A papal coronation was the ceremony of the placing of the papal tiara on a newly elected pope. The first recorded papal coronation was that of Pope Nicholas I in 858. The last was the 1963 coronation of Pope Paul VI, who soon afterwards abandoned the practice of wearing the tiara. None of his successors has used the tiara, and their papal inauguration celebrations have included no coronation ceremony.
The papal inauguration celebration, with or without a coronation, has only symbolic significance, as a pope assumes office immediately on giving his consent to a valid election.
When a conclave elects a new pope, he assumes all of the rights and authority of the papacy immediately upon his acceptance of election; however, popes traditionally numbered their regnal years from the date of their coronation. If a newly elected pope is not a bishop, he is consecrated at once. In accordance with tradition, the right of consecration belongs to the Dean of the College of Cardinals, in his absence to the Subdean, and in the absence of both of these, to the senior Cardinal Bishop. If the new pope is already a bishop, as is normally the case, his election is announced immediately to the people gathered in Saint Peter's Square and he gives them his blessing.
The episcopal enthronement of the pope takes place in his cathedral, the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran. This ceremony was once combined with the coronation. During the Avignon papacy, the pope, being in France, could not be enthroned in his cathedral in Rome. The coronations continued, while enthronements had to await a return to Rome. When Pope Gregory XI did return to Rome, the Lateran Palace was badly in need of repair, so the popes made the Vatican their residence and transferred coronations to Saint Peter's Basilica. The Lateran Basilica remains the cathedral of Rome, and the enthronement occurs there. During the "prisoner in the Vatican" period, the enthronement did not take place.
The coronation took place on the first Sunday or Holy Day following the election. It began with a solemn Papal Mass. During the chanting of Terce, he sat on a throne and all of the cardinals made what was called their "first obeisance" to him, approaching one by one and kissing his hand. Then the archbishops and bishops approached and kissed his feet.
Following this, at least from the beginning of the 16th century, the newly elected pope was carried in state through St. Peter's Basilica on the sedia gestatoria, under a white canopy, with the papal flabella (ceremonial fans) to either side. Instead of the papal tiara, he wore a jewelled mitre (the episcopal mitra pretiosa). Three times, the procession was stopped, and a bundle of flax lashed to a gilded staff was burnt before the newly elected pontiff, while a master of ceremonies said: Pater Sancte, sic transit gloria mundi (Holy Father, thus passes the glory of the world) as a symbolic reminder to set aside materialism and vanity. Once at the high altar, he would begin to celebrate Solemn High Mass with full papal ceremonial.
After the Confiteor, the pope was seated on the sedia gestatoria, which was resting on the ground, and the three senior cardinal bishops approached him wearing mitres. Each in turn placed his hands above him and said the prayer, Super electum Pontificem (over the elected pope). First the Cardinal Bishop of Albano said:
God, who are present without distinction whenever the devout mind invokes you, be present, we ask you, we and this your servant, __, who to the summit of the apostolic community has been chosen as the judge of your people, infuse with the highest blessings that he experience your gift who has reached this point.
Then the Cardinal Bishop of Porto said:
We supplicate you, Almighty God, effect your customary devotion and pour out on this your servant, __, the grace of the Holy Spirit that he who is constituted at the head of our church as the servant of the mystery, you would strengthen with the fullness of virtue.
Finally the Cardinal Bishop of Ostia said:
God, who willed your Apostle Peter to hold first place in the inner fellowship of the apostles, that universal Christianity overcome evil, look propitiously we ask on this your servant, __, who from a humble position has suddenly been enthroned with the apostles on this same principal sublimity, that just as he has been raised to this exalted dignity, so may he likewise merit to accumulate virtue; in bearing the burden of the universal church, help him, make him worthy and for thee who are blessed may merits replace vices.
Accept the pallium, representing the plenitude of the Pontifical office, to the honour of Almighty God, and the most glorious Virgin Mary, his Mother, and the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and the Holy Roman Church.
In the 11th and 12th centuries, the immantatio, or bestowal of the mantum (a papal vestment consisting of a very long red cope fastened with an elaborate morse) on the newly elected pope was regarded as especially symbolic of investiture with papal authority, and was conferred with the words: "I invest thee with the Roman papacy, that thou rule over the city and the world."
After the investiture with the pallium, the pope incensed the high altar and then returned to his seat to receive again the obeisance of the cardinals, archbishops and bishops. Then the Mass continued. After the Gloria in excelsis and the Pax vobis, the pope said the Collect for the day and then secretly a prayer for himself. After the pope had returned again to his seat the Papal Laudes were chanted:
|Hear, O Christ||Life to our lord, __, decreed by God as Supreme Pontiff and Universal Father|
|Savior of the world||Grant him aid.|
|Savior of the world||Grant him aid.|
|Savior of the world||Grant him aid.|
|Saint Mary||Grant him aid.|
|Saint Mary||Grant him aid.|
|Saint Michael||Grant him aid.|
After the Mass, the new pope was crowned with the papal tiara. This frequently took place on the balcony of St. Peter's Basilica, overlooking the crowds gathered in St. Peter's Square. The pope was seated on a throne with the flabella to either side of him. The senior cardinal deacon, the protodeacon, removed the pope's mitre and placed the tiara on his head with the words:
Accipe tiaram tribus coronis ornatam, et scias te esse patrem principum et regum, rectorem orbis in terra vicarium Salvatoris nostri Jesu Christi, cui est honor et gloria in saecula saeculorum (Receive the tiara adorned with three crowns and know that thou art father of princes and kings, the ruler of the world on earth, the vicar of our Savior Jesus Christ, to whom is honor and glory through all ages).
Taking possession of the cathedra of the Bishop of Rome
The last act of the inauguration of a new pope is still the formal taking possession (possessio) of his cathedra as Bishop of Rome in the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran. This is the final ceremony mentioned in Pope John Paul II's Apostolic Constitution on the vacancy of the Apostolic See and the election of the Roman Pontiff. The pope is enthroned in the same manner as other bishops. He is solemnly conducted to the episcopal throne, and takes possession by seating himself on it. He receives the kiss of peace and listens to the reading of a passage of Holy Scripture, whereupon he pronounces an address that used to be called the sermo inthronisticus.
Location of the ceremony
The earliest papal coronations took place in St. John Lateran, the pope's cathedral. However, for hundreds of years papal coronations have traditionally taken place in the environs of St. Peter's Basilica, though a number of coronations took place in Avignon, during the Avignon papacy. Earlier, Pope Celestine V was twice crowned in L'Aquila. In 1800 Pope Pius VII was crowned in the crowded church of the Benedictine island monastery of San Giorgio, Venice, after his late predecessor, Pope Pius VI, had been forced into temporary exile during Napoleon Bonaparte's capture of Rome. Since the French seized the tiara along with the previous pope, he was crowned with a papier-mâché tiara, for which the ladies of Venice gave up their jewels.
All coronations after 1800 took place in Rome. Leo XIII was crowned in the Sistine Chapel, due to fears that anti-clerical mobs, inspired by Italian unification, might attack the Basilica and disrupt the ceremony. Benedict XV was also crowned in the chapel in 1914. Pius XI was crowned at the dais in front of the High Altar in St. Peter's Basilica. Popes Pius IX, Pius XII, and John XXIII, all were crowned in public on the balcony of the basilica, facing crowds assembled below in St. Peter's Square. Paul VI was crowned in front of St Peter's on a special dais. The entire coronation ceremony had taken place outdoors as St Peter's was filled with special seating for the Vatican Council sessions and so unavailable for the coronation.
Pius XII's 1939 coronation broke new ground by being the first to be filmed and the first coronation to be broadcast live on radio. The ceremony, which lasted for six hours, was attended by leading dignitaries; these included the heir to the Italian throne, the Prince of Piedmont, former kings Ferdinand I of Bulgaria and Alfonso XIII of Spain, the Duke of Norfolk (representing King George VI of the United Kingdom), and the Irish Taoiseach Éamon de Valera, the last two being in evening dress (white tie and tails).
Paul VI and the coronation
The last pope to be crowned was Paul VI. Though he decided to cease wearing a papal tiara within weeks of his coronation, and laid his own on the altar of St. Peter's Basilica in a gesture of humility, his 1975 Apostolic Constitution, Romano Pontifici Eligendo, still prescribed that "the new pontiff is to be crowned by the senior cardinal deacon."
Nevertheless, his successor, John Paul I, opted not to be crowned and to have a less formal "solemn Mass to mark the start of his ministry as Supreme Pastor" in September 1978.
John Paul II and the coronation
After John Paul I's sudden death following a thirty-three day reign, the new pope John Paul II, opted to copy his predecessor's ceremony without coronation. In his homily at his inauguration Mass, he said that Paul VI had "left his successors free to decide" whether to wear the papal tiara. He went on:
Pope John Paul I, whose memory is so vivid in our hearts, did not wish to have the tiara; nor does his Successor wish it today. This is not the time to return to a ceremony and an object considered, wrongly, to be a symbol of the temporal power of the Popes.
John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic Constitution, Universi Dominici gregis, now in force, does not specify the form that the "solemn ceremony of the inauguration of the pontificate" of a new pope should take, whether with or without a coronation.
Existing papal tiaras remain available for any future pope who may choose to use one, unlikely though it may appear that it will ever be used again.
List of papal coronations 1143–1963
|October 3, 1143||Rome||Pope Celestine II||Gregorio Tarquini||SS. Sergio e Bacco||On September 26 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Alberic de Beauvais bishop of Ostia.|
|March 12, 1144||Rome||Pope Lucius II||Gregorio Tarquini||SS. Sergio e Bacco||On the same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Alberic de Beauvais, bishop of Ostia.|
|March 14, 1145||Abbey of Farfa||Pope Eugenius III||Odone Bonecase||S. Giorgio in Velabro||On February 18 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Corrado della Suburra bishop of Sabina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.|
|July 12, 1153||Rome||Pope Anastasius IV||Odone Bonecase||S. Giorgio in Velabro|
|December 5, 1154||Rome||Pope Adrian IV||Probably by Cardinal Rodolfo||S. Lucia in Septisolio||Odone Fattiboni was absent (see papal election, 1154)|
|September 20, 1159||Nympha||Pope Alexander III||Odone Bonecase||S. Giorgio in Velabro||On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Ubaldo Allucingoli bishop of Ostia e Velletri.|
|October 4, 1159||Abbey of Farfa||Antipope Victor IV (1159-1164)||Cardinal Icmar bishop of Tusculum and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals|
|July 22, 1167||Rome||Antipope Paschal III||On April 22, 1164 he was consecrated bishop of Rome at Lucca by Henry II of Leez prince-bishop of Liège (not a cardinal).|
|1168||Rome||Antipope Callistus III||(?)|
|September 6, 1181||Velletri||Pope Lucius III||Teodino de Arrone bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.|
|December 1, 1185||Verona||Pope Urban III||(?) (probably by Cardinal Ardicio Rivoltella deacon of S. Teodoro)|
|October 25, 1187||Ferrara||Pope Gregory VIII||Giacinto Bobone Orsini||S. Maria in Cosmedin||On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome, probably by Cardinal Thibaud bishop of Ostia e Velletri (?).|
|January 7, 1188||Pisa||Pope Clement III||Giacinto Bobone Orsini||S. Maria in Cosmedin|
|April 14, 1191||Rome||Pope Celestine III||Graziano da Pisa||SS. Cosma e Damiano||On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Ottaviano di Paoli bishop of Ostia e Velletri and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals|
|February 22, 1198||Rome||Pope Innocent III||Graziano da Pisa||SS. Cosma e Damiano||On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Ottaviano di Paoli, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals|
|August 31, 1216||Rome||Pope Honorius III||Guido Pierleone||S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano||On July 24, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Ugolino Conti di Segni bishop of Ostia e Velletri.|
|April 11, 1227||Rome||Pope Gregory IX||Ottaviano dei Conti di Segni||SS. Sergio e Bacco|
|June 28, 1243||Anagni||Pope Innocent IV||Rainiero Capocci||S. Maria in Cosmedin||On that same day, he was consectrated bishop of Rome, probably by Cardinal Rinaldo Conti di Segni bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals (?).|
|December 20, 1254||Naples||Pope Alexander IV||Riccardo Annibaldeschi||S. Angelo in Pescheria|
|September 4, 1261||Viterbo||Pope Urban IV||Riccardo Annibaldeschi||S. Angelo in Pescheria|
|September 20, 1265||Viterbo||Pope Clement IV||Riccardo Annibaldeschi||S. Angelo in Pescheria|
|March 23, 1272||Rome||Pope Gregory X||Giovanni Gaetano Orsini||Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano||On March 19 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by (?) (possibly by Cardinal Odo of Châteauroux bishop of Frascati and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals).|
|February 22, 1276||Rome||Pope Innocent V||Giovanni Gaetano Orsini||S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano|
|September 20, 1276||Viterbo||Pope John XXI||Giovanni Gaetano Orsini||S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano|
|December 26, 1277||Rome||Pope Nicholas III||Giacomo Savelli||S. Maria in Cosmedin||On December 19 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by (?) (possibly by Cardinal Bertrand de Saint-Martin bishop of Sabina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals).|
|March 23, 1281||Orvieto||Pope Martin IV||Giacomo Savelli||S. Maria in Cosmedin||On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Latino Malabranca Orsini bishop of Ostia e Velletri.|
|May 19, 1285||Rome||Pope Honorius IV||Goffredo da Alatri||S. Giorgio in Velabro||On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Latino Malabranca Orsini, bishop of Ostia e Velletri.|
|February 22, 1288||Rome||Pope Nicholas IV||Matteo Orsini Rosso||S. Maria in Portico|
|August 29, 1294||Aquila||Pope Celestine V||Probably by Cardinal Matteo Orsini Rosso||S. Maria in Portico||On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome probably by Cardinal Hugh Aycelin bishop of Ostia e Velletri. He was crowned again a few days later (the only instance of a double papal coronation).|
|January 23, 1295||Rome||Pope Boniface VIII||Matteo Orsini Rosso||S. Maria in Portico||On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Hugh Aycelin, bishop of Ostia e Velletri.|
|October 27, 1303||Rome||Pope Benedict XI||Matteo Orsini Rosso||S. Maria in Portico|
|November 14, 1305||Lyon||Pope Clement V||Napoleone Orsini Frangipani||S. Adriano|
|September 5, 1316||Lyon||Pope John XXII||Napoleone Orsini Frangipani||S. Adriano|
|May 15, 1328||Rome||Antipope Nicholas V||Giacomo Alberti||pseudocardinal-bishop of Ostia e Velletri||On May 12 he was consecrated bishop of Rome also by Giacomo Alberti, at that time bishop of Castello.|
|January 8, 1335||Avignon||Pope Benedict XII||Napoleone Orsini Frangipani||S. Adriano|
|May 19, 1342||Avignon||Pope Clement VI||Raymond Guillaume des Farges||S. Maria Nuova|
|December 30, 1352||Avignon||Pope Innocent VI||Gaillard de la Mothe||S. Lucia in Septisolio|
|November 6, 1362||Avignon||Pope Urban V||Probably by Cardinal Guillaume de la Jugié||S. Maria in Cosmedin||On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Andouin Aubert bishop of Ostia e Velletri.|
|January 3, 1371||Avignon||Pope Gregory XI||Cardinal Rinaldo Orsini||S. Adriano||On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Guy de Boulogne bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.|
|April 18, 1378||Rome||Pope Urban VI||Giacomo Orsini||S. Giorgio in Velabro|
|October 31, 1378||Fondi||Antipope Clement VII||Count Onorato I Caetani (not a Cardinal)|
|November 9, 1389||Rome||Pope Boniface IX||Tommaso Orsini||S. Maria in Domnica||On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Francesco Moricotti Prignano bishop of Palestrina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.|
|October 11, 1394||Avignon||Antipope Benedict XIII||Hugues de Saint-Martial||S. Maria in Portico||On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Jean de Neufchâtel bishop of Ostia e Velletri.|
|November 11, 1404||Rome||Pope Innocent VII||Rinaldo Brancaccio||SS. Vito e Modesto|
|December 19, 1406||Rome||Pope Gregory XII||Probably by Cardinal Rinaldo Brancaccio||SS. Vito e Modesto|
|July 7, 1409||Pisa||Antipope Alexander V||Amedeo Saluzzo||S. Maria Nuova|
|May 25, 1410||Bologna||Antipope John XXIII||Rinaldo Brancaccio||SS. Vito e Modesto||On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Jean Allarmet de Brogny bishop of Ostia e Velletri and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.|
|November 21, 1417||Constance||Pope Martin V||Amedeo Saluzzo||S. Maria Nuova||On November 14 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Jean Allarmet de Brogny, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.|
|May 19, 1426||Peñíscola||Antipope Clement VIII||crowned by (?)|
|March 11, 1431||Rome||Pope Eugenius IV||Alfonso Carillo de Albornoz||S. Eustachio|
|June 24, 1440||Basle||Antipope Felix V||Cardinal Louis Aleman||S. Cecilia|
|March 19, 1447||Rome||Pope Nicholas V||Prospero Colonna||S. Giorgio in Velabro|
|April 20, 1455||Rome||Pope Callistus III||Prospero Colonna||S. Giorgio in Velabro|
|September 3, 1458||Rome||Pope Pius II||Prospero Colonna||S. Giorgio in Velabro|
|September 16, 1464||Rome||Pope Paul II||Niccolò Fortiguerra||S. Cecilia|
|August 25, 1471||Rome||Pope Sixtus IV||Rodrigo Borgia||S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano||On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville bishop of Ostia e Velletri and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.|
|September 12, 1484||Rome||Pope Innocent VIII||Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini||S. Eustachio|
|August 26, 1492||Rome||Pope Alexander VI||Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini||S. Eustachio|
|October 8, 1503||Rome||Pope Pius III||Raffaele Riario||S. Giorgio in Velabro||On October 1 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.|
|November 26, 1503||Rome||Pope Julius II||Raffaele Riario||S. Giorgio in Velabro|
|March 19, 1513||Rome||Pope Leo X||Alessandro Farnese||S. Eustachio||On March 17 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Raffaele Riario, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.|
|August 31, 1522||Rome||Pope Adrian VI||Marco Cornaro||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|November 26, 1523||Rome||Pope Clement VII||Marco Cornaro||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|November 3, 1534||Rome||Pope Paul III||Innocenzo Cibo||S. Maria in Domnica|
|February 22, 1550||Rome||Pope Julius III||Innocenzo Cibo||S. Maria in Domnica|
|April 10, 1555||Rome||Pope Marcellus II||Jean du Bellay bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina||On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Gian Pietro Carafa, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.|
|May 26, 1555||Rome||Pope Paul IV||Francesco Pisani||S. Marco|
|January 6, 1560||Rome||Pope Pius IV||Alessandro Farnese||S. Lorenzo in Damaso|
|January 17, 1566||Rome||Pope Pius V||Giulio Feltre della Rovere||S. Pietro in Vincoli|
|May 25, 1572||Rome||Pope Gregory XIII||Girolamo Simoncelli||SS. Cosma e Damiano|
|May 1, 1585||Rome||Pope Sixtus V||Ferdinando de' Medici||S. Maria in Domnica|
|December 8, 1590||Rome||Pope Gregory XIV||Andreas von Austria||S. Maria Nuova|
|November 3, 1591||Rome||Pope Innocent IX||Andreas von Austria||S. Maria Nuova|
|February 9, 1592||Rome||Pope Clement VIII||Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora||S. Maria in Via Lata||On February 2 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Alfonso Gesualdo bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.|
|April 10, 1605||Rome||Pope Leo XI||Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|May 29, 1605||Rome||Pope Paul V||Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|February 14, 1621||Rome||Pope Gregory XV||Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|September 29, 1623||Rome||Pope Urban VIII||Alessandro d'Este||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|October 4, 1644||Rome||Pope Innocent X||Carlo de Medici||S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano|
|April 16, 1655||Rome||Pope Alexander VII||Gian Giacomo Teodoro Trivulzio||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|June 26, 1667||Rome||Pope Clement IX||Rinaldo d'Este||S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano|
|May 11, 1670||Rome||Pope Clement X||Francesco Maidalchini||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|October 4, 1676||Rome||Pope Innocent XI||Francesco Maidalchini||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|October 16, 1689||Rome||Pope Alexander VIII||Francesco Maidalchini||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|July 15, 1691||Rome||Pope Innocent XII||Urbano Sacchetti||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|December 8, 1700||Rome||Pope Clement XI||Benedetto Pamphilj||S. Maria in Via Lata||On November 30 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal de Bouillon bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.|
|May 18, 1721||Rome||Pope Innocent XIII||Benedetto Pamphilj||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|June 4, 1724||Rome||Pope Benedict XIII||Benedetto Pamphilj||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|July 16, 1730||Rome||Pope Clement XII||Lorenzo Altieri||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|August 21, 1740||Rome||Pope Benedict XIV||Carlo Maria Marini||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|July 16, 1758||Rome||Pope Clement XIII||Alessandro Albani||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|June 4, 1769||Rome||Pope Clement XIV||Alessandro Albani||S. Maria in Via Lata||On May 28 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Federico Marcello Lante bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.|
|February 22, 1775||Rome||Pope Pius VI||Alessandro Albani||S. Maria in Via Lata||On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Albani, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.|
|March 21, 1800||Venice||Pope Pius VII||Antonio Doria Pamphili||S. Maria ad Martyres|
|October 5, 1823||Rome||Pope Leo XII||Fabrizio Ruffo||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|April 5, 1829||Rome||Pope Pius VIII||Giuseppe Albani||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|February 6, 1831||Rome||Pope Gregory XVI||Giuseppe Albani||S. Maria in Via Lata||On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.|
|June 21, 1846||Rome||Pope Pius IX||Tommaso Riario Sforza||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|March 3, 1878||Rome||Pope Leo XIII||Teodolfo Mertel||S. Eustachio||Teodolfo Mertel as the second senior cardinal-deacon, assumed the protodeacon's responsibilities at the coronation due to the illness of Prospero Caterini the incumbent protodeacon.|
|August 9, 1903||Rome||Pope Pius X||Luigi Macchi||S. Maria in Via Lata|
|September 6, 1914||Rome||Pope Benedict XV||Francesco Salesio Della Volpe||S. Maria in Aquiro|
|February 12, 1922||Rome||Pope Pius XI||Gaetano Bisleti||S. Agata in Suburra|
|March 12, 1939||Rome, Vatican City||Pope Pius XII||Camillo Caccia-Dominioni||S. Maria in Domnica|
|November 4, 1958||Rome, Vatican City||Pope John XXIII||Nicola Canali||S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano|
|June 30, 1963||Rome, Vatican City||Pope Paul VI||Alfredo Ottaviani||S. Maria in Domnica|
- Catholic Encyclopedia, "Pope Celestine V, Saint"
- Kazimierz Dopierała, Księga Papieży, Poznań 1996, p. 104.
- Dowling, Austin (1908), "Conclave", The Catholic Encyclopedia IV, New York: Robert Appleton Company
- Universi Dominici gregis, 90
- Universi Dominici gregis, 91
- Oliger, Livarius (1912), "Sedia Gestatoria", The Catholic Encyclopedia XIII, New York: Robert Appleton Company
- ”Deus qui adesse non delignaris ubicumque devota mente invocaris, adesto quaesumus invocationibus nostris et huic famulo tuo N. quem ad culmen apostolicum commune iudicium tuae plebis elegit ubertatem supernae benedictionis infunde, ut sentiat se tuo munere ad hunc apicem pervenisse.” Coronation Rites, Reginald Maxwell Woolley, B.D. (Cambridge: at the University Press, 1915), pp. 160-161.
- “Supplicationibus, omnipotens Deus, effectum consuetae pietatis impende, et gratia Spiritus Sancti hunc famulum tuum N. perfunde; ut qui in capite ecclesiarum nostrae servitutis mysterio constituitur, tuae virtutis soliditate roboretur.” Ibid., p. 161.
- ”Deus qui Apostolum tuum Petrum inter caeteros coapostolos primatum tenere voluisti, eique universae Christianitatis molem superimpostuisti; respice propitius quaesumus hunc famulum tuum N. quem de humili cathedra violenter sublimatum in thronum eiusdem apostolorum principis sublimamus: ut sicut profectibus tantae dignitatis augetur, ita virtutum meritis cumuletur; quatenus ecclesiasticae universitatis onus, te adiuvante, digne ferat, et a te qui es beatitudo tuorum meritam vicem recipiat.” Ibid.
- Papal Coronation
- “Accipe pallium, plenitudinem scilicet pontificalis officii, ad honorem omnipotentis Dei et gloriosissimae Virginis eius genitricis et beatorum apostolorum Petri et Pauli et sanctae Romanae ecclesiae.”
- Thurston, Herbert (1908), "Cope", The Catholic Encyclopedia IV, New York: Robert Appleton Company
- This prayer is from the form for the Consecration of a bishop. Woolley. p. 163.
- "Exaudi Christe"
- ”Domino Nostro __ a Deo decreto summo Pontifici et universali Papae vita.”
- "Salvador mundi"
- "Tu illum adiuva"
- "Sancta Maria"
- "Sancte Michael"
- Woolley, p. 163. The Papal Laudes were most recently chanted during the opening procession of the inauguration Mass of Pope Benedict XVI on April 24, 2005.
- The Greek Epistle and Gospel were traditionally read by a subdeacon and a deacon from the Byzantine monastery of Grottaferrata east of Rome
- I.e., the Sacrament was brought to the Pope by the deacon and the subdeacon at his throne and he consumed a portion of the Host and drank from the Chalice by means of a narrow gold or silver-gilt tube called a fistula.
- Francis Patrick Henrick, The Primacy of the Apostolic See Vindicated (Baltimore, London and Pittsburgh 1857), p. 252
- According to the Encyclopaedia Americana, article "Tiara", the words were "... scias te esse patrem, principem et regem ... (know that you are a father, a prince and a king).
- Universi Dominici gregis, 92
- Van Hove, A. (1909), "Enthronization", The Catholic Encyclopedia V, New York: Robert Appleton Company
- Contemporary description of the coronation of Pope Leo XIII
- John Cornwell, Hitler's Pope: The Secret History of Pius XII (Viking, 1999) pp. 211-212.
- Romano Pontifici Eligendo Section 92.
- Time Magazine: How Pope John Paul I Won
- National Catholic Register: 33 Days of the Smiling Pope
- Papal Inauguration Homily of Pope John Paul II, L'Osservatore Romano (Text of the Homily)
- Universi Dominici gregis, 92
- OSV's encyclopedia of Catholic history, Tiara (p. 900)
- No information has been found about his coronation
- Regesta Imperii
- S. Miranda: Cardinal Uberto Crivelli (Pope Urban III) says that Urban III was crowned by protodeacon Giacinto Bobone Orsini but this is unlikely because this cardinal was absent from the papal court at that time (see papal election, 1185). Cardinal Rivoltella was the most senior cardinal-deacon present.
- "The Coronation of Pope Leo XIII". Catholic World Volume 27, Issue 158 pp. 280-285.
- "Caterini, Prospero". Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church.