|Leader of the Opposition||Anwar Ibrahim|
|DAP Parliamentary Leader||Lim Kit Siang|
|PAS President||Abdul Hadi Awang|
|Founded||April 1, 2008|
|Preceded by||Barisan Alternatif|
|Headquarters||Petaling Jaya, Malaysia (DAP & PKR)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (PAS)
People's Justice Party (PKR)
Democratic Action Party (DAP)
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS)
|Politics of Malaysia
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Pakatan Rakyat or PR (English: People's Pact / People's Alliance) is an informal Malaysian political coalition. It currently controls three state governments while in opposition to the ruling Barisan Nasional (BN) at the federal level.
The political coalition was formed by the People's Justice Party (PKR), Democratic Action Party (DAP), and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) on April 1, 2008, after the 12th Malaysian general election, having previously formed the Barisan Alternatif (Alternative Front) in the 10th general election. On April 20, 2010, the Sarawak National Party (SNAP) officially joined as a member of the Pakatan Rakyat after being expelled from Barisan Nasional, but quit the coalition on May 6, 2011.
The former three parties had worked together in the 12th Malaysian general election, in which they gained control of five state assemblies and made significant gains at the federal level, denying the BN a two-thirds majority in the federal parliament. With the establishment of the Pakatan Rakyat coalition, the state governments of Kelantan, Kedah, Penang, and Selangor are known as the Pakatan Rakyat state governments. Perak was also under Pakatan control, but in February 2009, three Pakatan state assembly members switched allegiances to independent members who supported BN, causing a constitutional crisis that, following the judgement of the federal court, resulted in BN taking power.
In the recent 2013 general election, Pakatan Rakyat managed to increase its share in Parliament by additional seven seats and for two consecutive general election, denying BN a two-thirds majority. Pakatan Rakyat also increase its power in Penang and Selangor. However, it lost Kedah, another state, to BN.
Pakatan Rakyat is to be collectively led and managed by all constituent parties and pledges to uphold the rights and interests of all Malaysians. Each political party in People's Alliance has its own ideology; PKR promotes its ideals that revolves around social justice and anti-corruption, PAS with its aim to establish Malaysia as a nation based on Islamic legal theory and DAP with its secular, multiracial, social democratic ideals.
- 1 History
- 2 Policies
- 3 Frontbench committees
- 4 Component parties
- 5 Elected representatives
- 6 Pakatan Rakyat state governments
- 7 General election results
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The Pakatan Rakyat is a maturing development of the concept, of Barisan Alternatif (English: Alternative Front), that was created during the election campaign of the 10th Malaysian General Election in 1999. Barisan Alternative was the banner and policy position document which a group of Malaysian opposition political parties (DAP, KeADILan, PAS and PRM) endorsed and coalesced around for that election.
In the 2008 general election (12th Malaysian General Election), PKR, DAP, and PAS had also won 41, 73, and 86 seats, respectively, in various state assemblies.
As of 2009, Pakatan Rakyat remains an informal coalition yet unregistered with the Malaysian Registrar of Societies (ROS). They claim that Malaysian law only allows the registration of a coalition comprising seven parties or more.
In October 2009, the ROS stated that Pakatan Rakyat could formally register as a coalition, as "The condition does not apply to political parties as they enjoy a national status. Only [a] state-level organisation aspiring to become a national entity needs to have seven members from the states". On October 9, 2009, Lim Kit Siang announced that Pakatan would seek to register itself as a formal coalition in light of this clarification. On November 4, 2009, Pakatan Rakyat officials told the press that they had submitted a formal application to the ROS, naming Zaid as the chairman of the alliance. PKR MP and Information Chief Tian Chua publicly denied this, saying the coalition had not yet decided on a constitution, logo, or leadership structure. In February 2010, Pakatan Rakyat claimed it had made a fresh application to ROS as “Pakatan Rakyat Malaysia” because the name "Pakatan Rakyat" is still being registered and processed under Zaid Ibrahim’s name as the pro-tem chairman.
By law, the ROS cannot consider any other application that has the same phrase in it, and has asked Pakatan Rakyat to file a fresh application. In November 2011, Pakatan Rakyat appointed PAS central committee member Kamaruddin Jaafar to make a fresh application, but RoS director-general Abdul Rahman Othman claimed Kamaruddin had never approached his department. Abdul Rahman said that the ROS has no problem in approving Pakatan’s registration and that he could not refuse a request made by any MP.
Zaid had issued a statement on Pakatan Rakyat's ideology, stating that in government, it would introduce anti-discrimination laws, set up a social safety net, establish a new education policy aimed at producing competitive graduates, especially among the Malays and Bumiputra, repeal the Internal Security Act and Printing Presses and Publications Act, amend the Official Secrets Act and Sedition Act to limit the government's power, and reform law enforcement institutions like the courts, the Royal Malaysian Police, and the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission. Zaid also said that the proposed anti-discrimination law would not require the repeal or amendment of Article 153 of the Constitution. Zaid has also request Dato' Nik Aziz to become the chairman of Pakatan Rakyat instead of Anwar Ibrahim (PKR) or Hadi Awang (PAS). In November 2010, after a six-month leave from PKR over undisclosed reasons, Zaid Ibrahim quit PKR, causing the People’s Coalition to remain as an informal coalition.
In the 2013 general election (13th Malaysian General Election), the still unregistered Pakatan Rakyat won the total number of votes but due to Malaysia's First Past The Post voting system—used in Canada, UK, and most states in the United States—lost to the Barisan Nasional, which won 133 of the 222 Parliament seats and 275 of the 505 State seats. To this day, PKR, DAP, and PAS continue to platform different ideologies within the framework of respect and consensus by their top leaders.
Pakatan Rakyat basic framework policies are:
- Transparent and genuine democracy
- Constitutional nation and rule of law
- Separation of power
- Free, clean, and fair election system
- Driving a high performance, sustainable, and equitable economy
- High-skill economy
- Decentralisation and empowerment of the states' economic management
- Affirmative policy based on requirements
- Social protection network
- Infrastructure and public facilities
- Social justice and human development
- Solidarity and social justice
- Women and family institutions
- Federal–State relationship and foreign policy
Pakatan Rakyat further their policy through the introduction of "Orange Book", also known as Buku Jingga, which outlining the policies together with Pakatan.
On July 2, 2009, Pakatan Rakyat announced a list of its Members of Parliament who would shadow individual ministries. DAP Member of Parliament Tony Pua stated that this front bench would explicitly not be a Shadow Cabinet because the Malaysian Parliament does not recognise the institution of a Shadow Cabinet.
- Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (Parti Islam Se-Malaysia, PAS)
- Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik, DAP)
- People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat, Keadilan/PKR)
Dewan Negara (Senate)
- Johari bin Mat (PAS)
- Hajah Khairiah binti Mohamed (PAS)
- Ariffin Omar (DAP)
- Syed Shahir bin Syed Mohamud (PKR)
- Syed Husin Ali (PKR)
- Chandra Mohan a/l S. Thambirajah (DAP)
Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)
12th General Election Elected Members of Parliament
13th general election elected Members of Parliament
Pakatan Rakyat state governments
General election results
|Election||Total seats won||Total votes||Share of votes||Outcome of election||Election leader|
|2008||3,796,464||46.75%||61 seats; Opposition||Wan Azizah Wan Ismail|
|2013||5,623,984||50.87%||7 seats; Opposition||Anwar Ibrahim|
- Malaysian general election, 2013
- State Seats Representatives elected 2013
- Parliament of Malaysia
- Barisan Alternatif
- Buku Jingga
- SNAP quits Pakatan
- "ROS: Pakatan can register as a single party". Malaysiakini. 2009-10-08. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- "Pakatan Rakyat to register as a coalition". The Malaysian Insider. 2009-10-09. Retrieved 2009-10-09.
- "Zaid to helm Pakatan Rakyat". Malaysiakini. 2009-11-04. Retrieved 2009-11-05.
- Ghazali, Rahmah (2009-11-05). "No decision on 'Zaid to lead Pakatan', yet". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 2009-11-05.
- Loo, Susan (2011-11-10). "RoS denies Pakatan filed new bid to register". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 2011-11-10.
- Lau, Leslie (2009-08-10). "Zaid outlines blueprint for Pakatan government". The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
- Pathmawathy, S (2009-07-02). "Pakatan forms 'cabinet' committees". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 2009-07-02.
- Titiwangsa MP Dr Lo’ Lo’ dies. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved 2011-7-19
- Pakatan Rakyat's theme song for the 13th General Election
- Free Community Newspapers