|Headquarters||Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia|
|Youth wing||Barisan Nasional Youth Movement|
|National affiliation||Barisan Nasional|
|This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Barisan Nasional (Malay; historically National Front; commonly abbreviated as BN) is a major political coalition in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance (Perikatan). Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence. The coalition's headquarters is located in the nation's capital, Kuala Lumpur.
In the 2008 general elections, Barisan Nasional lost more than one-third of parliamentary seats to Pakatan Rakyat, a loose alliance of opposition parties. Five state governments, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang, Perak (which was later returned via court ruling following a constitutional crisis) and Selangor, fell to Pakatan Rakyat as well.
The vast majority of Barisan Nasional's seats are held by its three largest race-based political parties — the United Malays National Organization (UMNO), the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), and the Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC) — each of which is sectarian in nature, though officially supporting racial harmony. In the view of some scholars:
Since its inception the Alliance remained a coalition of communal parties. Each of the component parties operated to all intents and purposes, save that of elections, as a separate party. Their membership was communal, except perhaps Gerakan, and their success was measured in terms of their ability to achieve the essentially parochial demands of their constituents.
Although both the Alliance and Barisan Nasional registered themselves as political parties, membership was only possible indirectly through one of the constituent parties. In the Alliance, one could hold direct membership, but this was abolished with the formation of the Barisan Nasional. The Barisan Nasional defines itself as "a confederation of political parties which subscribe to the objects of the Barisan Nasional". Although in elections, all candidates stand under the Barisan Nasional symbol, and there is a Barisan Nasional manifesto, each individual constituent party also issues its own manifesto, and there is intra-coalition competition for seats prior to nomination day.
As of August 2009, Barisan Nasional's member parties are:
- United Malays National Organization (UMNO)
- Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA)
- Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC)
- Malaysian People's Movement Party (GERAKAN)
- People's Progressive Party (PPP)
- Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB)
- Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP)
- Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS)
- Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)
- Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah (PBRS)
- United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO)
- Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party (SPDP)
- Sarawak People's Party (PRS)
Controlled states and chief ministers 
- Negeri Sembilan
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