Nariman House

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Nariman House
नरीमन हाउस
2008 Mumbai terror attacks Nariman House front view 3.jpg
Front view of the Nariman House a week after the attacks
Nariman House is located in Mumbai
Nariman House
Location within Mumbai
Former names Nariman House
Alternative names Chabad house
General information
Type Modern
Architectural style Modern
Location Colaba, Mumbai, India
Address 5 Hormusji Street, Colaba
Coordinates 18°54′59″N 72°49′40″E / 18.916517°N 72.827682°E / 18.916517; 72.827682
Elevation 17 m (56 ft)
Owner Moshe Holtzberg[citation needed]
Landlord Moshe Holtzberg[citation needed]

The Nariman House (Marathi: नरीमन हाउस), renamed[1][2][3] as Chabad House (Hebrew: בית חב"דBeit Chabad), is a five-story landmark in the Colaba area of South Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.[1] The building was home to a Chabad house, a Jewish outreach centre run by Gavriel and Rivka Holtzberg, who owned the building since around 2006. The centre had an educational center, a synagogue, offered drug prevention services,[4][5][6][7][8] and a hostel.[9][10] The building was attacked and six of its occupants, including Holtzberg and his wife, who was five months pregnant, were killed during the November 2008 Mumbai attacks. Their two-year-old son Moshe survived the attack after being rescued by his Indian nanny, Sandra Samuel.

Chabad House[edit]

The Chabad House, located at 5 Hormusji Street, Colaba,[11] is one of eight synagogues in Mumbai[12] and has been described as the epicentre of the Jewish community in the city.[13]

It is one of 4,000 such houses in 73 countries, typically run by husband-and-wife couples.[14] In 2003, this Chabad House, the first in Mumbai, was opened by Rabbi Gavriel and Rivka Holtzberg, newly married and run by them.[14] It catered to Israelis who are on their way to "party hotspots" such as Goa and Rajasthan,[15] in addition to the city's local Jewish community and traveling Jewish businessmen.[16] The Holtzbergs also ran a synagogue and taught Torah classes, in addition to the rabbi conducting weddings for local Jewish couples. It is the Chabad headquarters for Mumbai.[16] The place was open to anyone who wanted a place to pray, eat kosher food or celebrate Jewish holidays. In a film in 2006, Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg said that anyone who visited the center was welcome.[16] It was not unusual for the Rabbi and his wife to have 30 people for dinner.[16] Gavriel (born 1979, raised in Brooklyn, New York) and Rivka (born 1980 in Afula, Israel) Holtzberg came to Mumbai in 2003 after completing a mission in Thailand.[17]

Three flights a week bring hundreds of Israeli travelers from Israel to Mumbai and in an interview Holtzberg said he understood the nature of their needs. The young rabbi, who was born in Israel but grew up in Brooklyn, said that they "need relief" from the army, from work, from real life.[15] He said, "they come here to do everything the army didn't allow them to do. Their shoes had to be polished and tied—here they wear sandals. They had to cut their hair—here they grow their hair long."[15]

In addition, "Jews from all nationalities stopped there—primarily Israelis, but also those from Singapore and other places. It was almost like a second home to them," said Elijah Jacob, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee's country manager for India. "Our country director used to say it was like a second home to him because of all of the Jews there on Shabbat."[12]

Gavriel also helped with some of the local synagogues. He helped them gather donations, do fund-raising for the synagogue T'feret Israel, in central Mumbai in Jacobs Circle, and helped build a mikvah there. Also, he was officially a shochet, making chickens available to the local Jewish community, making challah for the community, and the couple was "available for the community," there to answer Halakhic principles of the local community.[12]

Chabad officials said they were certain the Mumbai house would reopen, and within hours of news of the Holtzbergs' deaths, young Chabad couples from around the world offered to move to Mumbai to continue their work.[14]

Services[edit]

These are the services this Chabad House offered.[18]

  • Israeli center
  • Kitchen koshering
  • Brit milah
  • Hospital visitation
  • Prison visitation
  • Prison chaplaincy
  • Regular classes
  • Marriage preparation
  • Medical services
  • Women's group
  • Food package distribution
  • Humanitarian aid
  • Drug prevention

Attack[edit]

street in which Nariman House is located

Nariman House was seized and attacked during the November 2008 Mumbai attacks.[20][21] At around 21:45, on Wednesday, 26 November,[5] four attackers launched an attack on the centre.[22] Newscasters[who?] were calling it the "final assault".[23] The building is near the Leopold Cafe, another established attacked during the strike. However, a later report alleged that Nariman House was actually the main target of the series of attacks and the rest of the targets were only to amplify the effect.[24]

Initially it was reported that six Israeli Jews were being held hostage.[20] Later, Chabad spokesman in Israel, Moni Ender, said that there were at least eight Israelis inside the house, including Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and his wife, Rivka.[23][25] The rabbi's two-year-old son Moshe was rescued by his nanny,[25] Sandra Samuel, who had worked for the centre for the previous five years.[26] The hostages were allegedly tortured.[27] Some of the victims had been bound.[28]

It was reported that gunmen fired indiscriminately towards those present.[20] Late on 27 November, unnamed Maharashtra government officials said that eight hostages had been released.[26][29][30] Later, Israeli Foreign Ministry spokesman Yigal Palmor said that the eight people seen near Chabad House were not Jewish hostages but local Indians from a home in the same compound.[4] Early on 28 November a large blast was heard at the centre as fighting continued,[31] even though other sources were reporting that the building was under the control of Indian security forces.[4]

During the siege U.S. Chabad official Rabbi Levi Shemtov talked with one of the attackers on Holtzberg's cell phone.[32] The FBI and other negotiation experts helped guide him through the process, which included around five phone calls.[32][33] Having to find an Urdu speaker to speak with him, they were unable to directly speak to any of the hostages, but Shemtov did say he heard the voice of one woman screaming in English, "please help immediately."[32]

Shortly before dawn,[34] Indian security forces began an attack on Nariman House that lasted until after sundown. The operation began when 22 NSG Commandos rappelled out from an Indian Air Force Mi-17 helicopter on the roof of the building. NSG Commandos were in position in the adjacent buildings to provide cover fire to the assault team if needed. Commandos entered the building from the top and two loud blasts were heard followed by heavy gunfire. Most of the operation was broadcast live on television as news footage showed troops abseiling from a helicopter into the building and soldiers on the ground closing in.[35] Initially it was reported that five hostages[36] were killed, but it was later upgraded to six deaths,[37][38] eight by Saturday morning[38] after two missing Israelis made contact with the Israeli Foreign Ministry.[39] When the raid ended at sundown everyone inside the building was dead,[32] including the rabbi and his wife.[40] An Indian commando, Havaldar Gajendra Singh Bisht, was killed during the operation. According to ZAKA members,[clarification needed] at least one hostage, Holtzberg, might have been killed in the crossfire when the commandos moved in; this was rejected by government authorities as stories and irresponsible comments.[41]

Some of the other hostages were killed by the attackers on the first night and the following day.[39] Rivka and Orpaz[who?] had been killed many hours before Nariman House was retaken.[42] It is also believed[by whom?] that the Holtzberg and his pregnant wife were sexually assaulted and their genitals were mutilated before they were killed.[43]

A handout provided by Indian police identified the two attackers killed at Nariman House as Nasir(alias Abu Umar) and Babar Imaran.[44][45]

Victims[edit]

The following is a list of the civilians who died:[46][38][39][28]

Name Age Nationality
Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg 29 United States Brooklyn, United States (and dual Israel Israeli citizenship)
Rebbetzin Rivka Holtzberg 28 Israel Afula, Israel
Bentzion Kruman 26 Israel Bat Yam, Israel (and dual United States US citizenship)
Rabbi Leibish Teitelbaum 37 United States Brooklyn, United States
Yoheved Orpaz 62 Israel Givatayim, Israel
Norma Shvarzblat Rabinovich 50  Mexico

Reactions[edit]

  • Chabad-LubavitchMerkos L'Inyonei Chinuch, the educational arm of Chabad-Lubavitch released a statement that read: "Gabi and Rivky Holtzberg [sic] made the ultimate sacrifice. As emissaries to Mumbai, Gabi and Rivky gave up the comforts of the West in order to spread Jewish pride in a corner of the world that was a frequent stop for throngs of Israeli tourists. Their Chabad House was popular among the local community, as well as with visiting business people. For five years, they ran a synagogue and Torah classes, and helped people dealing with drug addiction and poverty. Their selfless love will live on with all the people they touched. We will continue the work they started."[40]
  •  Australia Prime Minister Kevin Rudd told more than 1,000 people at a memorial service organised by the Australian Jewish community at the Yeshiva Centre, Melbourne, that Holtzberg and his wife had "devoted their lives to acts of goodness and kindness and compassion for others ... but they lost their lives in a senseless act of hatred. In the face of this terror we must not bow to fear. We must respond by spreading our own message of tolerance and respect for people of other backgrounds and other beliefs." Federal Opposition leader Malcolm Turnbull and U.S. Consul-General Judith Fergin also spoke at the memorial service. A representative from the Indian Consulate was also present. In a speech to Federal Parliament, Michael Danby, the Jewish Labour MP for the seat of Melbourne Ports, Victoria, said it was important to remember the names of the innocent victims of Mumbai attacks, stating that "I raise my voice in this national parliament and praise the memory of those innocent kedoshim who were killed in the Chabad House in Mumbai only because they were Jews."[47]
  •  CanadaPrime Minister Stephen Harper spoke at a Parliament Hill ceremony organised by Chabad-Lubavitch to honour the Jewish victims of the attacks. He expressed condolences over the death of Holtzberg and his wife. Harper described the killings as "affronts to the values that unite all civilised people" and that bigotry towards Jews "is a pernicious evil that must be exposed, that must be confronted, that must be repudiated, whenever and wherever it appears." He added that the quick installment of a new rabbi at the Chabad centre in Mumbai would be a signal that the Jewish people will "never bow to violence and hatred."[48]
  •  IsraelPrime Minister Ehud Olmert said that "this terrible sight of Chabad House leaders wrapped in prayer shawls is shocking. These are pictures that bring us back to the moments in history which we had hoped would never return. It seems that hatred of Jews and Israelis provides motivation for such murderous acts[49]...Last week was marked by among the most serious terrorist attacks India has ever known in Mumbai and which were the product of extremist Islam—brutal and unrestrained, which tries to sow death and destruction wherever it can. There is no doubt that these attacks were designed, inter alia, to intentionally harm Jewish institutions. The hatred of Jews, the state of Israel, and Jewish symbols is still a factor that spurs and encourages such murderous acts."[50] Foreign Minister and Acting Prime Minister[51] Tzipi Livni said: "The fact that the assault happened at a Chabad House symbolises more than anything the fact that this assault targeted Jews, Israelis. Israel, India and the rest of the free world are positioned in the forefront of the battle against terrorism and extremists."[42]
 New YorkHillary Rodham Clinton, Junior Senator of New York and announced Secretary of State said: "My thoughts and prayers are with the victims and families touched by these acts of terror in Mumbai. We still do not know the full measure of this tragedy, which has taken the lives of Indian citizens, Americans, and others who had traveled to Mumbai from around the world. Two New Yorkers, Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and Rivka Holtzberg of Brooklyn are among those who have died, leaving behind their young son. The young couple had traveled from Brooklyn to manage a small Chabad house, welcoming Jews from India and elsewhere to learn, pray, and serve the community. There could be no sharper a reminder, nor a more poignant call to action, than the brutal and heinous violence visited upon the Nariman House and the Holtzberg family, living and working in Mumbai on a mission of peace, scholarship, and spiritual guidance. As those responsible are brought to justice, as we aid and support the victims and their families, as we work to defeat radical extremism and the terror it spawns, let us find strength in knowing that in the face of those who seek to take lives, there are those who seek to give hope and comfort. In the face of those who wish only to destroy, there are individuals like Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and Rivka Holtzberg who travel great distances far from their homes to build a better world."[53]
 New YorkGovernor of New York David A. Paterson said: "Michelle and I are deeply saddened to learn of the tragic deaths of those whose lives were lost in Mumbai, India due to senseless acts of terror. Our thoughts and prayers go out to all of the victims' families including those of Alan and Naomi Scherr from Virginia and native New Yorker Rabbi Leibish Teitelbaum, as well as the family of Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and his wife, Rivka Holtzberg from Brooklyn, New York. The Holtzbergs moved from Crown Heights, Brooklyn to India in 2003 to lead the Nariman House, home to the Chabad Lubavitch community in Mumbai and to Jewish visitors from around the world. They and Rabbi Teitelbaum were deeply committed to providing the local Jewish community and Jewish tourists with a place to gather and learn and to provide them with spiritual guidance. Today, as every day, we stand in solidarity with those who preach democracy and peace."[54][55]
 New York CityMayor of New York City Michael Bloomberg said: "Today we learned we have lost two New Yorkers: Rabbi Gavriel Noach Holtzberg and his wife, Rivka. This is a tragic loss for the Lubavitch community, and for our entire City. ...That their son survived is a miracle, and our entire City is grateful for his nanny's heroic act. During a time of terrible sadness, her courage re-affirms our faith in the capacity of good to triumph over evil. ...Our hearts go out to the Lubavitch community, and to the many New Yorkers of all different religions and ethnicities who have been affected by the attacks. We will continue to pray for all of them, for all the people of Mumbai, for an immediate end to the violence, and for the release of all hostages."[56]
Brooklyn, New York – Brooklyn borough President Marty Markowitz said: "We join the Brooklyn Lubavitch, Volove, and Satmar communities and all Brooklynites in expressing our outrage over the senseless and cruel murders of Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg, his wife Rivka, Rabbi Leibish Teitelbaum, Alan Scherr and his 13-year-old daughter Naomi of Virginia, and all of the innocents murdered and wounded in Mumbai. The monsters responsible for these attacks are attempting to undermine democracy in peace-loving nations everywhere, but this savagery only strengthens our resolve to eradicate terrorism and such atrocities against innocents of all faiths, wherever they exist. The Holtzbergs could have lived a simple and quiet life in Crown Heights, where Rabbi Holtzberg grew up, but their sense of religious duty took them to India to run Mumbai's Chabad House, which, under their stewardship, became a comforting home away from home for thousands of Jews. HaMakom y'nachem eschem b'soch sh'ar aveilei Tzion v'Yerushalayim—May G-d comfort you among the rest of the mourners of Zion and Jerusalem."[54]
    • President-elect Barack Obama said, "Michelle and I want to express our profound sorrow and heartfelt condolences over the terrible tragedy that befell the Chabad Lubavitch community, and indeed the entire Jewish community, last week in Mumbai. We mourn the loss of Rabbi Gavriel and Rivka Holtzberg, and all their Chabad House guests, in these attacks. They were taken from us by terrorists with no regard for human life, and we must remain steadfast in support of efforts to bring the perpetrators of these attacks to justice you mourn and remember those we lost, you should know that so many Americans share your grief and pain. May their memories be a blessing."[57][58]

Rebuilding[edit]

On 10 August 2010 the parents of the Holtzberg family began rebuilding Nariman House. The only thing that will remain unchanged is a wall in the baby's room.[59]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The latest on Mumbai areas under attack". CNN. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  2. ^ At Chabad in NY, an agonized limbo... and prayer
  3. ^ The Hindu
  4. ^ a b c Horovitz, David; Matthew Wagner (27 November 2008). "10 hostages reportedly freed from Mumbai Chabad House". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  5. ^ a b BBC: Jewish centre seized in Mumbai
  6. ^ J'lem Post: Powerful explosion reported at Chabad House in Mumbai
  7. ^ Tracking the Mumbai Attacks
  8. ^ Ynet reporters (27 November 2008). "Terrorists seize Chabad offices in Mumbai". Ynet. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  9. ^ LA Times
  10. ^ Tehelka
  11. ^ "Chabad of India". Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  12. ^ a b c JTA
  13. ^ Nariman to house of cards
  14. ^ a b c New York Times
  15. ^ a b c Israelis Invade India "Dikla Kadosh" 17 May 2006
  16. ^ a b c d CNN
  17. ^ "Chabad: Holtzberg couple killed in Mumbai". Ynet. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  18. ^ Chabad-Lubavitch of Mumbai – Mumbai, India. Chabad.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  19. ^ Mumbai victims' son searches for mother
  20. ^ a b c Yediot Ahronot: Report: 6 Israelis held hostage in Mumbai
  21. ^ Mumbai terror kills 65
  22. ^ Fear for lives of Jewish hostages at Mumbai Chabad center
  23. ^ a b Jpost
  24. ^ "Nariman House, not Taj, was the prime target on 26/11". DNA (newspaper). 5 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-05. 
  25. ^ a b Parents of Chabad emissary's wife 'praying for salvation'
  26. ^ a b 'I just grabbed the baby and ran,' says Mumbai Chabad employee
  27. ^ Mumbai terror attacks: And then they came for the Jews – Times Online
  28. ^ a b Jewish Center Is Stormed, and 6 Hostages Die The New York Times (November 28 2008)
  29. ^ Several hostages reported freed from Chabad center
  30. ^ Holtzberg toddler asking for his mother
  31. ^ Blast heard at Chabad center
  32. ^ a b c d Fox News
  33. ^ COL Live: Report: U.S. Shaliach Spoke to Terrorist
  34. ^ Times Online: Commandos abseil onto Jewish centre
  35. ^ BBC: "Indian forces storm Jewish centre"
  36. ^ "Rabbi, wife among Mumbai terror deaths". CNN. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  37. ^ NYT
  38. ^ a b c 2 more bodies found at Jewish center in Mumbai
  39. ^ a b c JPost | French-language news from Israel, the Middle East & the Jewish World. Fr.jpost.com (2013-08-13). Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  40. ^ a b Runyan, Joshua; Moti Seligson (28 November 2008). "UPDATE: Mumbai-Based Rabbi and Wife Killed in Terrorist Attacks". Chabad.org. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  41. ^ State angry at Zaka's Mumbai 'meddling'
  42. ^ a b The Globe and Mail (Toronto) http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/LAC.20081129.BOMBISRAEL29/TPStory/International |url= missing title (help). [dead link]
  43. ^ [1][dead link]
  44. ^ The National Post, Wednesday 10 December 2008, p.A13
  45. ^ Pakistan arrests suspected mastermind of Mumbai attacks LA Times, 10 December 2008
  46. ^ Warren Kozak, Remembering the Terror in Mumbai The Wall Street Journal
  47. ^ Australia's prime minister honors Holtzbergs, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), 9 December 2008.
  48. ^ Harper: Anti-Semitism 'pernicious', Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), March 13, 2009.
  49. ^ Jerusalem Post "Israelis murdered in Mumbai recognized as terror victims"
  50. ^ Chabad "World Leaders React to Terrorist Attacks"
  51. ^ "Seventeenth Knesset: Government 31". State of Israel. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  52. ^ Mullen: Mumbai ‘crossed threshold’, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), 12 December 2008.
  53. ^ Clinton Statement on India Attacks
  54. ^ a b NYT Responses
  55. ^ NY Daily News
  56. ^ YNET: Mayor
  57. ^ Ynet
  58. ^ Ynet letter
  59. ^ Shukla, Ashutosh (21 October 2010). "Nariman House makeover will leave Baby Moshe’s room as it is". Daily News and Analysis. 

External links[edit]