Places that have decriminalized non-medical cannabis in the United States
||It has been suggested that this article be merged into Decriminalization of non-medical cannabis in the United States. (Discuss) Proposed since February 2012.|
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2013)|
Multiple places have decriminalized non-medical cannabis in the United States; however, cannabis is illegal under federal law. Gonzales v. Raich (2005) held in a 6-3 decision that the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution allowed the federal government to ban the use of cannabis, including medical use even if local laws allow it. Most places that have decriminalized cannabis have civil fines, drug education, or drug treatment in place of incarceration or criminal charges for possession of small amounts of cannabis, or have made various cannabis offenses the lowest priority for law enforcement. On May 20, 2013, the state of Colorado became United States' first legally regulated market for cannabis for adults.
- 1 Alaska
- 2 Arkansas
- 3 California
- 4 Colorado
- 5 Connecticut
- 6 Hawaii
- 7 Illinois
- 8 Kansas
- 9 Louisiana
- 10 Maine
- 11 Massachusetts
- 12 Michigan
- 13 Minnesota
- 14 Missouri
- 15 Mississippi
- 16 Montana
- 17 Nebraska
- 18 Nevada
- 19 New Mexico
- 20 New York
- 21 North Carolina
- 22 Ohio
- 23 Oregon
- 24 Rhode Island
- 25 Texas
- 26 Vermont
- 27 Washington
- 28 Wisconsin
- 29 See also
- 30 References
- 31 External links
In 1975, Alaska removed all penalties for possession (not sale) of cannabis under 4 ounces in one's residence or home. Also, the ruling allowed up to 24 private, noncommercial growing plants. Sale of less than 28.349 grams is a misdemeanor, punishable by up to a year in jail and up to a $5,000 fine; at the time, in most states sale of less than 28.349 grams was a felony offense. 2006 court rulings have upheld the legal status of private possession up to the one ounce level relating to the particulars in that specific legal challenge. This leaves the one to four ounce range, and the live plant totals in a confused legal status, presumably involving criminal consequences.
With the 1975 Ravin v. State decision, the Alaska Supreme Court declared the state's anti-drug law unconstitutional with respect to possession of small amounts of cannabis, holding that the right to privacy guaranteed by the Constitution of Alaska outweighed the state's interest in banning the drug. Ravin continues to be followed since the Alaska constitution has not been amended to prohibit, or permit the prohibition of, less than 28.349 grams of cannabis, an anti-cannabis initiative passed in 1990 and an anti-cannabis piece of legislation passed in 2006 remain inoperative. This allows possession of fewer than 25 plants in one's residence or home. The sale or delivery of marijuana is still considered a crime.
Cannabis is not decriminalized on a statewide basis.
On November 7, 2006, Eureka Springs, Arkansas passed "Cannabis as Low Police Priority" Initiative by 62-38 percent. The ordinance directs local law enforcement to issue a summons in lieu of a criminal arrest for adults age 18 and over to be found in possession of up to one ounce of cannabis or cannabis paraphernalia. Cannabis offenses will be punished by a fine, community service, or drug counseling and education, but will not be punishable by arrest.
On January 78[7 or 8?], 2012, the city of Fayetteville made possession of less than one ounce the lowest priority for local law enforcement.
On September 2011, Arkansas lawmakers enacted sentencing reform measures, which reduced pot possession penalties.
September 2, 2011. Criminal sentencing reform legislation passed by lawmakers earlier 2011 is in effect. Senate Bill 750, the Public Safety Improvement Act, intends to reduce the number of non-violent offenders incarcerated statewide by mitigating the sentences for certain low-level drug offenses.
Democrat Gov. Mike Beebe, who strongly backed the measure, signed it into law on March 22, 2011. The law took effect on July 27.
Specific to marijuana law enforcement, the measure amends cannabis penalties so that the possession of up to four ounces of pot is a criminal misdemeanor, punishable by up to one-year in jail and a $1,000 fine. For first-time offenders, the new law states, “[T]he court, without entering a judgment of guilt and with the consent of the defendant, may defer further proceedings and place the defendant on probation for a period of not less than one year.”
Under the previous law, the possession of any amount of cannabis above one ounce was a felony offense punishable by between four and ten years imprisonment and a $25,000 fine.
The new law additionally reduces criminal penalties for the possession of small quantities of marijuana ‘with the intent to deliver’ from a felony offense to a misdemeanor. The law also reduces subsequent marijuana possession offenses from felonies to misdemeanors. Previously, second and third pot possession offenses were categorized as felonies.
Defendants found guilty of violating the state’s marijuana laws will still be subject to the loss of their driver’s license for six-months.
On January 1, 1975, Senate Bill 95 made possession under one ounce of cannabis for non-medical use punishable by a $100 fine; stricter punishments exist for amounts exceeding an ounce, possession on school grounds, or subsequent violations or for sale or cultivation. If the offender is under the age of 21, his or her driver license may be suspended for up to one year.
On November 7, 2000, Proposition 36 was passed by 61-39 percent. The proposition allowed first and second time non-violent simple drug possession offenders the option to receive drug treatment and legal probation instead of incarceration.
On February 23, 2009, Assembly Bill No. 390 - California: Marijuana Control, Regulation, and Education Act was introduced by California State Assembly member Tom Ammiano, a Democrat representing California's 13th State Assembly district. The passing of this bill would legalize marijuana in California. This bill would also tax and regulate the cultivation and sale of marijuana. The state's tax collectors estimate the measure would bring in about $1.3 billion in new revenues a year plus cost savings from prisons.
On September 30, 2010, California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger signed into law S.B. 1449, a bill that decriminalizes the possession of up to one ounce of marijuana. The bill reduces simple possession from a misdemeanor to an infraction. This would eliminate the need to appear in front of a court and would treat possession of less than 28.5 grams like a traffic ticket, punishable by $100.
In April 1973, Berkeley passed The Marijuana Ordinance I (BMI I), which forbid law enforcement from arresting persons for cannabis related crimes unless cleared by the City Council. In the case Younger v. Berkeley City Council, the California Superior Court Judge struck down BMI I because it violated city code that states the City Manager has discretion over police personnel.
In 1979, Berkeley passed The Marijuana Ordinance II (BMI II), which made the enforcement of cannabis laws—including cultivation, sale, and transport—-the lowest priority for law enforcement, banned the expenditure of funds for enforcement of cannabis statutes, allowed residents to grow cannabis and report any theft of cannabis plants to law enforcement, and directed the City Council to lobby in favor of the decriminalization and legalization of cannabis.
In 2000, Mendocino County became the first county in the United States to repeal any type of punishment for non-medical personal use of cannabis when Measure G passed, by a vote of 58-42 percent. The Green Party-sponsored Measure G provides protection from law enforcement for persons possessing no more than 25 adult female flowering cannabis plants or the equivalent in dried cannabis. This measure was however modified in 2008 by Measure B by 52-48 percent.
On November 3, 2004, Oakland passed Proposition Z, by a vote of 65-35 percent. Proposition Z made personal adult use, distribution, sale, cultivation, and possession of non-medical cannabis, the lowest priority for law enforcement. Proposition Z will allow the licensing, taxing, and regulation of cannabis sales if California law is amended to allow so. The proposition states the city of Oakland must advocate to the state of California to adopt laws to regulate and tax cannabis.
On November 7, 2006, Santa Barbara, passed Measure P, by a vote of 66-34 percent. Measure P made non-medical cannabis offenses the lowest priority for law enforcement; this does not apply to the cultivation, distribution, sale, public use, or driving under the influence.
On November 7, 2006, Santa Cruz passed Measure K, by a vote of 64-36 percent. Measure K made adult non-medical cannabis offenses the lowest priority for law enforcement; this does not apply to cultivation, distribution, sale in public, sale to minors, or driving under the influence. The measure requests the Santa Cruz city clerk send letters annually to state and federal representatives advocating reform of cannabis laws.
In 2006, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors passed a cannabis ordinance, by a vote of 8-3. This ordinance made adult cannabis offenses the lowest priority for law enforcement; this does not apply to the sale in a public place or driving under the influence. The ordinance states that the San Francisco government will urge state and federal authorities to enact similar laws.
On November 7, 2006, Santa Monica passed Measure Y, by a vote of 65-35 percent. Measure Y made cannabis offenses the lowest priority for law enforcement. The measure states the city clerk of Santa Monica will encourage state and federal authorities to adopt similar laws.
In 2006, West Hollywood City Council passed a cannabis resolution, by a vote of 4-0, which made West Hollywood the first city in Southern California to adopt a lowest law enforcement priority law for cannabis offenses. The resolution stated "it is not the policy of the City or its law enforcement agency to target possession of small amounts of cannabis and the consumption of non-medical cannabis in private by adults".
In 1975, Colorado made possession under a one ounce of cannabis a petty offense punishable by a $100 fine; stricter punishments exist for possession over an ounce, sale, cultivation, or use or display in public.
In the November 2000 general election, Coloradans passed Amendment 20, and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) was tasked with implementing and administering the Medical Marijuana Registry program. In March 2001, the State of Colorado Board of Health approved the Rules and Regulations pertaining to the administration of the program, and on June 1, 2001, the Registry began accepting and processing applications for Registry Identification cards. For years, patients could get small amounts of medical marijuana from "caregivers," the term used for growers and dispensers who could each supply only five patients. However, in 2007, a court lifted that limit and thus began what Coloradoans are referring to as the "Green Rush"—a medical marijuana business boom. Between 2000 and 2008, the state issued only about 2,000 medical marijuana cards to patients. By 2009, that number skyrocketed to more than 60,000 due to the unlimited amount of patients the dispensaries are now able to provide care for.
On November 1, 2005, Denver passed the Denver Alcohol-Marijuana Equalization Initiative, by a vote of 54-46 percent. This initiative repealed municipal penalties for possession of one ounce of cannabis, but only for persons age 21 and older. However, this conflicts with state law, so police can still arrest for possession of cannabis because Colorado state and federal penalties remain in effect. For more info see Safer Alternative for Enjoyable Recreation.
On November 7, 2007, Denver passed an initiative to make cannabis the "lowest law enforcement priority". This was the third cannabis initiative sponsored by Safer Alternative for Enjoyable Recreation. However, officials seemed to disregard the "lowest law enforcement priority" law and arrests increased the following years. http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/03/06/denver-officials-ignore-marijuana-votes/
On November 2, 2009, in the Summit County elections, the voters of Breckenridge approved Question 2F, decriminalizing possession of 1 oz. or less of marijuana and related paraphernalia for persons 21 years of age or older.
On November 6, 2012, Colorado Amendment 64 (2012) was passed by initiative, thereby legalizing the recreational use of cannabis. The Campaign to Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol, a ballot initiative campaign backed by the Marijuana Policy Project, successfully passed the amendment, making Colorado one of two places in the world to have legalized the possession, use, production, distribution, and personal cultivation of marijuana, along with Washington State, which legalized personal marijuana use on the same day. The Marijuana Policy Project also played a lead role in drafting and campaigning for the historic initiative. In this historical event with global significance, Colorado Governor John Hickenlooper signed two bills on May 28, 2013 that made Colorado the world's first fully regulated recreational cannabis market for adults. Hickenlooper explained to the media: “Certainly, this industry will create jobs. Whether it’s good for the brand of our state is still up in the air. But the voters passed Amendment 64 by a clear majority. That’s why we’re going to implement it as effectively as we possibly can.” In its independent analysis, the Colorado Center on Law & Policy found that the state could expect a to see “$60 million in total combined savings and additional revenue for Colorado’s budget with a potential for this number to double after 2017.”
In June 2011, the state decriminalized possession of small amounts of marijuana. Offenders pay a $150 fine for a first offense and a fine ranging from $200 to $500 for subsequent offenses. Those younger than 21 face a 60-day driver's license suspension. Paraphernalia has also been decriminalized as long as the person possesses under 1/2 an ounce of marijuana. Offenders may still be arrested for under 1/2 an ounce or a pipe if they are in a school zone and there is a MMS (mandatory minimum sentence) of 3 years. There is also a MMS of 3 years for sale to a minor.
On November 4, 2008 Hawai’i County voters passed Ballot Question 1, the Lowest Law Enforcement Priority of Cannabis Ordinance, by 53.1% to 38.6% (with 8.3% blank votes). The law is now known as Chapter 14 Article 16 of the Hawai’i County Code and makes cannabis the lowest priority for Hawai’i County Police and Prosecutors. Under this ordinance, adults over the age of 21 may cultivate and possess up to 24 plants or 24 ounces of dried material on private property. The law makes it illegal for Hawai’i County to accept any funds for marijuana eradication programs. It also prohibits County Law Enforcement officials from being deputized or commissioned by Federal agencies for any activity that is inconsistent with the ordinance.
Cannabis is not decriminalized on a statewide basis.
In March 2004, Carbondale, Illinois passed an ordinance which reduced the punishment for possession of less than 10 grams of cannabis or cannabis paraphernalia to a minimum fine of $250 in lieu of incarceration.
In late 2009, Cook County, Illinois (which includes the city of Chicago and adjacent suburbs) also decriminalized cannabis possession of less than 10 grams or cannabis paraphernalia to a $200 minimum fine for unincorporated areas and forest preserves. In 2011, the law was amended to apply to all areas where the county sheriff is the primary law enforcement agency, such as the village of Ford Heights.
In February 2009, the city of Springfield, Illinois passed an ordinance allowing possession of marijuana under 2.5 grams to per charged as an ordinance violation instead of as a crime.
In January 2012, the city of Evanston, Illinois decriminalized possession of 10 grams of marijuana or less with a city fine ranging from $50–$500.
On June 27, 2012, the city of Chicago, Illinois decriminalized possession of 15 grams of marijuana or less with a city fine ranging from $250–500. The ordinance was passed in a 43-3 vote.
On October 1, 2012, the city of Salem, Illinois decriminalized possession of 30 grams of marijuana or less with a city fine ranging from $250–500.
Illinois became the 20th state in the nation to allow the medical use of marijuana, after nearly 10 years of lobbying by the Marijuana Policy Project. Thursday, August 1, 2013, Governor Pat Quinn signed “The Compassionate Use of Medical Cannabis Pilot Program Act.” Patients will be limited to 2.5 ounces every two weeks. It takes effect January 1, 2014.
Cannabis is not decriminalized on a statewide basis.
In 2006, the city of Lawrence, Kansas passed an ordinance imposing fines, mandatory treatment and potential jail time for cannabis possession.
In early 2011, the port city of New Orleans, Louisiana changed their marijuana policy. The City Council passed ordinance in the previous months making possessors of small amounts of cannabis are no longer subjected to immediate and mandatory arrest. The ordinance shifts cases from Criminal District Court to Municipal Court. In practice, officers can still arrest, or issue a court summons for the municipal charge carrying the same state penalties. Councilwoman Susan Guidry explains "the new city laws mirror the state laws covering the same misdemeanors, including identical maximum penalties upon conviction: a $500 fine and-or six months in jail.
Newly appointed Police Superintendent Ronal W. Serpas was quoted as saying the change was "not being soft on crime but smart on crime."
||This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (November 2012)|
Decriminalized- Possession of less than 2.5 oz is a civil violation, punishable by a fine of $200–600. Subsequent violations within 6 months results in an additional $550 fine.
Possession of 2.5 oz or more is a ‘prima facie’ case (i.e., the amount itself implies intention) for intent to distribute.
Cultivation of 5 plants or less is a class E misdemeanor, punishable by 6 months in jail and a $1,000 fine.
Cultivation of 5-100 plants is a class D misdemeanor, punishable by 1 year in jail and a $2,000 fine.
Cultivation of 100-500 is a class C felony, punishable by 5 years in prison and a $5,000.
Cultivation of more than 500 plants is a class B felony, punishable by 10 years in prison and a $20,000 fine.
Distribution of 1 lb or less is a class D misdemeanor, punishable by 1 year in jail and a $2,000 fine.
Distribution of 1-20 lbs is a class C felony, punishable by 5 years in prison and a $5,000 fine.
Distribution of 20 lbs or more is a class B felony, punishable by 10 years in prison and a $20,000.
Selling any amount to a minor or within 1,000 feet of a school or of a school bus is a class C felony, punishable by 5 years in prison and a $5,000 fine.
Possession and use of paraphernalia is a civil violation, punishable by a $300 fine, no criminal charges.
Selling paraphernalia is a misdemeanor, punishable by 6 months in jail and a $1,000 fine.
Selling paraphernalia to a minor is a misdemeanor, punishable by 1 year in jail and a $2,000 fine.
Upon conviction, the court can, but does not automatically, suspend or revoke the offender’s driver’s license.
Medical Program? – Yes.
On March 28, 2000, Amherst passed a non-binding referendum by a vote of 63-37 percent. The referendum "deprioritized" adult possession of cannabis and urged "the members of the Selectboard and the Town Manager to persuade our state representative, state senator, U.S. representative and U.S. senators to repeal the prohibition of cannabis".
On February 16, 2006, The Herald News reported that the Joint Mental Health and Substance Abuse Committee of the Massachusetts General Court voted 6-1 in favor of a bill that would have made possession of less than an ounce of cannabis a civil fine of $250.
On November 4, 2008, state voters approved the Marijuana Policy Project's ballot initiative to decriminalize the possession of marijuana. Any person caught with less than an ounce of marijuana, hash, hash oil, or smoking in public is punishable by a civil fine of $100. The new law took effect in January 2009. Since the law has taken effect, some towns have amended the law, making it a more major fine for being caught smoking in public.
On November 6, 2012, state voters approved an initiative to eliminate criminal and civil penalties for the use of medical marijuana.
Cannabis is not decriminalized on a statewide basis for non-medical purposes, but with the November 2008 election, Proposal 1 was passed by a majority of voters allowing medical marijuana to be cultivated, possessed, and used by individuals who apply for and receive a state ID issued on the basis of one of an enumerated list of chronic medical conditions. As of August 2012 according to LARA, the state license agent for medical use, has issued over 220,000 licenses.
In Ann Arbor, since a 1974 voter referendum, cannabis possession, control, use, and giving away or selling in the city has been subject merely to a small civil-infraction fine. City police charge violators under the local law rather than under the far stricter state laws. The amount of the fine has been altered in subsequent referenda, and as of 2008 stands at $25 for a first offense, $50 for a second offense, and $100 for the third and subsequent offenses. In 2004, Ann Arbor voters reaffirmed the civil-infraction penalty, passing Proposal C, by a vote of 75-25 percent. The measure capped penalties for the third offense and subsequent offenses at $100.
A 2012 voter referendum in Grand Rapids established marijuana possession as a civil infraction subject to fines of $25–100, and directed city police officers not to report incidents involving less than 2.5oz to prosecutors other than the city attorney. Incidents involving large quantities or impaired driving would still be reported to county or state prosecutors. Following unsuccessful court challenges, implementation of the law began in May 2013.
Possession and sale of less than 42.5 grams (1.5 ounces) of cannabis is a misdemeanor punishable by a $200 fine and possible drug education; stricter punishments exist for possession of more than 1.4 grams (0.049 ounces) in a motor vehicle (unless kept in the trunk), driving under the influence, or sale to a minor.
Cannabis is not decriminalized on a statewide basis in Missouri, although since 1999, as with all other drugs in Missouri, first-time cases of possession of cannabis no longer are prosecuted in ordinary state court, but rather in specialized drug courts. By law, treatment, rather than punishment, is the express object of any drug court action in Missouri. Despite the drug courts, however, as it stands, simple possession of less than 35 grams of cannabis is a class-A misdemeanor in Missouri, theoretically punishable by up to one year in prison and a fine of $1000.
In 2004, voters in the city of Columbia passed Proposition 2 by 61-39 percent. Proposition 2 made cannabis the "lowest priority" for law enforcement, and for possession of cannabis under 35 grams (1.25 ounces) the offense was reduced municipally to a civil fine of a maximum of $250, with no possibility of criminal retribution, arrest, or incarceration. That law has since been revised, allowing only first time offenders to escape prosecution and instead pay the fine.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2013)|
According to the letter of the law, cannabis has been decriminalized in Mississippi. Statutes indicate state penalties of 30g or less constitutes a misdemeanor with no arrest and a fine of $100–$250. Possession of any amount in a motor vehicle is a misdemeanor with a possibility of 90 days in jail, a $1000 fine, and a sixth-month driver's license suspension. Possession of 30 grams or more is a felony.
Cannabis is not decriminalized on a statewide basis.
Possession of one ounce or less a civil citation punishable by a $300 fine: stricter punishments exist for sale or subsequent offenses.
Possession of 1 Oz or less is a misdemeanor, usually punished only with a fine, for up to three offenses; after the third offense, it becomes a felony with a one year mandatory minimum sentence. Possession of larger quantities, distribution, sale, delivery, and cultivation are felonies and often carry mandatory minimum jail terms.
Possession and sale of marijuana is still prohibited by law for recreational use. New Mexico does, however, have a medical marijuana program. As recently as the 2014 legislative session, efforts by lawmakers are being made to legalize possession statewide via constitutional amendment. If passed by the legislature, it would then be decided by voters in a general election. Governor Susana Martinez is opposed to legalization for recreational use. The bill is currently held up in the Senate Rules Committee.
Possession of 25 grams (0.88 ounces) or less of cannabis is a civil citation punishable by up to a $250 fine and a $100 court surcharge; stricter punishments exist for sale, cultivation, or subsequent offenses. If found in a public place with marijuana burning or in public view, offender can be charged with a misdemeanor, fined $500, and incarcerated up to 3 months.
First-time offenders of all marijuana possession laws and some marijuana sale laws are, with some exception, granted an automatic marijuana adjournment of their case in contemplation of dismissal ("MACD"), meaning that if the offender commits no crimes and abides by any conditions set by the court, his or her case will be automatically dismissed after one year.
Possession of 0.5 ounce is a misdemeanor punishable by 30 days in jail (suspended sentence mandatory) and a $200 fine: possession of over 0.5 ounce to 1.5 ounces is a misdemeanor punishable by 1–120 days in jail (community service or probation possible) and a $500 fine: stricter punishments exist for possession of amounts over 1.5 ounces, sale, or cultivation. Sale or delivery of less than five grams, for no remuneration, is considered possession.
In 1975, Ohio made possession and cultivation of less than 100 grams (3.5 ounces) of cannabis and a gift of 20 grams (0.7 ounces) or less of cannabis a minor misdemeanor (same class as minor traffic violations) punishable by a $150 fine, a 6 month to 5 year drivers license suspension and a suspension of any professional licenses. According to the Ohio Revised Code, possession of less than 100 grams is only a minor misdemeanor, possession of drug paraphernalia, which may include a bowl or bong, is also a minor misdemeanor prosecuted now only by a fine as of September 28, 2012. Trafficking cannabis is a felony.
In 1973, Oregon became the first state to decriminalize cannabis. Laws changed again in 1995 that reduced penalties. Possession of one ounce or less became legally defined as a "violation" (a crime that is considered a lesser offence than a misdemeanor) and now is punishable by a $500 to $7,000 fine that can be, in some jurisdictions, paid off by means of community service. Possession of multiple containers of any weight, or possession of more than one ounce can sometimes add the additional crime "Intent to Sell." In some cases, people who have no marijuana, but are caught at the scene of a drug bust are charged with "Frequenting." Stricter punishments exist for sale, cultivation, and proximity to schools.
On November 6, 2012, Oregon was one of three states (including Washington and Colorado) to vote on legalization of marijuana possession. The measure did not pass, though it did in the other two states.
On June 13, 2012, Rhode Island decriminalized marijuana, with the Marijuana Policy Project leading the three-year lobbying and grassroots effort for the legislation. Possession of 28.34 grams or less is a penalty of law with a civil violation of $150 for most violations. The new law also dictates that three such violations within an 18 month period would be a misdemeanor with larger fines and possible prison. The law will take effect April, 1st 2013. Harvard economist estimated that this proposal will save the state of Rhode Island up to $11 million annually.
In addition, allowing law enforcement to issue a simple citation as opposed to making an arrest for marijuana possession will free up law enforcement time to prevent, investigate, and solve crimes of violence and against property. Earlier this month, the Rhode Island General Assembly overwhelming approved bills that would – for most offenses – remove the threat of jail time for the simple possession of marijuana. The companion bills – S2253/H7092 – would replace the current criminal charge for simple possession – up to a year in jail or up to a $500 fine – with a $150 civil offense.
Individuals under the age of 18 would be subject to the same civil violation and would also be required to attend a drug education course as well as perform community service. A third marijuana possession offense within 18 months could result in a misdemeanor conviction punishable by up to 30 days in jail or a fine of up to $500.
In theory, Texas law enforcement officers have the option of ticketing offenders in possession of less than 4 ounces (class B misdemeanor) instead of arresting. In practice, however, Travis County (Austin) is one of the few counties that opts for this (Harris County policy follows similar suit). Most such cases get dismissed in Travis County after paying a fine, providing community service, or taking drug classes, depending on such factors as the details surrounding the arrest and the offender's criminal history.
In most places, for e.g. College Station, officers will arrest offenders for any amount of marijuana whatsoever.
On June 6, 2013, Vermont became the 17th state to decriminalize marijuana. Governor Peter Shumlin signed a bill that making possession of less than an ounce of the drug punishable by a small fine rather than arrest and possible jail time. The Marijuana Policy Project led the nearly four-year lobbying effort for the law.
Prior to December 6, 2012, possession of less than 40 grams of cannabis was a misdemeanor crime in Washington state, punishable by a minimum mandatory sentence ranging from 1 to 90 days.
On February 19, 2009, SB 5615 - 2009-10 was introduced in the state legislature. The bill would have reclassified possession of forty grams or less of marijuana from a misdemeanor to a class 2 civil infraction. The bill did not pass.
Seattle, Washington: Initiative 75, passed by the 58% of Seattle, WA voters in September 2003, requires that "the Seattle Police Department and City Attorney’s Office shall make the investigation, arrest and prosecution of marijuana offenses, when the marijuana was intended for adult personal use, the city’s lowest law enforcement priority." The ordinance subsequently adopted by the Seattle City Council to implement the new policy included provisions for the president of the city council to appoint an eleven-member Marijuana Policy Review Panel to assess and report on the effects of this ordinance.
Tacoma, Washington, municipal voters overwhelmingly favored local ballot measures to mandate that the criminal enforcement of cannabis possession offenses be law enforcement’s lowest priority. In Tacoma, 65% of voters decided in favor of Initiative 1, which states that minor marijuana offenses shall be “the lowest enforcement priority of the City of Tacoma.”
On November 6, 2012 Washington residents voted Yes on Initiative Measure No. 502 to license and regulate marijuana production, distribution, and possession (limited to one ounce per person) for people over age 21; remove state-law criminal and civil penalties for activities that it authorizes; tax marijuana sales; and earmark marijuana-related revenues. The law became effective December 6, 2012.
Cannabis is not decriminalized on a statewide basis.
On April 5, 1977, Madison passed Ordinance 23.20, which made possession of less than 112 grams (almost a quarter pound) of marijuana or 28 grams of cannabis legal when for personal use in a private place.
On May 13, 1997, Milwaukee mayor John Norquist signed a measure into law, which made possession of less than 25 grams (0.88 ounces) of cannabis a municipal ordinance violation with a fine of $250 to $500 or imprisonment for 20 days. Although, prosecutors in Milwaukee can still charge offenders under more severe state law.
On July 24, 2011 La Crosse Wisconsin, people who are caught with seven grams of marijuana or less for the first time, could receive a ticket instead of being arrested. Though the final decision is up to the officer to arrest or fine.
- Cannabis in the United States
- Decriminalization of non-medical cannabis in the United States
- Health issues and the effects of cannabis
- Legal and medical status of cannabis
- Legal history of cannabis in the United States
- Legal issues of cannabis
- Legality of cannabis by country
- Medical cannabis
- Marijuana Policy Project (MPP)
- Removal of cannabis from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act
- Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs
- David Knowles (28 May 2013). "Colorado becomes world’s first legal, fully regulated market for recreational marijuana as it anticipates millions in tax revenues". New York Daily News. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- "State by State Laws: Alaska". National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-24.
- Alaska Supreme Court (1975-05-28). "Ravin v. State, 537 P.2d 494 (Alaska 1975)". Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. Retrieved 2006-12-20.
- Alaska Supreme Court (1993-10-29). "Alaska v. McNeil". Carl E. Olsen's Marijuana Archive. Retrieved 2006-11-07.
- Sutton, Anne (2006-06-05). "Alaska Recriminalizes Marijuana Possession". Associated Press/Officer.com. Retrieved 2006-11-07.
- Volz, Matt (2006-07-11). "Judge Rules Against Alaska Marijuana Law". Associated Press/The Seattle Times. Retrieved 2006-11-07.
- "2006 Mid-Term Election Results Offer Mixed Bag For Marijuana Law Reform". NORML. 2006-11-08. Retrieved 2007-06-06.
- "Eureka Springs, AR "Cannabis as Low Police Priority" Initiative". / Drug Sense. 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-24.
- Arkansas: Lawmakers Enact Sentencing Reform Measures, Reduce Pot Possession Penalties, NORML, 2011-09-01
- Austin, James (2005-11-02). "Rethinking the Consequences of Decriminalizing Marijuana". NORML. Retrieved 2006-12-24.
- "State by State Laws: California". NORML. 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
- "About Prop 36". Prop36.org. Retrieved 2007-03-22.
- Nasaw, Daniel (2009-02-24). "Could marijuana tax help shore up California's finances?". The Guardian (London: Guardian Media Group). Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- Mieszkowski, Katharine (2009-03-03). "Everybody must get stoned". Salon.com.
- "Schwarzenegger Signs Marijuana Infraction Measure". California: NORML. 2010-10-01. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- Suzanne La Barre (2006-03-31). "Legal Limbo for Pot Users?". Berkeley Daily Planet. Retrieved 2007-02-22.
- "The Berkeley Cannabis Ordinance". NORML. Retrieved 2007-01-12.
- "Marijuana Policy". The City of Berkeley. Retrieved 2007-01-12.[dead link]
- Doyle, Jim (2000-10-30). "Mendocino Votes on Growth Industry Though largely symbolic, Measure G would 'legalize' small marijuana farms". San Francisco Chronicle (Hearst Corporation). Retrieved 2007-01-12.
- "Marijuana Ordinance for Medocino County". California NORML. Retrieved 2006-12-24.
- "Measure B: Marijuana Law Enforcement - Mendocino County, CA". . Retrieved 2008-08-31.
- "Meeasure Z: Marijuana Law Enforcement - Alameda County, CA". Smart Voter. Retrieved 2006-12-24.
- "Directory of Santa Barbara County, CA Measures". Smart Voter. Retrieved 2006-12-24.
- "Measure K: Marijuana Law Enforcement Priority - Santa Cruz County, CA". Smart Voter. Retrieved 2006-12-24.
- "Measure K: text of measure - Santa Cruz, CA". Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- "Measure K - Lowest Law Enforcement Priority Initiative: FAQ". Santa Cruz Ciitizens or Sensible Marijuana Policy. Retrieved 2007-06-11.
- "Marijuana: San Francisco Supervisors Approve Lowest Law Enforcement Priority Policy". StopTheDrugWar.com (DRCNet). Retrieved 2006-12-24.
- "Measure Y: Lowest Enforcement Priority for Adult, Personal Use of Marijuana - Los Angeles County, CA". Voter. Retrieved 2006-12-24.
- "Marijuana: West Hollywood Passes "Lowest Priority" Resolution". StopTheDrugWar.com (DRCNet). Retrieved 2006-12-24.
- "Council Considers Formal Position Regarding Marijuana Consumption and Possession". City of West Hollywood. 2006-06-16. Archived from the original on 2006-06-24. Retrieved 2006-09-06.
- "City Council, City of West Hollywood, Minutes, Monday, June 19, 2006". Archived from the original on 2006-08-20. Retrieved 2006-09-06.
- Austin, James (2005-11-02). "State by Sate Laws: Colorado". NORML. Retrieved 2006-12-30.
- O'Driscoll, Patrick (2005-11-03). "Denver votes to legalize marijuana possession". USA Today (Gannett Company). Retrieved 2006-12-30.
- Merritt, George (2007-11-07). "Denver Voters Again Tell Police To Back Off On Pot". CBS 4 Denver.
- "FAQs on Breckenridge’s decriminalization of marijuana, November 2009". Town of Breckenridge. 2009-11-02.
- EndPlay (2010-02-19). "7NEWS - Out-of-state money funded push to pass Amendment 64 and legalize marijuana in Colorado - News Story". Thedenverchannel.com. Retrieved 2013-11-29.
- "Marijuana Decriminalization Bill Passes". NBC Connecticut. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "Chapter 14" (PDF). County of Hawaii. Retrieved 2010-09-15.
- Krajelis, Bethany (2004-09-01). "Mayor satisfied with drug policy". University Wire (published on Daily Illini). Retrieved 2007-06-07.
- "Urbana, Illinois - Code of Ordinances". Municode. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
- "Urbana City Counil Agenda - 9/15/08". City of Urbana. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
- "Cook-County-fixes-pot-decriminalization-bill,-will-now - Chicago Sun-Times". Suntimes.com. 2011-09-07. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "Article I. - In General". Library.municode.com. 2013-03-29. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "New Orleans City Council reclassifies pot possession, prostitution to reduce criminal dockets". The Times Picayune. 2010. Retrieved 2011-10-27.
- Milliote, Gregg. "Marijuana fight nears". The Herald News (GateHouse Media). Retrieved 2007-06-06.
- "Mass. voters OK decriminalization of marijuana". The Boston Globe (The New York Times Company). 2008-11-04. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
- "Massachusetts - Election 2012 - NYTimes.com". Elections.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "Ann Arbor Votes $5 Fine for the Use of Marijuana," The New York Times, 3 Apr. 1974, p. 10.
- "Election Day 2004 - Municipal Marijuana Initiatives". Drug Policy Alliance. 2004-11-03. Retrieved 2007-06-06.
- "Election Day 2004 - Municipal Marijuana Initiatives". NORML. 2004-11-03. Retrieved 2007-01-12.
- "Section 478.001, Revised Statutes of Missouri (R.S.Mo.)". Missouri Judiciary - Drug Court Divisions.
- Section 195.202, R.S.Mo.
- "Marijuana initiative may be on city ballot". The Lovely County Citizen of Eureka Springs, Arkansas. 2004-07-24. Retrieved 2007-01-12.[dead link]
- "Marijuana Initiatives: November 2004". Marijuana Policy Project. Archived from the original on 2007-03-08. Retrieved 2007-06-22.
- Scott, Tristan (2006-10-18). "Initiative 2 would make marijuana lowest priority". Missoulian. Lee Enterprises. Retrieved 2007-01-12.
- "State by State Laws: Nebraska". NORML. 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
- "Nevada Penalties". NORML. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
- "Marijuana Legalization Stalls in New Mexico" 7-FEB-2014 kob.com Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- "State by State Laws: New York". NORML. 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
- "New York State Criminal Procedure Law Section 170.56". Laws of New York. 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-22.
- "State by State Laws: North Carolina". NORML. 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
- "State by State Laws: Ohio". NORML. 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
- "WKSU News: Ohio law decriminalizes most marijuana paraphernalia". Wksu.org. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- Bloomer, Jeffrey (2001-02-14). "Which States Have Decriminalized Marijuana Possession? - Slate Magazine". Slate.com. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "State by State Laws: Oregon". NORML. 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
- "Vermont becomes 17th state to decriminalize marijuana, making possession of less than an ounce of pot punishable by fine". NY Daily News. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Initiative Measure No. 502 Concerns marijuana". November 06, 2012 General Election Results. Washington Secretary of State. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- "Wash. voters legalize recreational pot use". 6 November 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- State of Washington Voters' Pamphlet (November 6, 2012 General Election ed.). Olympia, WA: Washington State Office of the Secretary of State. November 2012. p. 23. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- "Voters approve I-502 legalizing marijuana". 6 November 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- Austin, James. "Text of Madison Ordinance 23.20". Madison NORML. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
- "Milwaukee Moves to Decriminalize Marijuana". NORML. 1997-05-22. Retrieved 2007-01-13.