|Preceded by||Parti Perikatan|
|Headquarters||Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia|
|Youth wing||Barisan Nasional Youth Movement|
|National affiliation||Barisan Nasional|
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Barisan Nasional (BN) (Malay; historically National Front) is a major political party in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance (Perikatan). Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence in 1957, and is considered the longest continuing ruling party in the world. The coalition's headquarters is located in the nation's capital, Kuala Lumpur.
In the 2008 general elections, Barisan Nasional lost more than one-third of parliamentary seats to Pakatan Rakyat, a loose alliance of opposition parties. This marked Barisan's first failure to secure a two-thirds supermajority in Parliament since Independence. Five state governments, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang, Perak (which was later returned via court ruling following a constitutional crisis) and Selangor, fell to Pakatan Rakyat. In 2013, BN retained its simple majority and regained Kedah, but lost several more seats in Parliament along with the popular vote to Pakatan. Since 2008, the coalition has seen its non-Malay component parties virtually wiped out in the Peninsula, with the Malaysian Chinese Association no longer represented on the federal cabinet.
As of 2013, the vast majority of Barisan Nasional's seats are held by its two largest Bumiputera-based political parties—the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), and Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB). For most of its history, both the Malaysian Chinese Association and Malaysian Indian Congress have played major roles in Barisan Nasional, but their representation in Parliament and state legislatures has become much more diminished. Nevertheless, practically each component party purports to represent – and limit membership – to a certain race: UMNO for the Malays, MCA for the Chinese and so on. In the view of some scholars:
Since its inception the Alliance remained a coalition of communal parties. Each of the component parties operated to all intents and purposes, save that of elections, as a separate party. Their membership was communal, except perhaps Gerakan, and their success was measured in terms of their ability to achieve the essentially parochial demands of their constituents.
Although both the Alliance and BN registered themselves as political parties, membership is only possible indirectly through one of the constituent parties. In the Alliance, one could hold direct membership, but this was abolished with the formation of the Barisan Nasional. The BN defines itself as a "confederation of political parties which subscribe to the objects of the Barisan Nasional". Although in elections, all candidates stand under the BN symbol, and there is a BN manifesto, each individual constituent party also issues its own manifesto, and there is intra-coalition competition for seats prior to nomination day.
As of August 2009, Barisan Nasional's member parties include:
- United Malays National Organisation (UMNO)
- Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA)
- Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC)
- Malaysian People's Movement Party (GERAKAN)
- People's Progressive Party (PPP)
- Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB)
- Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP)
- Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS)
- Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)
- Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah (PBRS)
- United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO)
- Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party (SPDP)
- Sarawak People's Party (PRS)
Controlled states and chief ministers
- Negeri Sembilan
General election results
|Election||Total seats won||Total votes||Share of votes||Outcome of election||Election leader|
|1974||1,287,400||60.8%||135 seats; Governing coalition||Abdul Razak Hussein|
|1978||1,987,907||57.2%||4 seats; Governing coalition||Hussein Onn|
|1982||2,522,079||60.5%||1 seats; Governing coalition||Mahathir Mohamad|
|1986||2,649,263||57.3%||16 seats; Governing coalition||Mahathir Mohamad|
|1990||2,985,392||53.4%||21 seats; Governing coalition||Mahathir Mohamad|
|1995||3,881,214||65.2%||35 seats; Governing coalition||Mahathir Mohamad|
|1999||3,748,511||56.53%||15 seats; Governing coalition||Mahathir Mohamad|
|2004||4,420,452||63.9%||51 seats; Governing coalition||Abdullah Ahmad Badawi|
|2008||4,082,411||50.27%||58 seats; Governing coalition||Abdullah Ahmad Badawi|
|2013||5,237,699||47.38%||7 seats; Governing coalition||Najib Razak|
- "Barisan Nasional was formed in 1973 as the natural evolution from Perikatan (UMNO, MCA and MIC), but expanding to include PPP, PAS and Gerakan who until that point were opposition but joined the broader Barisan Nasional after the events of 13 May 1969 in the name of national interest. The only significant party not to join was the DAP". Is Barisan Nasional Really That Cohesive?. mylivingwall.
- "Keputusan Pilihan Raya Umum Ke-12".
- "Running Scared in Malaysia". The Wall Street Journal. 8 July 2011.
- "Malaysians vote to decide fate of world’s longest-ruling coalition". Toronto Sun. 5 May 2013.
- "Malaysia coalition extends rule despite worst electoral showing". REUTERS. 5 May 2013.
- Rachagan, S. Sothi (1993). Law and the Electoral Process in Malaysia, p. 12. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press. ISBN 967-9940-45-4.
- Rachagan, p. 21.
- "Rebel party wins support in no-confidence against Malaysian PM". AFP (AFP). 20 June 2008. Retrieved 20 June 2008.
- News."GE13: Khaled expected to be sworn in as Johor MB next week", The Star Johor Baru, 8 May 2013. Retrieved on 9 May 2013.
- Kow Kwan Yee."GE13: Azlan Man sworn in as Perlis MB", The Star, Arau, 7 May 2013. Retrieved on 9 May 2013
- Maierbrugger, Arno (16 August 2013). "Malaysia gov't bashed for $155m election ad spending". Inside Investor. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- Chok, Suat Ling (4 October 2005). "MPs in the dock". New Straits Times, p. 1, 6.
- Chin, James. 2002. Malaysia: The Barisan National Supremacy. In David Newman & John Fuh-sheng Hsieh (eds), How Asia Votes, pp. 210–233. New York: Chatham House, Seven Bridges Press. ISBN 1-889119-41-5.
- Pillai, M.G.G. (3 November 2005). "National Front parties were not formed to fight for Malaysian independence". Malaysia Not Today