder, forcible transfer, rape, imprisonment, torture, sexual abuse, and other inhumane acts. Additionally, property was allegedly destroyed and the towns were pillaged.[16] Since his indictment, Haroun has continued to play an active role in the Sudanese government, which has refused to cooperate with the Court. He served as Sudan's Minister of State for Humanitarian Affairs until May 2009 when he was appointed Governor of South Kordofan.[78]

Abdel Rahim Hussein[edit]

Abdel Rahim Hussein was indicted on 1 March 2012 on 13 counts of crimes against humanity and six counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in Darfur, Sudan. As the Minister of the Interior and Special Representative of the President to Darfur, Hussein is alleged to have contributed to the organization and command of government and allied Janjaweed forces in 2003 during the Darfur conflict.[58] Between August 2003 and March 2004 these forces attacked Fur, Masalit, and Zaghawa civilians who were perceived to be loyal to rebel groups such as the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army and the Justice and Equality Movement.[58] Government and Janjaweed forces are alleged to have attacked civilians and pillaged in and around the towns of Arawala, Bindisi, Kodoom, and Mukjar. During the attacks they are accused of persecuting the civilian populations by committing acts of murder, rape, sexual violence, imprisonment, torture, forcible transfer, and other inhumane acts.[58] Hussein continues to play an active role in the Sudanese government (which has refused to cooperate with the Court) and he is currently serving as Minister of Defense.

Saleh Jerbo[edit]

Main article: Saleh Jerbo

Saleh Jerbo was indicted on 27 August 2009 on three counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in Darfur, Sudan. Jerbo is alleged to have been a commander of a splinter group of the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A), a rebel group fighting in the Darfur conflict against the Sudanese government. He is accused of leading SLM/A forces under his command (in conjunction with other rebel forces) in a raid on the Haskanita base of the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) on 29 September 2007, in which 12 AMIS peacekeepers were killed and eight were seriously injured; the base was also extensively damaged.[36] Jerbo is accused of ordering murders, pillaging, and "intentionally directing attacks against personnel, installations, materials, units and vehicles involved in a peacekeeping mission".[36] Jerbo was summoned to appear before the Court on 17 June 2010 and the confirmation of charges hearing was held on 8 December 2010, in conjunction with the case against Abdallah Banda. On 7 March 2011 Pre-Trial Chamber I confirmed all the charges against him.[32] On 22 April 2013 Radio Dabanga reported that Jerbo had been killed on 19 April in a battle between the Justice and Equality Movement and a splinter group in which Jerbo was a commander.[79] On 4 October 2013, the Court terminated the proceedings against Jerbo "without prejudice to resume such proceedings should information become available that he is alive".[35]

Germain Katanga[edit]

Main article: Germain Katanga

Germain Katanga was indicted on 2 July 2007 on three counts of crimes against humanity and six counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).[19] On 26 June 2008, the charges were revised to four counts of crimes against humanity and nine counts of war crimes.[20] He was alleged to have been the leader of the Front for Patriotic Resistance in Ituri (FRPI), an armed group composed mostly of members of the Ngiti ethnicity that was active during the Ituri conflict. On and around 24 February 2003, he is alleged to have ordered his forces to attack the village of Bogoro in a military operation coordinated with the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI), an allied armed group composed mostly of members of the Lendu ethnicity. The target of the attack was alleged to have been both the village's predominantly Hema civilian population and the base of the Hema armed group, the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC), located in the center of the village. Katanga is alleged to be responsible for the resulting crimes committed by FRPI and FNI fighters, including the intentional attack on the civilian population of Bogoro, the destruction and pillaging of Bogoro, the killing of at least 200 civilians, the use of child soldiers during the attack, rape, outrages upon personal dignity, "inhumane acts of intentionally inflicting serious injuries upon civilian residents", and "cruel treatment of civilian residents of, or persons present at Bogoro village […] by detaining them, menacing them with weapons, and imprisoning them in a room filled with corpses".[20]

Katanga was arrested by Congolese authorities on 1 March 2005 in connection with an attack that killed nine United Nations peacekeepers.[80] After the Court issued a warrant for his arrest, Katanga was transferred to the Court on 17 October 2007. His trial began on 24 November 2009. The Trial Chamber delivered the judgment in the case on 7 March 2014, finding Katanga guilty of four counts of war crimes and one count of crime against humanity.[81] On 23 May 2014, Katanga was sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment.[82] Although both the prosecution and the defense appealed the judgment and the sentence, both parties discontinued their appeals on 25 June 2014, thus ending the proceedings.[18] Katanga is now serving his sentence of 12 years' imprisonment. He is currently at the Court's Detention Centre in The Hague pending transfer to a state where he will serve the remainder of his sentence.

Uhuru Kenyatta[edit]

Main article: Uhuru Kenyatta

Uhuru Kenyatta is the current President of the Republic of Kenya. He was indicted on 8 March 2011 on five counts of crimes against humanity with regard to the situation in the Republic of Kenya. Kenyatta, as a supporter of Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki, is alleged to have planned, financed, and coordinated the violence perpetrated against the perceived supporters of the Orange Democratic Movement, the political party of the President's rival, during post-election violence from 27 December 2007 to 29 February 2008.[40] Kenyatta is alleged to have "had control over the Mungiki organization" and directed it to conduct murders, deportations, rapes and other forms of sexual violence, persecutions, and other inhumane acts against civilians in the towns of Kibera, Kisumu, Naivasha, and Nakuru.[40] Kenyatta was summoned to appear before the Court on 8 April 2011 and the confirmation of charges hearing was held from 21 September 2011 to 5 October 2011, in conjunction with the cases against Mohammed Ali and Francis Muthaura. All the charges against Kenyatta were confirmed by Pre-Trial Chamber II on 23 January 2012.[39]

Joseph Kony[edit]

Main article: Joseph Kony

Joseph Kony was indicted on 8 July 2005 on 12 counts of crimes against humanity and 21 counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in Uganda. He is alleged to be the chairperson and commander-in-chief of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), an armed group which has been waging a guerrilla campaign since 1987 against the Ugandan government. According to the arrest warrant issued for him, since 1 July 2002 "the LRA has engaged in a cycle of violence and established a pattern of 'brutalization of civilians' by acts including murder, abduction, sexual enslavement, mutilation, as well as mass burnings of houses and looting of camp settlements" and furthermore "that abducted civilians, including children, are said to have been forcibly 'recruited' as fighters, porters and sex slaves to serve the LRA and to contribute to attacks against the Ugandan army and civilian communities".[3] Kony is currently at large and his whereabouts are unknown, although he is suspected to be in either the Central African Republic or a neighboring country.[83]

Henry Kosgey[edit]

Main article: Henry Kosgey

Henry Kosgey was indicted on 8 March 2011 on four counts of crimes against humanity with regard to the situation in the Republic of Kenya. He is alleged to have been the deputy leader and treasurer of an ad hoc organization created by members of the Kalenjin ethnic group to perpetrate violence on behalf of the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) during post-election violence in December 2007 and January 2008.[42] On 1 August 2011, the charges were reduced to three counts.[41] At the time Kosgey was also Chairman of the ODM, which was the political party of presidential candidate Raila Odinga. Kosgey, as a top leader in the ad hoc Kalenjin organization, directed Kalenjin youths to target civilians of the Kikuyu, Kamba, and Kisii ethnic groups, which were perceived to be supporters of the Party of National Unity, the political party of Odinga's opponent during the election.[42] Kosgey is alleged to be criminally responsible for the murder, deportation, torture, and persecution of civilians in the towns of Kapsabet, Nandi Hills, Turbo, and the greater Eldoret area.[42] Kosgey first appeared before the Court, voluntarily, on 7 April 2011 and through the confirmation of charges hearing, which was held in conjunction with the cases against William Ruto and Joshua Sang.[84] On 23 January 2012, Pre-Trial Chamber II decided not to confirm the charges against Kosgey therefore ending his proceedings before the Court.[41]

Ali Kushayb[edit]

Main article: Ali Kushayb

Ali Kushayb was indicted on 27 April 2007 on 22 counts of crimes against humanity and 28 counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in Darfur, Sudan. He is alleged to be "one of the most senior leaders in the tribal hierarchy in the Wadi Salih Locality" who commanded thousands of Janjaweed forces in the Darfur region from August 2003 to March 2004 during the Darfur conflict.[17] Furthermore, it is alleged that he was the mediator between the Sudanese government and the Janjaweed and that he implemented the government's policy in the region of Darfur and that in so doing ordered attacks on civilian populations. Kushayb is alleged to have personally participated in the attack of the towns of Arawala, Bindisi, Kodoom, and Mukjar. These attacks allegedly resulted in the persecution, murder, forcible transfer, rape, imprisonment, torture, sexual violence, and inhumane treatment of civilians, as well as the destruction of property and pillaging of villages.[17] The Sudanese government has refused to cooperate with the Court and to execute the warrant of arrest for Kushayb. However, in October 2008 it was reported that Kushayb was arrested by Sudanese officials in connection to war crimes allegedly committed in Darfur.[85] Despite the arrest, no evidence of any further proceedings has emerged. It is also not clear if Kushayb is in detention and his whereabouts are not publicly known.

Thomas Lubanga Dyilo[edit]

Main article: Thomas Lubanga Dyilo

Thomas Lubanga Dyilo was indicted on 10 February 2006 on three counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). He was alleged to have been the founding leader of the Union of Congolese Patriots (UCP), a rebel movement in the northeast part of the DRC, as well as the founding commander-in-chief of the UCP's armed wing, the Patriotic Force for the Liberation of the Congo (FPLC). From July 2002 to December 2003, the UCP and the FPLC allegedly fought in the Ituri conflict under the command of Lubanga Dyilo. Lubanga Dyilo is accused of conscripting and enlisting children to the FPLC and of using them "to participate actively in hostilities".[11] Lubanga Dyilo was arrested on 19 March 2005 by Congolese authorities after allegedly ordering an attack on UN peacekeepers; following the indictment in 2006 and the subsequent arrest warrant, Congolese authorities transferred Lubanga Dyilo to the Court's custody on 16 March 2006.[86] On 9 to 28 November 2006, the confirmation of charges hearing was held and all the charges where confirmed on 29 January 2007.[87] His trial began on 26 January 2009 and ended with his conviction of all three counts on 14 March 2012.[88] On 10 July 2012 he was sentenced to 14 years' imprisonment.[89] He and the Prosecutor have the option to appeal both the conviction and sentence.

Raska Lukwiya[edit]

Main article: Raska Lukwiya

Raska Lukwiya was indicted on 8 July 2005 on one count of crimes against humanity and three counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in Uganda. He was alleged to be a former general and commander of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), an armed group which has been wagging a guerrilla campaign since 1987 against the Ugandan government. According to the arrest warrant issued for him, sometime after 1 July 2002 (the date the Rome Statute entered into force) he allegedly ordered his forces to carry out attacks against internally displaced person camps which were pillaged and resulted in attacks on, enslavement of and cruel treatment of civilians.[5] On 12 August 2006 the Ugandan military killed Lukwiya in a battle with LRA forces.[90] Following the confirmation of his death, the Court terminated proceedings against Lukwiya on 11 July 2007.[4]

Callixte Mbarushimana[edit]

Main article: Callixte Mbarushimana

Callixte Mbarushimana was indicted on 28 September 2010 on five counts of crimes against humanity and six counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). He is alleged to have been the Executive Secretary of the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), a Hutu Power rebel group fighting in the Kivu conflict, since July 2007 and the de facto President since November 2009.[38] Since January 2009 Mbarushimana is accused of commanding FDLR troops that have attacked civilians in 11 different villages in the North and South Kivu Provinces in the eastern DRC. These attacks are alleged of resulting in the destruction of property and the murder, torture, rape, inhumane treatment, and persecution of civilians.[38] Mbarushimana was arrested in France on 11 October 2010 and transferred to the Court on 25 January 2011.[37] On 16 December 2011, Pre-Trial Chamber I ruled to decline to confirm the charges against him and ordered his release.[91] The Prosecutor's appeal against the decision was rejected, and on 23 December 2011, Mbarushimana became the first person to be detained by the ICC and then set free; at his request, he was released in France.[37]

Sylvestre Mudacumura[edit]

Main article: Sylvestre Mudacumura

Sylvestre Mudacumura was indicted on 13 July 2012 on nine counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). He is alleged to be the commander-in-chief of the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), a Hutu Power rebel group fighting in the Kivu conflict.[59] Mudacumura is alleged to have commanded FDLR troops which committed war crimes in the course of attacks against the Congolese armed forces in the villages of Busurungi, Kipopo, Malembe, Manje, Mianga, and the surrounding areas, in North and South Kivu Provinces in the eastern DRC between 20 January 2009 and 30 September 2010.[59] During the attacks it is alleged that FDLR troops attacked civilian populations, murdered, raped, mutilated, treated cruelly, tortured, conducted outrages upon personal dignity, destroyed property, and pillaged.[59] Mudacumura continues to lead the FDLR in the eastern DRC and is at large as a fugitive.

Francis Muthaura[edit]

Main article: Francis Muthaura

Francis Muthaura was indicted on 8 March 2011 with five counts of crimes against humanity with regard to the situation in the Republic of Kenya. As the Head of the Public Service, Secretary to the Cabinet, and Chairman of the National Security and Advisory Committee of Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki, he is alleged to have planned, financed, and coordinated the violent response against the perceived supporters of the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM), the political party of the President's rival, during post-election violence from 27 December 2007 to 29 February 2008.[40] Specifically, Muthaura is alleged to have directed and paid Mungiki forces loyal to the President to attack civilians and instructed Mohammed Ali, the Commissioner of the Kenya Police, not to intervene against Mungiki forces.[40] Muthaura is allegedly criminally responsible for murders, deportations, rapes and other forms of sexual violence, persecutions, and other inhumane acts perpetrated by Mungiki forces against civilians who were perceived to be loyal to the ODM in the towns of Kibera, Kisumu, Naivasha, and Nakuru.[40] Muthaura was summoned to appeared before the Court on 8 April 2011 and the confirmation of charges hearing was held from 21 September 2011 to 5 October 2011, in conjunction with the cases against Mohammed Ali and Uhuru Kenyatta. On 11 March 2013, the Prosecutor announced that her office would withdraw all charges against Muthaura, citing a lack of cooperation from the Kenyan government, the death and killing of witnesses, and the recantation of testimony by a key witness who was bribed by agents of the accused. On 18 March 2013, the Trial Chamber granted the Prosecutor permission to withdraw the charges and terminated all proceedings against Muthaura.[43]

Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui[edit]

Main article: Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui

Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui was indicted on 6 July 2007 on three counts of crimes against humanity and six counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). He was alleged to have been the commander of the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI), an armed group involved in the Ituri conflict. On and around 23 February 2003, he was alleged to have led his forces into the village of Bogoro and ordered them to indiscriminately attack its civilian population in coordination with another armed group, the Front for Patriotic Resistance in Ituri (FRPI). The attack resulted in 200 civilian deaths. Ngudjolo Chui was accused of ordering his forces to attack, murder, sexually enslave, and inhumanely treat civilians in and around Bogoro. He was also accused being criminally responsible for destroying property, pillaging the village, and using children to participate in the attack.[23] After the Court issued an arrest warrant, Ngudjolo Chui was detained on 6 February 2008 by Congolese authorities and transferred to the Court the next day. He first appeared before the Court on 11 February 2008 and on 10 March 2008 the case against him was joined with the case against Germain Katanga. The confirmation of charges hearing was held from 27 June 2008 to 18 July 2008 and on 26 September 2008. His trial began on 24 November 2009. On 18 December 2012, Trial Chamber II acquitted Ngudjolo Chui.

Bosco Ntaganda[edit]

Main article: Bosco Ntaganda

Bosco Ntaganda was indicted on 22 August 2006 on three counts of war crimes with regard to the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). On 13 July 2012 he was additionally charged with three counts of crimes against humanity and four counts of war crimes. He is alleged to be a third highest-ranking official in the Patriotic Force for the Liberation of the Congo (FPLC), the armed wing of the Union of Congolese Patriots (UCP), a rebel movement in the northeast part of the DRC, that fought in the Ituri conflict. From July 2002 to December 2003, Ntaganda is alleged to have ordered FPLC troops to conscript and enlist children to the FPLC and UCP, and of using them "to participate actively in hostilities".[14] He is also alleged to have ordered attacks on Lendu and other non-Hema civilian populations in the town of Mongbwalu and the villages of Bambu, Kobu, Lipri, and Sayo, and the surrounding areas, from 1 September 2002 until 30 September 2003.[12] In the course of the attacks, murders, rapes, and other forms of sexual violence were allegedly committed and homes were pillaged, resulting in the death of approximately 800 civilians and the displacement of 60,000.[12] The finalized charges against Ntaganda were filed on 10 January 2014, and listed a total of 18 charges: five crimes against humanity and 13 war crimes.[15]

The Congolese government refused to arrest him and in 2009 Ntaganda became a general in the armed forces in the city of Goma in North Kivu province.[92] In April 2012 he and his troops defected from the military and left Goma to form the March 23 Movement, an armed group that began attacking villages and towns around Goma.[93] Ntaganda was an alleged leader of the group and since his defection the Congolese government announced its intentions to arrest him.[94] On 18 March 2013, following reports of clashes between factions of the March 23 Movement, Ntaganda fled to Rwanda and entered the Embassy of the United States in Kigali. He requested that the United States facilitate his surrender the Court.[95] On 22 March, the ICC took custody of Ntaganda and transferred him to The Hague.[96] His first appearance before the Court took place on 26 March 2013.[97] The confirmation of charges hearing occurred from 10 to 14 February 2014 and on 9 June 2014 all the charges against Ntaganda were confirmed by the pre-trial chamber.[13]

Okot Odhiambo[edit]

Main article: Okot Odhiambo

Okot Odhiambo was indicted on 8 July 2005 on three counts of crimes against humanity and seven counts of war crimes in regard to the situation in Uganda. He is alleged to be an integral member of the policy-making leadership of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), an armed group which has been wagging a guerrilla campaign since 1987 against the Ugandan government. Additionally, he was also a military commander and sometime after 1 July 2002 (the date the Rome Statute entered into force) he allegedly issued "standing orders to attack and brutalise civilian populations".[6] These attacks on civilian populations allegedly resulted in murder, pillaging of camps, enslavement, and the forcible conscription of children.[6] In 2014, an LRA defector claimed that the Ugandan military wounded Odhiambo in October 2013 during an ambush in the Central African Republic and that he later died from his injuries. This claim has not been confirmed and Odhiambo is still considered to be at large as a fugitive.[98]

Dominic Ongwen[edit]

Main article: Dominic Ongwen

Dominic Ongwen was indicted on 8 July 2005 on three counts of crimes against humanity and four counts of war crimes in regard to the situation in Uganda. He is allegedly a military commander and a member of the leadership of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), an armed group which has been wagging a guerrilla campaign since 1987 against the Ugandan government. Sometime after 1 July 2002 (the date the Rome Statute entered into force) he allegedly issued orders to his forces to attack civilian populations which resulted in pillaging, murder, enslavement, cruel treatment, and other inhumane acts.[7] Ongwen is currently a fugitive and is believed to be in the Central African Republic, where in August to September 2012 he was wounded, but escaped, after an armed encounter with the Uganda People's Defence Force.[99]

Vincent Otti[edit]

Main article: Vincent Otti

Vincent Otti was indicted on 8 July 2005 on 11 counts of crimes against humanity and 21 counts of war crimes in regard to the situation in Uganda. He was allegedly a military commander and the second-in-command of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), an armed group which has been wagging a guerrilla campaign since 1987 against the Ugandan government. Sometime after 1 July 2002 (the date the Rome Statute entered into force) he allegedly issued orders to attack civilian populations. These attacks allegedly resulted in sexual enslavement, rape, forcible conscription of children into the LRA, enslavement, cruel treatment, murders, pillaging of camps, and other inhumane acts.[9] In December 2007, BBC News reported that on 2 October 2007 Otti had been executed on orders from Joseph Kony, the commander-in-chief of the LRA.[8] Kony later confirmed that Otti was dead to Riek Machar, a mediator between the Ugandan government and the LRA.[100] Because Otti's death has not been independently verified, the Court still considers him to be at large as a fugitive and proceedings against him are ongoing.

William Ruto[edit]

Main article: William Ruto

William Ruto is the current Deputy President of the Republic of Kenya. He was indicted on 8 March 2011 on four counts of crimes against humanity with regard to the situation in the Republic of Kenya. He is alleged to be the leader of an ad hoc organization created by members of the Kalenjin ethnic group which was created to perpetrate violence on behalf of the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM), the political party of presidential candidate Raila Odinga, during post-election violence in December 2007 and January 2008.[42] On 1 August 2011, the charges were reduced to three counts.[41] Ruto, as the a top leader in the ad hoc Kalenjin organization, directed Kalenjin youths to target civilians of the Kikuyu, Kamba, and Kisii ethnic groups, which were perceived to be supporters of the Party of National Unity, the political party of Odinga's opponent during the election.[42] Ruto is alleged to be criminally responsible for the murder, deportation, torture, and persecution of civilians in the towns of Kapsabet, Nandi Hills, Turbo, the greater Eldoret area.[42] Ruto first appeared before the Court, voluntarily, on 7 April 2011 and through the confirmation of charges hearing, which was held in conjunction with the cases against Henry Kosgey and Joshua Sang.[84] All the charges against Ruto were confirmed by Pre-Trial Chamber II on 23 January 2012[41] Ruto's trial began on 10 September 2013, in conjunction with the case against Joshua Sang, and is ongoing.[44]

Joshua Sang[edit]

Main article: Joshua Sang

Joshua Sang was indicted on 8 March 2011 on four counts of crimes against humanity with regard to the situation in the Republic of Kenya. He is alleged to a top leader of an ad hoc organization created by members of the Kalenjin ethnic group which was created to perpetrate violence on behalf of the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM), the political party of presidential candidate Raila Odinga, during post-election violence in December 2007 and January 2008.[42] On 1 August 2011, the charges were reduced to three counts.[41] As a broadcaster for the Kass FM radio station, Sang incited Kalenjin youths to target civilians of the Kikuyu, Kamba, and Kisii ethnic groups, which were perceived to be supporters of the Party of National Unity, the political party of Odinga's opponent during the election.[42][42] He is alleged to be indirectly responsible for indirectly for the murder, deportation, torture, and persecution of civilians in the towns of Kapsabet, Nandi Hills, Turbo, the greater Eldoret area.[42] Sang first appeared before the Court, voluntarily, on 7 April 2011 and through the confirmation of charges hearing, which was held in conjunction with the cases against William Ruto and Joshua Sang.[84] All the charges against Sang were confirmed by Pre-Trial Chamber II on 23 January 2012[41] Sang's trial began on 10 September 2013, in conjunction with the case against William Ruto, and is ongoing.[44]

Abdullah Senussi[edit]

Main article: Abdullah Senussi

Abdullah Senussi was indicted on 27 June 2011 on two counts of crimes against humanity in regard to the situation in Libya. As the head of military intelligence in Libya he is alleged to have planned, in conjunction with Muammar Gaddafi, the head of state, and his inner circle, formulated a plan in response to the 2011 Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions whereby Libyan state security forces under his authority were ordered to use all means necessarily to quell public protests against his regime. The plan was later implemented in the early weeks of the 2011 Libyan civil war.[50] From 15 February 2011 until at least 28 February 2011 forces from government-organized militias, the national police, the Libyan Armed Forces, the Revolutionary Guard Corps, and other security services allegedly murdered hundreds of civilians and committed "inhuman acts that severely deprived the civilian population of its fundamental rights" in the cities of Ajdabiya, Bayda, Benghazi, Derna, Misrata, Tobruk, and Tripoli.[50] Furthermore Senussi commanded forces in and around Benghazi and "directly instructed the troops to attack civilians demonstrating in the city".[50] Senussi was arrested on 17 March 2012 at Nouakchott International Airport in Mauritania after he arrived on a flight from Casablanca, Morocco with a fake Malian passport.[101] On 5 September 2012 he was extradited to Libya.[102] On 11 October 2013, Pre-Trial Chamber I ruled that the case against Senussi was inadmissible before the ICC because of ongoing proceedings against him Libya. On 24 July 2014, the Appeal Chamber confirmed the decision.[49]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Article 58 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.
  2. ^ "All Situations". ICC. Retrieved 2013-01-17. 
  3. ^ a b "ICC-02/04-01/05: The Prosecutor v. Joseph Kony, Vincent Otti, Raska Lukwiya, Okot Odhiambo and Dominic Ongwen Warrant of Arrest for Joseph Kony issued on 8 July 2005 as amended on 27 September 2005" (PDF). ICC. 2005-09-27. Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
  4. ^ a b "ICC-02/04-01/05: The Prosecutor v. Joseph Kony, Vincent Otti, Raska Lukwiya, Okot Odhiambo and Dominic Ongwen Decision to Terminate the Proceedings Against Raska Lukwiya" (PDF). ICC. 2007-07-11. Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
  5. ^ a b "ICC-02/04-01/05: The Prosecutor v. Joseph Kony, Vincent Otti, Raska Lukwiya, Okot Odhiambo and Dominic Ongwen Warrant of Arrest for Raska Lukwiya" (PDF). ICC. 2005-07-08. Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
  6. ^ a b c "ICC-02/04-01/05: The Prosecutor v. Joseph Kony, Vincent Otti, Raska Lukwiya, Okot Odhiambo and Dominic Ongwen Warrant of Arrest for Okot Odhiambo" (PDF). ICC. 2005-07-08. Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
  7. ^ a b "ICC-02/04-01/05: The Prosecutor v. Joseph Kony, Vincent Otti, Raska Lukwiya, Okot Odhiambo and Dominic Ongwen Warrant of Arrest for Dominic Ongwen" (PDF). ICC. 2005-07-08. Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
  8. ^ a b "Otti 'executed by Uganda rebels'". BBC News. 2007-12-21. Retrieved 2010-07-22. 
  9. ^ a b "ICC-02/04-01/05: The Prosecutor v. Joseph Kony, Vincent Otti, Raska Lukwiya, Okot Odhiambo and Dominic Ongwen Warrant of Arrest for Vincent Otti" (PDF). ICC. 2005-07-08. Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
  10. ^ "Case Information Sheet: The Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo (ICC-01/04-01/06)" (PDF). ICC. 2012-09-13. Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  11. ^ a b "ICC-01/04-01/06: The Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo Warrant of Arrest" (PDF). ICC. 2009-02-10. Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
  12. ^ a b c "ICC-01/04-02/06: The Prosecutor v. Bosco Ntaganda Decision on the Prosecutor's Application under Article 58" (PDF). ICC. 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
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  17. ^ a b c "ICC-02/05-01/07: The Prosecutor v. Ahmad Muhammad Harun ('Ahmad Harun') and Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman ('Ali Kushayb') Warrant of Arrest for Ali Kushayb" (PDF). ICC. 2007-04-27. Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
  18. ^ a b "Defence and Prosecution discontinue respective appeals against judgment in Katanga case". ICC. 2014-06-25. Retrieved 2014-06-26. 
  19. ^ a b "ICC-01/04-01/07: The Prosecutor v. Germain Katanga Warrant of Arrest for Germain Katanga" (PDF). ICC. 2007-07-02. Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
  20. ^ a b c d "ICC-01/04-01/07: The Prosecutor v. Germain Katanga and Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui Amended Document Containing the Charges Pursuant to Article 61(3)(a) of the Statute" (PDF). ICC. 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2012-12-27. 
  21. ^ "ICC-01/04-02/12: The Prosecutor v. Mathleu Ngudjolo Judgment pursuant to article 74 of the Statute" (PDF). ICC. 2012-12-18. Retrieved 2013-09-21. 
  22. ^ "ICC-CPI-20121221-PR868: ICC released Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui from custody following his acquittal". ICC. 2012-12-21. Retrieved 2012-12-21. 
  23. ^ a b "ICC-01/04-02/07: The Prosecutor v. Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui Warrant of Arrest for Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui" (PDF). ICC. 2007-07-06. Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
  24. ^ a b c "ICC-01/05-01/13: The Prosecutor v. Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, Aimé Kilolo Musamba, Jean-Jacques Mangenda Kabongo, Fidèle Babala Wandu and Narcisse Arido Decision setting the date for the first appearance of Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, Aimé Kilolo Musamba and Fidèle Babala, and on issues relating to the publicity of the proceedings" (PDF). ICC. 2013-11-25. Retrieved 2013-11-27. 
  25. ^ a b c d e "ICC-01/05-01/13: The Prosecutor v. Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, Aimé Kilolo Musamba, Jean-Jacques Mangenda Kabongo, Fidèle Babala Wandu and Narcisse Arido Warrant of arrest for Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, Aimé Kilolo Musamba, Jean-Jacques Mangenda Kabongo, Fidèle Babala Wandu and Narcisse Arido" (PDF). ICC. 2013-11-20. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
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  28. ^ a b c "ICC-02/05-01/09: The Prosecutor v. Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir Second Warrant of Arrest for Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir" (PDF). ICC. 2010-07-12. Retrieved 2010-07-12. 
  29. ^ a b c "ICC-02/05-01/09: The Prosecutor v. Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir Warrant of Arrest for Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir" (PDF). ICC. 2008-03-04. Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
  30. ^ a b "ICC-02/05-02/09: The Prosecutor v. Bahar Idriss Abu Garda Decision of the Confirmation of Charges" (PDF). ICC. 2010-02-08. Retrieved 2012-11-23. 
  31. ^ a b c "ICC-02/05-02/09: The Prosecutor v. Bahar Idriss Abu Garda Summons to Appear for Bahr Idriss Abu Garda" (PDF). ICC. 2009-05-07. Retrieved 2010-12-16. 
  32. ^ a b c "ICC-02/05-03/09: The Prosecutor v. Abdallah Banda Abakaer Nourain and Saleh Mohammed Jerbo Jamus Corrigendum of the 'Decision on the Confirmation of Charges'" (PDF). ICC. 2011-03-07. Retrieved 2012-11-24. 
  33. ^ a b "ICC-02/05-03/09: The Prosecutor v. Abdallah Banda Abakaer Nourain Warrant of arrest for Abdallah Banda Abakaer Nourain" (PDF). ICC. 2014-09-11. Retrieved 2014-09-12. 
  34. ^ a b c "ICC-02/05-03/09: The Prosecutor v. Abdallah Banda Abakaer Nourain and Saleh Mohammed Jerbo Jamus Summons to Appear for Abdallah Banda Abakaer Nourain" (PDF). ICC. 2009-08-27. Retrieved 2010-12-16. 
  35. ^ a b "ICC-02/05-03/09: The Prosecutor v. Abdallah Banda Abakaer Nourain and Saleh Mohammed Jerbo Jamus Public redacted Decision terminating the proceedings against Mr Jerbo" (PDF). ICC. 2014-10-04. Retrieved 2013-10-04. 
  36. ^ a b c "ICC-02/05-03/09: The Prosecutor v. Abdallah Banda Abakaer Nourain and Saleh Mohammed Jerbo Jamus Summons to Appear for Saleh Mohammed Jerbo Jamus" (PDF). ICC. 2009-08-27. Retrieved 2010-12-16. 
  37. ^ a b c "Case Information Sheet: The Prosecutor v. Callixte Mbarushimana (ICC-01/04-01/10)" (PDF). ICC. 2013-04-11. Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  38. ^ a b c "ICC-01/04-01/10: The Prosecutor v. Callixte Mbarushimana Warrant of Arrest for Callixte Mbarushimana" (PDF). ICC. 2010-09-28. Retrieved 2010-10-27. 
  39. ^ a b c d "ICC-01/09-02/11: Case The Prosecutor v. Francis Kirimimuthaura, Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta and Mohammed Hussein Ali Decision on the Confirmation of Charges Pursuant to Article 61(7)(a) and (b) of the Rome Statute". ICC. 2012-01-23. Retrieved 2012-01-23. 
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "ICC-01/09-02/11: The Prosecutor v. Francis Kirimi Muthaura, Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta and Mohammed Hussein Ali Decision on the Prosecutor's Application for Summonses to Appear for Francis Kirimi Muthaura, Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta and Mohammed Hussein Ali" (PDF). ICC. 2011-03-08. Retrieved 2011-03-08. 
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