Macaroni

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Not to be confused with Macaron. For other uses, see Macaroni (disambiguation)
Macaroni
Macaroni closeup.jpg
Type Pasta
Place of origin Italy (modern macaroni)[1]
Main ingredients Durum wheat
Cookbook:Macaroni  Macaroni
Homemade macaroni and cheese, with dried herbs and ground pepper
Elbow macaroni die: front view (left), and rear view (right)

Macaroni is a variety of dry pasta in the shape of narrow tubes,[2] originating from Italy,[1] made with durum wheat, usually without egg. It is normally cut in short lengths; if cut in lengths with a curve it is usually called elbow macaroni. Some home machines can make macaroni shapes, but, like most pasta, macaroni is usually made commercially by large-scale extrusion. The curved shape is caused by different speeds on opposite sides of the pasta tube as it comes out of the machine. The name comes from the Italian maccheroni, plural form of maccherone.[2][3] A different name, chifferi or lumaconi, refers to bigger size of elbow-shape pasta.

The academic consensus supports that the word is derived from the Greek μακαρία (makaria),[4] a kind of barley broth which was served to commemorate the dead,[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] which in turn comes from μάκαρες (makares), "blessed dead", and that from μακάριος (makarios), collateral of μάκαρ (makar), meaning "blessed, happy".[14] The Italian linguist G. Alessio argues that the word can have two origins: the first from the Medieval Greek μακαρώνεια (makarōneia) "dirge" (stated in sec. XIII by James of Bulgaria), which would be passed to mean "funeral meal" and then "food to serve" during this office (see today's μαχαρωνιά - macharōnia in Eastern Thrace, in the sense of "rice-based dish served at the funeral"), in which case the term would be composed of the double root of μακάριος "blessed" and αἰωνίος (aiōnios), "eternally",[15] and the second from the Greek μακαρία "barley broth", which would have added the suffix -one.[16]

In North America, macaroni is most often made in elbow shape[citation needed].

In areas with large Chinese populations open to Western cultural influence, such as Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia and Singapore, the local Chinese have adopted macaroni as an ingredient for Chinese-style Western cuisine. In Hong Kong's cha chaan teng ("Tea Restaurant") and Southeast Asia's kopi tiam ("coffee shop"), macaroni is cooked in water and then washed of starch, and served in clear broth with ham or frankfurter sausages, peas, black mushrooms, and optionally eggs, reminiscent of noodle soup dishes. This is often a course for breakfast or light lunch fare.[17]

Russian language borrowed the word (as Russian: макароны) as the only term for all varieties of pasta.

In addition to dishes similar to those made with other types of pasta, macaroni and cheese is a popular dish in English-speaking countries, often made with elbow macaroni. A sweet macaroni pudding, similar to a rice pudding, is also often made.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Maccheroni, History of Maccheroni (it)
  2. ^ a b Oxford Dictionary, Macaroni
  3. ^ Il Devoto-Oli. Vocabolario della lingua italiana, edited by Luca Serianni and Maurizio Trifone, Le Monnier.
  4. ^ μακαρία, (def. III), Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  5. ^ Macaroni, on Compact Oxford English Dictionary
  6. ^ "Macaroni", Online Etymology Dictionary
  7. ^ Macaroni, on Webster's New World College Dictionary
  8. ^ Andrew Dalby, Food in the Ancient World from A to Z, Routledge, 2003, on Google books
  9. ^ Reader's Digest Oxford Complete Wordfinder
  10. ^ Dhirendra Verma, Word Origins, on Google books
  11. ^ Mario Pei, The story of language, p.223
  12. ^ William Grimes, Eating Your Words, Oxford University Press, on Google books
  13. ^ Mark Morton, Cupboard Love: A Dictionary of Culinary Curiosities, on Google books
  14. ^ μάκαρ, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  15. ^ αἰωνίος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  16. ^ G. Alessio, "Atti dell'Accademia Pontaniana", t. 8, 1958-59, pp. 261-280
  17. ^ AP, Explore the world of Canto-Western cuisine, January 8, 2007
  18. ^ traditionalenglishpuddings.com: macaroni pudding

External links[edit]