||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Arabic Wikipedia. (July 2010)|
|First settled||Roman times|
|Elevation||470 m (1,540 ft)|
|Population |
|• Urban||1 100,000|
|• Population Rank in Morocco||8th|
|Time zone||WET (UTC+0)|
|• Summer (DST)||WEST (UTC+1)|
Oujda (Arabic: وجدة, Berber: Wejda or Tawejdit) is a city located in North-East of Morocco with an estimated population of 450,000. It is located about 15 kilometres (9 miles) west of Algeria. Oujda is about 55 km (34 miles) south of the Mediterranean Sea. It is the capital of the Oriental Region of Morocco.
Uqba ibn Nafi began the Umayyad-Arab conquest of the region, during the reign of the Umayyad Caliphate, a conquest which was completed in AD 705 by Musa bin Nusayr. The city was founded in 994 by Ziri ibn Atiyya, Berber king of the Zenata tribes. Further additions were made in 1048.
In the mid-11th century, Oujda acquired prominence through its strategic position on the road east from Sijilmasa. Throughout the history of the dynasties of the Muslim West, Oujda played an important strategic role among the Merinids, settled in Fes, in this case as a rear base in their conflict with the Abdalwadids of the Kingdom of Tlemcen.
The city was rebuilt in the 13th century by sultan Abu Yusuf Yaqub. The city experienced great difficulty in making peace with its neighbours to the east, and sometimes to the west, because of its position in respect to the clashes between the Saadi dynasty and Turks. It was torn between the rulers of Fes and the disputed Tlemcen, and from the 16th century, it was contested by the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco and the Turks in Algiers. In 1692, Sultan Ismail[who?] led in the Turks, who established their hegemony on Algeria. Oujda fell again under Turkish rule in the following century.
The French occupied it in 1844 and again in 1859. Also to the west is the site of the 1844 major Franco-Moroccan Battle of Isly. Once Morocco was occupied by the French, Oujda was used as a military base to control eastern Morocco. The city grew up along the roads that were built and owes much of its present form to the French.
The Moroccan border with Algeria is just east of Oujda; on the other side of the border is the Algerian town of Maghnia. The state of the border crossing depends on relations between the two countries, which are often strained.
The city is located 60 km (37 mi) south of the Mediterranean sea and 15 km (9 mi) west of Algeria, with an estimated altitude of 450 metres (1,476 feet).
Into the east of this forest is located Sidi Maafa park.
The city has a Mediterranean climate. Rainfall can reach up to 300 mm (11.8 in) per year. It seldom snows in winter, the last snowfall was on 5 February 2012. Weather in Oujda is cold in winter hot and dry in summer. The historic and geographic documents describe the area as being rich with orchards, animals and oasis; one of these oases was Sidi Yahya oasis lasted until the 21st century. For unknown reasons the oasis became dry and was transformed into a park (see weather-table below).
|Climate data for Oujda|
|Average high °C (°F)||16.3
|Average low °C (°F)||4.8
|Rainfall mm (inches)||28.2
|Source: Hong Kong Observatory|
The main characteristic of the city is having the old city in the centre. The old city maintains traditional features of the Moroccan architecture with its narrow and twisted alleys which leads to the houses and different markets such as jewelry market and the leather market.
Gharnati refers to a variety of Moroccan music originating in Andalusia. Its name is related, being derived from the Arabic name of the Spanish city of Granada.
A lot of Andalusians from Grenada have come to live in Oujda after the reconquista.
Gharnati constitutes the musical mode most used in the Moroccan city of Oujda, where besides this musical kind is omnipresent and where one organizes each year in June the International Festival of the Gharnati music. This musical art was preserved mainly in Oujda and Rabat and near Moroccan-Algerian border at Tlemcen in Algeria. Like Oran is Oujda the destination of raï.
The first musician ever to introduce Gharnati music to Morocco in the 1940s was Mohammed Salah Chaabane known as Sheikh Salah. His sons Mohammed and Nasreddine Chaabane carried on his tradition after his death in 1973.
Musicians of (Gharnati) raï include Hamid Bouchnak.
The province is divided administratively into the following:
|Name||Geographic code||Type||Households||Population (2004)||Foreign population||Moroccan population||Notes|
|Ahl Angad||411.07.01.||Rural commune||2897||16494||113||16381|
|Ain Sfa||411.07.03.||Rural commune||837||5082||5||5077|
|Bni Khaled||411.07.05.||Rural commune||1231||7104||30||7074|
|Sidi Boulenouar||411.07.17.||Rural commune||516||3526||0||3526|
|Sidi Moussa Lemhaya||411.07.19.||Rural commune||563||3436||0||3436|
Oujda is home to the Mohammed I University, a French, English and Arabic language and technology university.
Oujda has a cement works.
A techno-pole is under construction near the airport.
The city is served by Angads Airport, which has connecting flights to Amsterdam, Brussels, Madrid, Marseille and Paris.
The city is the endpoint of the main railroad from Casablanca via Fes and Taourirt before the border with Algeria. There are several day and night trains to and from the city, linking it to the western part of the country.
Apart from this rail link and many bus/coach services, the city also has Angads Airport offering both national and international destinations.
Oujda has a strategic importance because of its location on the border. There are many economic and natural resources however, problems of overpopulation of the city and increase in unemployment rate up to 18% of the 11% on the national level. Migration to foreign countries was up to 28.3% of the national total.
Oujda relies heavily on trading because of its location between west of Algeria and east of Morocco. The economy of the city is directly related to the border's condition as it represents a passage for businesses directed towards Fes in the west, Talmasan in the east, Figuig in the south and Melilla in the north. As for the Industry in Oujda, the first mill was founded in 1928. The industry showed significant improvement during the seventies and eighties but was still humble compared to the industry of major Moroccan cities.
There are few touristic and historic locations such as Sidi Yahya's oasis. However due to the lack of resources tourism does not contribute much to Oujda's economy. On March 18, 2003 king Muhammad the sixth has indicated to the importance of reviving the economy of the eastern area. In the context of this effort, Technopol Oujda was established. Other efforts such as road improvement, airport expansion and other project to improve the cities economy was founded.
The sports infrastructure in Oujda is composed of a municipal stadium, an Olympic venue, the Honneur Stadium of Oujda, built in 1976, the sports complex 'Rock' including a rugby stadium, a complex tennis in the park Lala Aicha, a golf course and two sports halls.
The first football club to win the Throne Cup of Morocco was the Moloudia Club of Oujda (MCO) in 1957 after defeating the Wydad of Casablanca, in the next year MCO won his second and successive throne cup against the same club, in 1959 MCO was in his third successive final, but this time the club lost against the FAR of Rabat, the next year MCO played his 4th successive final against the FUS of Rabat and won the cup, in 1962 MCO won his last Throne cup against the Kawkab Athletic Club of Marrakech.
There is also the USMO, the second most popular Football club in Oujda.
Since 2009, the city has been twinned with Trowbridge in England due to the huge number of diasporans, most of whom originate from villages close to Oujda. Trowbridge has the largest Moroccan community in the UK outside London.
- Trowbridge, UK, since 2009–10
- Lille, France
- Sevran, France
- Jouy-le-Moutier, France
- Aix-en-Provence, France (2007)
- Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
- Sirte, Libya
- Oran, Algeria
- Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, Belgium
- See: Ahmed Siraj, L'Image de la Tingitane. L'historiographie arabe medievale et l'Antiquite nord-africaine. École Française de Rome, 1995 (ISBN 2-7283-0317-7), pp 589-595 discusses the archeological evidence.
- As a place of refuge, according to Ibn Khaldun
- "Climatological Information for Oujda, Morocco". Hong Kong Observatory. 15 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- "Recensement général de la population et de l'habitat de 2004". Haut-commissariat au Plan, Lavieeco.com. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- Winners of the Throne Cup of Morocco
- Winners of the football League of Morocco
- "Trowbridge - Market town twins with Arab city". BBC News (BBC News Channel). 2006-10-03. Archived from the original on 2007-10-21. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oujda.|
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- Oujda et sa région Tout sur Oujda et sa région
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- Entry in Lexicorient
- Le Maroc oriental
- The Jinn: A Horror Novel - Oujda is the setting for the horror novel The Jinn.