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Momotarō (桃太郎 Momotarou?, lit. "Peach Boy") is a popular hero from Japanese folklore. His name literally means Peach Tarō, a common Japanese boy's name, which is often translated as Peach Boy. Momotarō is the title of various books, films and other works that portray the tale of this hero.
According to the present form of the tale (dating to the Edo period), Momotarō came to Earth inside a giant peach, which was found floating down a river by an old, childless woman who was washing clothes there. The woman and her husband discovered the child when they tried to open the peach to eat it. The child explained that he had been sent by Heaven to be their son. The couple named him Momotarō, from momo (peach) and tarō (eldest son in the family).
Years later, Momotarō left his parents to fight a band of marauding oni (demons or ogres) on a distant island. En route, Momotarō met and befriended a talking dog, monkey, and pheasant, who agreed to help him in his quest. At the island, Momotarō and his animal friends penetrated the demons' fort and beat the band of demons into surrendering. Momotarō and his new friends returned home with the demons' plundered treasure and the demon chief as a captive. Momotarō and his family lived comfortably from then on.
Momotarō is strongly associated with Okayama, and his tale may have its origins there. The demon island (Onigashima (鬼ヶ島?)) of the story is sometimes associated with Megijima Island, an island in the Seto Inland Sea near Takamatsu, due to the vast manmade caves found on that island.
There are a few variants to the story, depending on geographical region. Some say Momotaro floated by in a box, a white peach, or a red peach. Stories from Shikoku and Chugoku region muddy the distinction with characters from another folk story, the Monkey-Crab Battle that Momotaro took with him allies to Oni Island, namely a bee (蜂 hachi?), a crab (蟹 kani?), a mill stone (臼 usu?), a chestnut (栗 kuri?), and cow dung (牛の糞 ushi no fun?). In old days, all these animals and objects were believed to possess spirits and could move by their own will.
There are variances about the Momotaro’s process of growth; one is that he grew up to meet the expectation of the old couple to be a fine boy. Another is that he grew up to be a strong but lazy person who just sleeps all day and does not do anything. It is possible that the Momotaro being a fine boy version is more famous to give lessons to children. Nowadays, Momotaro is one of the most famous characters in Japan, as an ideal model for young kids for his kind-heartedness, bravery, power, and care for his parents.
Grown up, Momotaro goes on his journey to defeat the demons (oni) when he hears about the demons of the Onigashima (ghost island). In some versions of the story, Momotaro volunteered to go help the people by repelling the demons, but in some stories he was forced by the townspeople or others to go on journey. However, all the stories describe Momotaro defeating the Oni and live happily ever after with the old couple.
The story has been translated into English many times. Rev. David Thomson translated it as the first volume of Hasegawa Takejirō's Japanese Fairy Tale Series in 1885. Susan Ballard included it in Fairy tales from Far Japan (1899). Yei Theodora Ozaki included it in her Japanese Fairy Tales (1911). Teresa Peirce Williston included it in Japanese Fairy Tales, Second Series, in 1911. And there are many other translations.
Inuyama, Japan, holds a festival called the Momotaro Festival at the Momotaro Shrine on May 5 of every year.
The popular children's song about Momotarō titled Momotarō-san no Uta (Momotarō's Song) was first published in 1911. A version of it, with romanization and translation, is given below.
"Momotarō-san no uta"
Okoshi ni tsuketa kibidango
(Those millet dumplings on your waist)
Hitotsu watashi ni kudasai na?
(Won't you give me one?)
(I'll give you one, I'll give you one)
Kore kara oni no seibatsu ni
(From now, on a quest to conquer the ogres)
Tsuite kuru nara agemashō
(If you come with me, I'll give you one)
World War II
Momotaro was an immensely popular figure in Japan during World War II, appearing in many wartime films and cartoons. Momotaro represented the Japanese government, citizens were animals and the United States was the oni, the demonic figure. Even though it is not directly mentioned, it is implied that Onigashima was Pearl Harbor. It was used to convey the idea that Japan would fight against the wicked, yet powerful United States and victory could only be achieved if the citizens supported the government. Also, the food and treasure that Momotaro and the animals earned after conquering the oni was supposed to reflect the glory that the powerful Japanese empire would have had after defeating the United States. One such movie was Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors.
In other media
- In 1982, the Japanese magical-girl anime series Magical Princess Minky Momo is name and companions was reference to Momotarō.
- In 1985, the Japanese manga Sakigake!! Otokojuku main character name is Momotarō Tsurugi.
- In 1987, the Japanese role-playing video game series Momotaro Densetsu featured a main character named Momotarō.
- In 1994, Kiki KaiKai Tsukiyozoushi shows three animals, monkey, dog, and pheasant, were talking in animal language, the miko, Sayo-chan, she can't understand the animals, they (animals) are saying, "Please save Momotaro!". After Sayo defeats Impy, a oni, Momotaro apparently appears. Momotaro was edited out to look 18 or 19.
- In 2000, the story of Momotarō is portrayed in an episode of Hello Kitty's Animation Theater, produced by ADV Studios, starring Hello Kitty in the lead role.
- In the Renkin 3-kyū Magical? Pokān episode "The Spell of Skewed Legend is Momotaro," the episode parodied the Momotaro folk story by depicting Aiko as a rejected android of the Kasuga Institute named MOMO9000 who reads the Momotaro story given to her by the old couple that found her pear-shaped capsule. It also depicts Liru as the dog, Uma as the monkey, and Pachira as the pheasant in MOMO9000's quest to get to Onigashima.
- In "Drunk Momotaro" the cast of Gaki No Tsukai performed the story of Momotaro as a test of their professionalism. As in that whole notion of how a professional performer has to be able to perform even when they are incapacitated. So to test this, the cast had to take a big amount of alcoholic drinks prior to going on stage. The roles were Director Tsu-tsun as Momotaro, Hitoshi Matsumoto as the grandmother but he and Hosei Yamasaki later switched roles, Masatoshi Hamada as the monkey, Hosei Yamasaki as the dog and the red demon, Naoki Tanaka as the pheasant and Shozo Endo as the grandfather and the blue demon. The performance was unsurprisingly a complete disaster with some of the cast not being able to stay upright and messing up their lines.
- Originally aired in 2004, The 52nd episode of the animated television series Samurai Jack, entitled "Jack and the Baby", includes a retelling of the story of Momotaro.
- The anime Okami-san and Her Seven Companions (2010), an anime based on many Japanese and European fairytales, portrays Momotaro through the busty female character Momoko Kibitsu, a warrior-like girl who is followed around by three boys who resemble a monkey, a chicken, and a dog. They are extremely loyal to her because they are obsessed with her extremely large breasts-which they call her 'dumplings'. In episode 5, she goes to an antagonistic enemy school called 'Onigashima High' and helps the main character beat up the delinquents that attend Onigashima because they have been threatening the student body at the school Momoko and the other characters attend, Otogi Academy.
- In 2014, Momotarō and his animal companions appeared as part of the cast of characters in the Japanese anime Hōzuki no Reitetsu.
- During the same year, the anime Momo Kyun Sword is loosely based on the folktale of Momotarō, re-imagining it as a busty girl named Momoko.
- Ozaki, Yei Theodora (1903). "Momotaro, or the story of the Son of a Peach". The Japanese Fairy Book. Archibald Constable & Co.
- "Oni-ga-shima(or Megijima)". Archived from the original on 2008-01-10. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "Megi-jima/Ogi-jima". Takamatsu City Web Site. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "桃太郎". Archived from the original on 2008-02-08. Retrieved 2010-09-01. (Japanese)
- John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War p. 253 ISBN 0-394-50030-X
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Momotaro.|
- Animation video of fairy tale Momotarō (Japanese full version) on YouTube.
- Animation video of fairy tale Momotarō (English short version) on YouTube.
- Full fairy tale story and reading aloud of Momotarō (Japanese)