Non-Hispanic Whites

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Non-Hispanic Whites
White, not Hispanic or Latino
Total population
197,243,423 (2012 ACS)
62.8% of the United States population
Regions with significant populations
Throughout the United States
Languages
Predominantly American English with local minorities who speak American French (Louisiana, Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire), Pennsylvania German language (Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana), and immigrant languages (esp. Russian, Arabic, Italian, Polish, and Greek[1])
Religion
Mostly Christianity; minorities practice Judaism, and other faiths or are nonreligious

Non-Hispanic Whites or White, Not Hispanic or Latino are people in the United States, as defined by the Census Bureau, who are of the White race and are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity.[2][3] Hence the designation is exclusive in the sense that it defines who is not included as opposed to who is. Non-Hispanic Whites are a subset of White Americans, the other being White Hispanic and Latino Americans.

Although generally all nations in Europe have contributed to the Non-Hispanic White population through emigration to Northern America in the last few centuries, the vast majority of Non-Hispanic Whites trace their origins to Northwestern Europe while the other major source originates in Southern Italy.

In the U.S., this population was first derived from British and French colonization, as well as settlement by other Europeans, such as the Germans and Dutch that began in the 17th century (see History of the United States). Continued growth since the early 1800s is attributed to sustained very high birth rates alongside relatively low death rates among settlers and natives alike as well as periodically massive immigration from European countries, especially Germany, Ireland, England, Italy, Sweden, and Norway, as well as Poland, Albania, Russia, and many more countries. In 2011, for the first time in U.S. history, Non-Hispanic Whites accounted for under half of the births in U.S. - with 49.6 percent of total births.[4] At 197.2 million in 2012, Non-Hispanic Whites compose 62.8% of the total population of United States.[4][5]

Trends[edit]

The Non-Hispanic White population in the United States has been declining as a percentage of the total US population due to a number of factors:

1. Lower birth rates. Non-Hispanic Whites are having fewer children relative to other groups. Preliminary 2012 data show that non-Hispanic whites have a total fertility rate of 1.76 children per woman, compared to 1.90 for non-Hispanic blacks, 2.19 for Hispanics, and 1.77 for Asians.[6] Since 1990, rates for other races have been falling while the non-Hispanic white rate has been more or less stable, but the two largest groups, Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks, remain higher.[7] Since 1997, Asian fertility has been lower than that of non-Hispanic whites except during a Year of the Dragon (2000 and 2012), but the Asian population structure has relatively more women of childbearing age and fewer elderly than the white population does, leading to Asians having a higher crude birth rate and lower crude death rate than whites.

2. Immigration. The USA takes more immigrants than the rest of the world combined with the vast majority coming from countries where the population is of non-White and/or Hispanic origin. Immigration to the USA from European countries has been in a steady decline since WWII averaging 56% of all immigrants in the 50s and declining to 35% of all immigrants in the 60s, 20% in the 70s, 11% in the 80s, 14% in the 90s, and 13% in the 00s. In 2009, approximately 90% of all immigrants came from non-European countries.[8] The U.S. does get a small number of non-Hispanic white immigrants, mainly from countries such as Brazil, Canada, Poland, Russia, and the U.K., as well as Egypt and Iran, as Middle Easterners are also counted as "non-Hispanic white" by the government.[9]

3. Intermarriage. The USA is seeing an unprecedented increase in intermarriage between the various racial and ethnic (Hispanic) groups. In 2008, a record 14.6% of all new marriages in the United States were between spouses of a different race or ethnicity from one another. 9% of non-Hispanic Whites who married in 2008 married either a non-White or Hispanic. Among all newlyweds in 2008, intermarried pairings were primarily White-Hispanic of any race (41%) as compared to White-Asian (15%), White-Black (11%), and Other Combinations (33%). Other combinations consists of pairings between different minority groups, multi-racial people, and American Indians.[10] The children of such unions would not generally be classified as White Non-Hispanic (although note that one self-identifies their racial and/or ethnic category).

4. Methodology. In the 2000 Census, people were allowed to check more than one race in addition to choosing "Hispanic." There was strong opposition to this from some civil rights activists who feared that this would reduce the size of various racial minorities. The government responded by counting those who are white and of one minority race or ethnicity as minorities for the purposes of civil-rights monitoring and enforcement. Hence one could be 1/8th Hispanic or 1/8th Black and still be counted as a minority.[11]

5. Attrition. Minority populations are younger than non-Hispanic whites. The national median age in 2011 was 37.3 with non-Hispanic whites having the oldest median age (42.3) while Hispanics have the youngest (27.6). Non-Hispanic blacks (32.9) and non-Hispanic Asians (35.9) also are younger than whites.[12] In 2013, the Census Bureau reported that for the first time, due to the more advanced age profile of the non-Hispanic White population, non-Hispanic whites died at a faster rate than non-Hispanic White births.[13]

Although non-Hispanic whites are declining as a percentage, in actual numbers they have still been growing. From 2000 - 2010 the non-Hispanic white population grew from 194,552,774 to 196,817,552 - A growth of 1.2% over the 10-year period, due to residual population momentum.[14] Due to the 2013 finding by the Census Bureau that deaths outnumbered births among non-Hispanic whites, though, it is possible that the 2020 Census will show the first drop in the non-Hispanic white population between Censuses.

Population by state or territory[edit]

White Non-Hispanic Population by state or territory (1990–2012)[15][5]
State/Territory Pop 1990 % pop
1990
Pop 2000 % pop
2000
Pop 2010 % pop
2010
Pop 2012 % pop
2012
% growth
2000-2012
% pop
1990-2012
Alabama Alabama 2,960,167 73.3% 3,125,819 70.3% 3,204,402 67.0% 3,212,468 66.6% +2.8% -6.7%
Alaska Alaska 406,722 73.9% 423,788 67.6% 455,320 64.1% 460,453 63.0% +8.7% -10.9%
Arizona Arizona 2,626,185 71.7% 3,274,258 63.8% 3,695,647 57.8% 3,730,370 56.9% +13.9% -14.8%
Arkansas Arkansas 1,933,082 82.2% 2,100,135 78.6% 2,173,469 74.5% 2,179,168 73.9% +3.8% -8.3%
California California 17,029,126 57.2% 15,816,790 46.7% 14,956,253 40.1% 14,904,055 39.2% -5.8% -18.0%
Colorado Colorado 2,658,945 80.7% 3,202,880 74.5% 3,520,793 70.0% 3,599,838 69.4% +12.4% -11.3%
Connecticut Connecticut 2,754,184 83.8% 2,638,845 77.5% 2,546,262 71.2% 2,512,773 70.0% -4.8% -13.8%
Delaware Delaware 528,092 79.3% 567,973 72.5% 586,752 65.3% 589,642 64.3% +3.8% -15.0%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 166,131 27.4% 159,178 27.8% 209,464 34.8% 222,975 35.3% +40.1% +7.9%
Florida Florida 9,475,326 73.2% 10,458,509 65.4% 10,884,722 57.9% 10,966,711 56.8% +4.9% -16.4%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 4,543,425 70.1% 5,128,661 62.6% 5,413,920 55.9% 5,460,416 55.0% +6.5% -15.1%
Hawaii Hawaii 347,644 31.4% 277,091 22.9% 309,343 22.7% 317,032 22.8% +14.4% -8.6%
Idaho Idaho 928,661 92.2% 1,139,291 88.0% 1,316,243 84.0% 1,330,942 83.4% +16.8% -8.8%
Illinois Illinois 8,550,208 74.8% 8,424,140 67.8% 8,167,753 63.7% 8,093,687 62.9% -3.9% -11.9%
Indiana Indiana 4,965,242 89.6% 5,219,373 85.8% 5,286,453 81.5% 5,289,249 80.9% +1.3% -8.7%
Iowa Iowa 2,663,840 95.9% 2,710,344 92.6% 2,701,123 88.7% 2,705,704 88.0% -0.2% -7.9%
Kansas Kansas 2,190,524 88.4% 2,233,997 83.1% 2,230,539 78.2% 2,234,826 77.4% 0.0% -11.0%
Kentucky Kentucky 3,378,022 91.7% 3,608,013 89.3% 3,745,655 86.3% 3,760,302 85.8% +4.2% -5.9%
Louisiana Louisiana 2,776,022 65.8% 2,794,391 62.5% 2,734,884 60.3% 2,748,748 59.7% -1.6% -6.1%
Maine Maine 1,203,357 98.0% 1,230,297 96.5% 1,254,297 94.4% 1,250,688 94.1% +1.7% -3.9%
Maryland Maryland 3,326,109 69.6% 3,286,547 62.1% 3,157,958 54.7% 3,166,263 53.8% -3.7% -15.8%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 5,280,292 87.8% 5,198,359 81.9% 4,984,800 76.1% 5,003,798 75.3% -3.7% -12.6%
Michigan Michigan 7,649,951 82.3% 7,806,691 78.6% 7,569,939 76.6% 7,523,647 76.1% -3.6% -6.2%
Minnesota Minnesota 4,101,266 93.7% 4,337,143 88.2% 4,405,142 83.1% 4,424,944 82.3% +2.0% -11.4%
Mississippi Mississippi 1,624,198 63.1% 1,727,908 60.7% 1,722,287 58.0% 1,717,214 57.5% -0.6% -5.6%
Missouri Missouri 4,448,465 86.9% 4,686,474 83.8% 4,850,748 81.0% 4,848,758 80.5% +3.5% -6.4%
Montana Montana 733,878 91.8% 807,823 89.5% 868,628 87.8% 876,782 87.2% +8.5% -4.6%
Nebraska Nebraska 1,460,095 92.5% 1,494,494 87.3% 1,499,753 82.1% 1,509,066 81.3% +1.0% -11.2%
Nevada Nevada 946,357 78.7% 1,303,001 65.2% 1,462,081 54.1% 1,455,200 52.7% +11.7% -26.0%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 1,079,484 97.3% 1,175,252 95.1% 1,215,050 92.3% 1,212,389 91.8% +3.2% -5.5%
New Jersey New Jersey 5,718,966 74.0% 5,557,209 66.0% 5,214,878 59.3% 5,134,994 57.9% -7.6% -16.1%
New Mexico New Mexico 764,164 50.4% 813,495 44.7% 833,810 40.5% 827,066 39.7% +1.7% -10.7%
New York New York 12,460,189 69.3% 11,760,981 62.0% 11,304,247 58.3% 11,227,534 57.4% -4.5% -11.9%
North Carolina North Carolina 4,971,127 75.0% 5,647,155 70.2% 6,223,995 65.3% 6,292,533 64.5% +11.4% -10.5%
North Dakota North Dakota 601,592 94.2% 589,149 91.7% 598,007 88.9% 616,194 88.1% +4.6% -6.1%
Ohio Ohio 9,444,622 87.1% 9,538,111 84.0% 9,359,263 81.1% 9,309,291 80.6% -2.4% -6.5%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 2,547,588 81.0% 2,556,368 74.1% 2,575,381 68.7% 2,585,779 67.8% +1.2% -13.2%
Oregon Oregon 2,579,732 90.8% 2,857,616 83.5% 3,005,848 78.5% 3,026,649 77.6% +5.9% -13.2%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 10,422,058 87.7% 10,322,455 84.1% 10,094,652 79.5% 10,035,953 78.6% -2.8% -9.1%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 896,109 89.3% 858,433 81.9% 803,685 76.4% 791,560 75.4% -7.8% -13.9%
South Carolina South Carolina 2,390,056 68.5% 2,652,291 66.1% 2,962,740 64.1% 3,016,843 63.9% +13.7% -4.6%
South Dakota South Dakota 634,788 91.2% 664,585 88.0% 689,502 84.7% 698,504 83.8% +5.1% -7.4%
Tennessee Tennessee 4,027,631 82.6% 4,505,930 79.2% 4,800,782 75.6% 4,840,886 75.0% +7.4% -7.6%
Texas Texas 10,291,680 60.6% 10,933,313 52.4% 11,397,345 45.3% 11,554,528 44.3% +5.7% -16.3%
Utah Utah 1,571,254 91.2% 1,904,265 85.3% 2,221,719 80.4% 2,278,904 79.8% +19.7% -11.4%
Vermont Vermont 552,184 98.1% 585,431 96.2% 590,223 94.3% 588,138 94.0% +0.5% -4.3%
Virginia Virginia 4,701,650 76.0% 4,965,637 70.2% 5,186,450 64.8% 5,234,502 63.9% +5.4% -12.1%
Washington (state) Washington 4,221,622 86.7% 4,652,490 78.9% 4,876,804 72.5% 4,927,042 71.4% +5.9% -15.3%
West Virginia West Virginia 1,718,896 95.8% 1,709,966 94.6% 1,726,256 93.2% 1,721,901 92.8% +0.7% -3.0%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 4,464,677 91.3% 4,681,630 87.3% 4,738,411 83.3% 4,738,842 82.8% +1.2% -8.5%
Wyoming Wyoming 412,711 91.0% 438,799 88.9% 483,874 85.9% 487,672 84.6% +11.1% -6.4%
American Samoa American Samoa 682 1.2% 611 1.1% -10.4%
Guam Guam 10,666 6.9% 11,001 6.9% +3.1%
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands 1,274 1.8% 916 1.7% -28.1%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 33,966 0.9% 26,946 0.7% 23,542 0.6% -30.7%
United States Virgin Islands U.S. Virgin Islands 8,580 7.9% 3,830 3.6% -55.3%
United States United States of America 188,128,296 75.6% 194,552,774 69.1% 196,817,552 63.7% 197,243,423 62.8% +1.4% –11.9%

In 2012, in 37 out of the 50 U.S. states non-Hispanic whites made up a greater percentage of the state's population than the U.S. overall share of 62.8%; however, the 13 states with greater shares of non-whites include the four most populous states (California, Texas, New York, and Florida). Also, note that while the total non-Hispanic white population has grown since 2000 in 36 out of the 50 states, the relative share of non-Hispanic whites in the overall state population has declined in all 50 states during that same time period.

As of 2012, four states are majority-minority: Hawaii, California, New Mexico, and Texas.

Historical population by state or territory[edit]

Non-Mexican White (1910-1930) and Non-Hispanic White % of Population (1940-2010) by U.S. State[16][17][18]
State/Territory 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
Alabama Alabama 65.3% 73.3% 73.3% 73.3% 70.3% 67.0%
Alaska Alaska 48.3% 77.2% 75.8% 73.9% 67.6% 64.1%
Arizona Arizona 65.1% 74.3% 74.5% 71.7% 63.8% 57.8%
Arkansas Arkansas 75.2% 81.0% 82.2% 82.2% 78.6% 74.5%
California California 89.5% 76.3% 66.6% 57.2% 46.7% 40.1%
Colorado Colorado 90.3% 84.6% 82.7% 80.7% 74.5% 70.0%
Connecticut Connecticut 97.9% 91.4% 88.0% 83.8% 77.5% 71.2%
Delaware Delaware 86.4% 84.1% 81.3% 79.3% 72.5% 65.3%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 71.4% 26.5% 25.7% 27.4% 27.8% 34.8%
Florida Florida 71.5% 77.9% 76.7% 73.2% 65.4% 57.9%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 65.2% 73.4% 71.6% 70.1% 62.6% 55.9%
Hawaii Hawaii 31.5% 38.0% 31.1% 31.4% 22.9% 22.7%
Idaho Idaho 98.4% 95.9% 93.9% 92.2% 88.0% 84.0%
Illinois Illinois 94.7% 83.5% 78.0% 74.8% 67.8% 63.7%
Indiana Indiana 96.3% 91.7% 90.2% 89.6% 85.8% 81.5%
Iowa Iowa 99.2% 98.0% 96.9% 95.9% 92.6% 88.7%
Kansas Kansas 95.6% 92.7% 90.5% 88.4% 83.1% 78.2%
Kentucky Kentucky 92.5% 92.4% 91.7% 91.7% 89.3% 86.3%
Louisiana Louisiana 63.7% 68.2% 67.6% 65.8% 62.5% 60.3%
Maine Maine 99.7% 99.1% 98.3% 98.0% 96.5% 94.4%
Maryland Maryland 83.3% 80.4% 73.9% 69.6% 62.1% 54.7%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 98.6% 95.4% 92.3% 87.8% 81.9% 76.1%
Michigan Michigan 95.7% 87.1% 84.1% 82.3% 78.6% 76.6%
Minnesota Minnesota 99.0% 97.7% 96.1% 93.7% 88.2% 83.1%
Mississippi Mississippi 50.6% 62.6% 63.6% 63.1% 60.7% 58.0%
Missouri Missouri 93.4% 88.6% 87.7% 86.9% 83.8% 81.0%
Montana Montana 96.2% 94.7% 93.4% 91.8% 89.5% 87.8%
Nebraska Nebraska 98.2% 95.2% 94.0% 92.5% 87.3% 82.1%
Nevada Nevada 91.6% 86.7% 83.2% 78.7% 65.2% 54.1%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 99.9% 99.1% 98.4% 97.3% 95.1% 92.3%
New Jersey New Jersey 94.3% 84.7% 79.1% 74.0% 66.0% 59.3%
New Mexico New Mexico 50.9% 53.8% 52.6% 50.4% 44.7% 40.5%
New York New York 94.6% 80.1% 75.0% 69.3% 62.0% 58.3%
North Carolina North Carolina 71.9% 76.5% 75.3% 75.0% 70.2% 65.3%
North Dakota North Dakota 98.3% 96.9% 95.5% 94.2% 91.7% 88.9%
Ohio Ohio 95.0% 89.8% 88.2% 87.1% 84.0% 81.1%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 89.9% 88.1% 85.0% 81.0% 74.1% 68.7%
Oregon Oregon 98.6% 95.8% 93.3% 90.8% 83.5% 78.5%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 95.1% 90.3% 89.1% 87.7% 84.1% 79.5%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 98.3% 96.1% 93.4% 89.3% 81.9% 76.4%
South Carolina South Carolina 57.1% 69.0% 68.3% 68.5% 66.1% 64.1%
South Dakota South Dakota 96.2% 94.6% 92.3% 91.2% 88.0% 84.7%
Tennessee Tennessee 82.5% 83.7% 83.1% 82.6% 79.2% 75.6%
Texas Texas 74.1% 69.6% 65.7% 60.6% 52.4% 45.3%
Utah Utah 98.2% 93.6% 92.4% 91.2% 85.3% 80.4%
Vermont Vermont 99.7% 99.2% 98.5% 98.1% 96.2% 94.3%
Virginia Virginia 75.3% 80.1% 78.2% 76.0% 70.2% 64.8%
Washington (state) Washington 97.7% 93.6% 90.2% 86.7% 78.9% 72.5%
West Virginia West Virginia 93.7% 95.7% 95.6% 95.8% 94.6% 93.2%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 99.2% 95.6% 93.6% 91.3% 87.3% 83.3%
Wyoming Wyoming 95.9% 92.1% 92.0% 91.0% 88.9% 85.9%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 0.9% 0.7%

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Table 53. Languages Spoken At Home by Language: 2009", The 2012 Statistical Abstract (U.S. Census Bureau), retrieved 2011-12-27 
  2. ^ U.S. Census Bureau definition of race[dead link]
  3. ^ Note that the majority of Hispanic and Latino Americans are white ([1]) like the overall population of the United States. Hispanics and Latinos can be of any race: white, black, Asian, etc., as race and ethnicity are independent of each other: "Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic Origin Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-01-12. "Race and Hispanic origin are two separate concepts in the federal statistical system. People who are Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. People in each race group may be either Hispanic or non-Hispanic. Each person has two attributes, their race (or races) and whether or not they are Hispanic." 
  4. ^ a b "Whites Account for Under Half of Births in U.S.". 
  5. ^ a b "2012 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". American FactFinder, U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  6. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr62/nvsr62_03.pdf
  7. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr62/nvsr62_01.pdf
  8. ^ "US Office of Immigration Statistics: 2009 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  9. ^ http://www.dhs.gov/immigration-statistics
  10. ^ Pew Social Trends: "Marrying Out" June 15, 2010
  11. ^ New York Times: "Fix the Census’ Archaic Racial Categories" By KENNETH PREWITT August 21, 2013
  12. ^ Pew Social Trends: "Explaining Why Minority Births Now Outnumber White Births" by Jeffrey Passel, Gretchen Livingston and D’Vera Cohn May 17, 202
  13. ^ New York Times: "Census Benchmark for White Americans: More Deaths Than Births" By SAM ROBERTS June 13, 2013
  14. ^ CNN: "White U.S. population grows but drops in overall percentage" September 29, 2011
  15. ^ http://www.census.gov/2010census/
  16. ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Census.gov. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  17. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/mso01-wp.pdf
  18. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-05.pdf