Palmistry

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The Fortune Teller, by Caravaggio (1594–95; Canvas; Louvre), depicting a palm reading
The Fortune Teller by Enrique Simonet (1899)

Palmistry, or chiromancy (also spelled cheiromancy; from Greek kheir (χεῖρ, ός; “hand”) and manteia (μαντεία, ας; “divination”)), is the claim of characterization and foretelling the future through the study of the palm, also known as palm reading or chirology. The practice is found all over the world, with numerous cultural variations. Those who practice chiromancy are generally called palmists, palm readers, hand readers, hand analysts, or chirologists.

The information outlined below is briefly representative of modern palmistry; there are many ― often conflicting ― interpretations of various lines and palmar features across various schools of palmistry. These contradictions between different interpretations, as well as the lack of empirical support for palmistry's predictions, contribute to palmistry's perception as a pseudoscience among academics.

History[edit]

Ancient Palmistry[edit]

Palmistry is a practice common to many different places on the Eurasian landmass;[1] it has been practised in the cultures of India, Tibet, China, Persia, Sumeria, Ancient Israel and Babylonia.

According to some, it had its roots in [2]Hindu) Astrology (known in Sanskrit as Jyotish), Chinese Yijing (I Ching), and Roma (Gypsy) fortune tellers.[2] Several thousand years ago, the Hindu sage Valmiki is thought[3] to have written a book comprising 567 stanzas, the title of which translates in English as "The Teachings of Valmiki Maharshi on Male Palmistry".[3][4] From India, the art of palmistry spread to China, Tibet, Egypt, Persia and to other countries in Europe.[2][5] From China, palmistry progressed to Greece where Anaxagoras practiced it.[2] Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.) discovered a treatise on the subject of palmistry on an altar of Hermes, which he then presented to Alexander the Great (356–323 B.C.E.), who took great interest in examining the character of his officers by analyzing the lines on their hands.[6] Aristotle stated that "Lines are not written into the human hand without reason. They emanate from heavenly influences and man's own individuality."[this quote needs a citation] Accordingly, Aristotle, Hippocrates and Alexander the Great popularized the laws and practice of palmistry.[citation needed] Hippocrates sought to use palmistry to aid his clinical procedures.[citation needed]

During the Middle Ages the art of palmistry was actively suppressed by the Catholic Church as pagan superstition. In Renaissance magic, palmistry (known as "chiromancy") was classified as one of the seven "forbidden arts," along with necromancy, geomancy, aeromancy, pyromancy, hydromancy, and spatulamancy (scapulimancy).[7]

Modern Palmistry[edit]

It experienced a revival in the modern era starting with Captain Casimir Stanislas D'Arpentigny publication La Chirognomie in 1839.[5]

Cheiro, an influential exponent of palmistry in the late 19th century.

The Chirological Society of Great Britain was founded in London by Katherine St Hill in 1889 with the stated aim to advance and systematise the art of palmistry and to prevent charlatans from abusing the art.[8] Edgar de Valcourt-Vermont (Comte de St Germain) founded the American Chirological Society in 1897.

A pivotal figure in the modern palmistry movement was the Irish William John Warner, known by his sobriquet, Cheiro. After studying under gurus in India he set up a palmistry practice in London and enjoyed a wide following of famous clients from around the world, including famous celebrities like Mark Twain, W. T. Stead, Sarah Bernhardt, Mata Hari, Oscar Wilde, Grover Cleveland, Thomas Edison, the Prince of Wales, General Kitchener, William Ewart Gladstone, and Joseph Chamberlain. So popular was Cheiro as a "Society Palmist" that even those who were not believers in the occult had their hands read by him. The skeptical Mark Twain wrote in Cheiro's visitor's book that he had "...exposed my character to me with humiliating accuracy."

Edward Heron-Allen, an English polymath, published various works including the 1883 book, Palmistry - A Manual of Cheirosophy which is still in print.[5][9] There were attempts at formulating some sort of scientific basis for the art, most notably in the 1900 publication “The Laws of Scientific Hand Reading" by William G. Benham.[10]

Techniques[edit]

Chiromancy consists of the practice of evaluating a person's character or future life by "reading" the palm of that person's hand. Various "lines" ("heart line", "life line", etc.) and "mounts" (or bumps) (chirognomy) purportedly suggest interpretations by their relative sizes, qualities, and intersections. In some traditions, readers also examine characteristics of the fingers, fingernails, fingerprints, and palmar skin patterns (dermatoglyphics), skin texture and color, shape of the palm, and flexibility of the hand.

A reader usually begins by reading the person's 'dominant hand' (the hand he or she writes with or uses the most)(sometimes considered to represent the conscious mind, whereas the other hand is subconscious). In some traditions of palmistry, the other hand is believed to carry hereditary or family traits, or, depending on the palmist's cosmological beliefs, to convey information about past-life or karmic conditions.

The basic framework for "Classical" palmistry (the most widely taught and practiced tradition) is rooted in Greek mythology. Each area of the palm and fingers is related to a god or goddess, and the features of that area indicate the nature of the corresponding aspect of the subject. For example, the ring finger is associated with the Greek god Apollo; characteristics of the ring finger are tied to the subject's dealings with art, music, aesthetics, fame, wealth, and harmony.

Significance of the left and right hand[edit]

Though there are debates[by whom?] on which hand is better to read from, both have their own significance. It is custom[weasel words] to assume that the left hand shows potential in an individual, and the right shows realized personality. Some sayings about the significance include "The future is shown in the right, the past in the left"; "The left hand is the one we are born with, and the right is what we have made of it"; "The right hand is read for men, while the left is read for women"; "The left is what the gods give you, the right is what you do with it"; "The right hand is read for right-handed people, while the left is read for left-handed people"[citation needed]. The choice of hand to read is ultimately up to the instinct and experience of the practitioner.

  • Left The left hand is controlled by the right brain (pattern recognition, relationship understanding), reflects the inner person, the natural self, the anima, and the lateral thinking.
  • Right As opposites are, the right hand is controlled by the left brain (logic, reason, and language), reflects the outer person, objective self, influence of social environment, education, and experience. It represents linear thinking.

Hand shape[edit]

Depending on the type of palmistry practiced, and the type of reading being performed, palmists may look at various qualities of the hand, including the shapes and lines of the palm and fingers; the color and texture of the skin and fingernails; the relative sizes of the palm and fingers; the prominence of the knuckles; and numerous other attributes of the hands.

In most schools of palmistry, hand shapes are divided into four or 11 major types, sometimes corresponding to the Classical elements or temperaments. Hand shape is believed to indicate character traits corresponding to the type indicated (i.e., a "Fire hand" would exhibit high energy, creativity, short temper, ambition, etc. - all qualities believed to be related to the Classical element of Fire).

Although variations abound, the most common classifications used by modern palmists:

  • Earth hands are generally identified by broad, square palms and fingers, thick or coarse skin, and ruddy color. The length of the palm from wrist to the bottom of the fingers is usually equal to the length of the fingers.
  • Air hands exhibit square or rectangular palms with long fingers and sometimes protruding knuckles, low-set thumbs, and often dry skin. The length of the palm from wrist to the bottom of the fingers is usually equal to the length of the fingers.
  • Water hands are seeable by the short, sometimes oval-shaped palm, with long, flexible, conical fingers. The length of the palm from wrist to the bottom of the fingers is usually less than the width across the widest part of the palm, and usually equal to the length of the fingers.
  • Fire hands are characterized by a square or rectangular palm, flushed or pink skin, and shorter fingers. The length of the palm from wrist to the bottom of the fingers is usually greater than the length of the fingers.

The number and quality of lines can also be included in the hand shape analysis; in some traditions of palmistry, Earth and Water hands tend to have fewer, deeper lines, while Air and Fire hands are more likely to show more lines with less clear definition.

Lines[edit]

Some of the lines of the hand in Palmistry
1: Life line - 2: Head line - 3: Heart line - 4: Girdle of Venus - 5: Sun line - 6: Mercury line - 7: Fate line

The three lines found on almost all hands, and generally given most weight by palmists:

  • The heart line is the first of the major lines examined by a reader and represents love and attraction.[11] It is found towards the top of the palm, under the fingers. In some traditions, the line is read as starting from the edge of the palm under the little finger and flowing across the palm towards the thumb; in others, it is seen as starting under the fingers and flowing toward the outside edge of the palm. Palmists interpret this line to represent matters of the heart, that is, more literally, our emotional living; it is therefore believed to be an insight into how the emotional sides of our mindframes will act out and be acted upon during our lifetimes, and often said, to what extent we possess emotional reservoirs within us, for example, a chained or gridded heart line (or emotional line) is often seen in people who are highly strung, nervous and draw upon emotional strength and insight to attain their ambitions, i.e. they wear their 'emotions' on their sleeves, often to draw strength. Such chaining or gridding on the heart line (emotional line) is often seen in intensely creative artists such as musicians and writers, as well as deeply driven scientists. Dealing with emotions, the line is also claimed to indicate romantic perspectives and intimate relationships, again, a chained or gridded heart line is said to point to a flirtatious attitude to love, and one which can be prone to fall in love easily. On a physical level, the heart line is indirectly associated with heart health, more so through the effects that emotions can have on the body such as with blood pressure. A chained heart line is often associated with high blood pressure, but also of an 'adrenaline junkie' attitude in life.
  • The next line identified by palmists is the head line. This line starts at the edge of the palm under the index finger and flows across the palm towards the outside edge. Often, the head line is joined with the life line (see below) at inception. Palmists generally interpret this line to represent the person's mind and the way it works, including learning style, communication style, intellectualism, and thirst for knowledge. It is also believed to indicate a preference for creative or analytical approaches to information (i.e., right brain or left brain).
  • The life line is perhaps the most controversial line on the hand.[citation needed] This line extends from the edge of the palm above the thumb and travels in an arc towards the wrist. This line is believed to represent the person's vitality and vigor, physical health and general well being. The life line is also believed to reflect major life changes, including cataclysmic events, physical injuries, and relocations. Contrary to popular belief, modern palmists generally do not believe that the length of a person's life line is tied to the length of a person's life.
  • The combined length of these three main lines (heart, head, life) can also be used. If this combined length is longer than a persons foot they may be over bearing. However, if it is shorter they may give in too easily to other people. A similar length suggests a well balanced individual.

Additional major lines or variations include:

  • A simian crease, or fusing of the heart and head lines, has special significance in that both emotional as well as reasoning nature have to be studied from this line alone. The peculiar line is thought to be a combination of the head and heart lines on such hands that are separately marked on the rest of the hands.
    According to Cheiro[citation needed], this line is thought to endow a person with an intensity of purpose or single-mindedness, the nature of which is decided upon by exact position of this line on the hand and the direction of any branches shooting from it, which is normally the case. In hands where such a line exists without any branches as a singular mark, it indicates an extremely intense nature and special care is needed for such persons. The normal position for the line is starting below the index finger and ending where normally the heart line terminates at the edge of the hand below the little finger, indicating average interests for the person and the intense side of the nature is decided purely by the direction of any branches shooting from it.
    The upper half of the palm lying immediately below the fingers is considered to represent the higher or intellectual nature and the lower half of the palm to represent the materialistic side of the nature. If one of these halves is larger than the other as decided by the central placement of the head line or in this case the single transverse palmar crease it shows greater development of that aspect of the nature. Based on this general principle, if this line is placed below its normal position it indicates an intensely intellectual nature; if it is placed above its normal position it indicates an intensely materialistic nature and interests.
    The direction in which any branches may be found shooting from this line have a significant impact on the nature of this line resulting in suitable modifications from the above defined results depending on the nature of the mounts on the hand. For instance, if a branch from this line shoots to the mount of Moon lying on the lower edge of the hand exactly opposite the thumb, it indicates an intensely vacillating nature and emotional temperament.
  • The fate line runs from the bottom of the palm near the wrist, up through the center of the palm towards the middle finger. This line is believed to be tied to the person's life path, including school and career choices, successes and obstacles. Sometimes this line is thought to reflect circumstances beyond the individual's control, or alternately the person's choices and their consequences.
The mounts in Palmistry
Jupiter, Saturn, Apollo, Mercury, Mars positive, Mars negative, plain of mars, Luna mount, Neptune mount, Venus mount.[12]

Other minor lines:

  • Sun line - parallel to the Fate Line, under the ring finger; believed to indicate fame or scandal
  • Girdle of Venus - starts between the little and ring fingers, runs in a rough arc under the ring and middle fingers to end between the middle and pointer fingers; thought to relate to emotional intelligence and the ability to manipulate
  • Union lines - short horizontal lines found on the percussive edge of the palm between the Heart Line and the bottom of the little finger; believed to indicate close relationships, sometimes - but not always - romantic.
  • Mercury line - runs from the bottom of the palm near the wrist, up through the palm towards the little finger; purported to be an indicator of persistent health issues, business acumen, or skill in communication.
  • Travel lines - these are horizontal lines found on the percussive edge of the palm between the wrist and the heart line; each line is said to represent a trip taken by the subject - the longer the line, the more important the trip is to the subject.
  • Other markings - these include stars, crosses, triangles, squares, tridents, and rings under each of the fingers; their supposed impact and meaning varies by location on the palm and freedom from other interfering lines.
  • "Apollo line" - the Apollo line means to have a fortunate life; it travels from the Mount of the Moon at the wrist to beneath the Apollo finger.

Criticism[edit]

Criticism of palmistry often rests with the lack of empirical evidence supporting its efficacy. Scientific literature typically regards palmistry as a pseudoscientific or superstitious belief.[13] Skeptics often include palmists on lists of alleged psychics who practice cold reading. Cold reading is the practice that allows readers of all kinds, including palmists, to appear psychic by using high-probability guessing and inferring details based on signals or cues from the other person.[14]

In films and television[edit]

Palmistry has been shown in a number of films and television shows, including:

  • Amaya (2011) - Through the use of Himalad (Palmistry) the priestess found out that Amaya is the chosen one - the girl with a twin snake who will kill the ferocious Rajah.
  • Eat Pray Love (2010) - Julia Roberts' character goes in for a palmistry reading which transforms her life
  • The Simian Line (2001) - Readings by a quirky psychic set in motion the main plot of the film
  • Before Sunrise (1995) - Julie Delpy's character has her palm read, while Ethan Hawke's character is sidelined, leading to a cynical rant from his character
  • Jacob's Ladder (1990) - Tim Robbins' character has his palm read at a party, which acts as an ominous portent
  • Teen Witch (1989) - While Robyn Lively's character has her palm read, the fortune teller recognizes her as reincarnated witch who will soon be coming into her powers
  • The Simpsons - Palmistry is lampooned in the Season 4 Episode 8 New Kid on the Block.
  • Fun and Fancy Free (1947) - In Mickey and the Beanstalk, Mickey reads the giant's palm
  • Are You Being Served? (1972-1985) - In the third series premiere (1975), Mr. Humphries (played by John Inman) reads an Asian customer's hand, foretelling an accident. Later on, it does happen.
  • The Hunchback of Notre Dame - When Quasimodo tells Esmeralda he's a monster, she reads his palm and sees no "monster lines".
  • Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban - Harry takes a course in divination and dabbles in palmistry.
  • Hands of Destiny (1954 film) - Palmist Dr Josef Ranald appears as himself. He had supposedly read the palms of the great and the good (and leading Nazis) in the mid C20 with huge accuracy!

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dwivedi. Wonders of Palmistry pp. 16-20
  2. ^ a b c d Omura.Acupuncture. pp.172 -174. According to this theory, palmistry developed in India and then extended across the world.
  3. ^ a b Dwivedi. Wonders of Palmistry p. 25-26
  4. ^ Sharma. The A-Z of Palmistry. p. 95
  5. ^ a b c Chinn. Technology. p.24...it was not until the mid- to late nineteenth century that palmreading took off in Britain, France and the United States thanks to three major figures: Casimir Stanislas d'Arpentigny, Edward Heron-Allen and ..Cheiro.
  6. ^ James, Brandon. "PALMISTRY". Retrieved 20 February 2012. 
  7. ^ Johannes Hartlieb (Munich, 1456) The Book of All Forbidden Arts; quoted in Láng, p. 124.
  8. ^ "The London Cheirological Society". 
  9. ^ Heron-Allen. Palmistry
  10. ^ "PALMISTRY ~ ORIGINS & HISTORY". 
  11. ^ "Palmistry". Mystic Scripts. Retrieved 20 February 2012. 
  12. ^ Sara Sirolli - Palmistry diagram of hand 2008
  13. ^ Preece, P. F., & Baxter, J. H. (2000). Scepticism and gullibility: The superstitious and pseudo-scientific beliefs of secondary school students. International Journal of Science Education, 22(11), 1147-1156.
  14. ^ David Vernon in Skeptical — a Handbook of Pseudoscience and the Paranormal, editors: Donald Laycock, David Vernon, Colin Groves, Simon Brown, Imagecraft, Canberra, 1989, ISBN 0-7316-5794-2, p. 44.

Further reading[edit]

  • Chauran, Alexandra (2013). Palmistry Every Day. Llewellyn Worldwide. ISBN 0-7387-3494-2. 
  • Saint-Germain, Comte C. de. Practical Palmistry. Laird & Lee Publishers; Chicago, 1897.
  • Heron-Allen, Edward (2008). Palmistry - A Manual of Cheirosophy (reprint ed.). Baltzell Press. ISBN 1-4437-6535-X. 
  • Chinn, Sarah E. (2000). Technology and the logic of American racism. Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-4750-3. 
  • Yoshiaki Omura (2003). Acupuncture Medicine:Its Historical and Clinical Background. Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 0-486-42850-8. 
  • Cheiro. Palmistry for All at Project Gutenberg
  • Doublepalm+ project The Doublepalm+ project is a non-profit site about making palm reading with people on the web more like palm reading in the real world.
  • Hari Dutta Sharma (1995). The A-Z of Palmistry. New Delhi, India: Sterling Publishers Pvt.Ltd. ISBN 81-207-1661-2. 
  • Bhorai Dwivedi (1970). Wonders of Palmistry. New Delhi: Diamond Pocket Books. ISBN 81-284-0099-1.