Proposed tall buildings and structures
All the structures mentioned here would be among the tallest structures in the world if built.
|The Space Elevator||100,000,000 m (62,000 mi)||1895 (science fiction) 1959||Massive space tether||Space tourism, space exploration and space colonization||Several||undetermined||2035 (estimated)||The Space Elevator is a proposed structure that would consist of a long cable, anchored on or near the equator, connecting to a large counterweight about 100,000 km (62,000 mi) above. The cable would be held up by the counterweight, which produces a net upward centrifugal force because it is well above the 36,000 km (22,000 mi) geostationary orbit.||N/A|
|The Launch loop||80,000 m (50 mi)||1981||Suspended Maglev Track||Space tourism, space exploration and space colonization||U.S.||undetermined||undetermined||The Launch loop is a concept that has been proposed for the purposes of orbital launch.||N/A|
|Scaled-down Space Elevator||20,000 m (12 mi)||2009||Pneumatic tower||Tourism, communications, wind generation and reduced cost space launch.||Canada||undetermined||undetermined||A sub-orbital or mini version of the Space Elevator to access near-space altitudes of 20 km (12 mi) has been proposed by Canadian researchers. The structure would be free standing and actively guyed over its base. The tower would be utilized for tourism, communications, wind generation and reduced-cost space launch.||N/A|
|StarTram Generation 2||20,000 m (12 mi)||2001||Suspended Maglev Track||Space tourism, space exploration and space colonization||U.S.||undetermined||undetermined||The StarTram is a proposed concept for orbital launches. It has a long (1000–1500 km) vacuum tube, levitated via strong currents in superconducting cables.||N/A|
|Tokyo Tower of Babel||10,000 m (33,000 ft)||1992||Arcology||Multi Purpose||Japan||Tokyo||undetermined||The Tokyo Tower of Babel is the tallest building ever envisioned and if ever built would house roughly 30 million people within and take 100-150 years to build. The cost would be around ¥3 quadrillion (£16 trillion).||N/A|
|X-Seed 4000||4,000 m (13,000 ft)||1995||Arcology||Residential, commercial, retail real-estate, as well as heavy industry||Japan||Tokyo||undetermined||The X-Seed 4000 is the second tallest building ever fully envisioned. Its proposed 4,000 m (13,000 ft) height, 6 km (3.7 mi) wide sea-base, and 800-floor capacity could accommodate five hundred thousand to one million inhabitants.||800|
|Ultima Tower||3,217 m (10,554 ft)||1991||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, and retail real-estate||U.S.||San Francisco||undetermined||The Ultima Tower is a hypothetical super-tall skyscraper, designed by American architect Eugene Tsui in 1991. With a total height of 3,217 metres (10,554 ft), the tower would be 2 miles tall, and comprise 500 stories if built.||500|
|Dubai City Tower||2,400 m (7,900 ft)||2008||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, and retail real-estate||United Arab Emirates||Dubai||2025||The Dubai City Tower is a proposed 400-floor, 2,400 m (7,900 ft) tall building to be built in Dubai, consisting of six outer buildings entwining a central core.||400|
|Hexahedron City||2,101 m (6,893 ft)||N/A||Arcology||N/A||U.S.||Scottsdale, Arizona||undetermined||The Hexahedron City would be able to house up to 170,000 people.||N/A|
|Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid||2,004 m (6,575 ft)||1996||Arcology||Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real-estate||Japan||Tokyo||undetermined||The Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid is a proposed project for construction of a massive pyramid over Tokyo Bay in Japan. The structure would be approximately 14 times higher than the Great Pyramid of Giza, and would house 750,000 people. If built, it will be the largest man-made structure on Earth. The structure would be 2,004 m (6,575 ft) high and would answer Tokyo's increasing lack of space.||N/A|
|The Dutch Mountain||2,000 m (6,600 ft)||2012||Artificial Mountain||Tourism, leisure, commercial and wind generation||The Netherlands||Flevoland||undetermined||"De Nederlandse Berg", dutch for "The Dutch Mountain" was a proposal by Thijs Zonneveld. He wrote a column proposing that the Netherlands needs its own artificial mountain. Zonneveld's mountain would serve as a recreational space, an iconic landscape with spectacular views, and a popular destination for climbers and ramblers. It's nature reconstructed into a pleasure machine. The proposal was “caught in the public's imagination.” After this public interest there are, in fact, serious plans in the making for such a mountain. There are plans for a ski resort at the top of the mountain and cycling paths in the lower regions. The mountain would be mostly hallowed, so more like a building than a pile of sand. Inside the mountain would be space for large scale food productions. ||N/A|
|Millennium Challenge Tower||1,852 m (6,076 ft)||2005||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, and retail real-estate||Kuwait (Possible location)||undetermined||undetermined||"The Millennium Challenge" tower (sometimes referred to as the "Al Jaber Tower" by those anticipating its construction in Kuwait City) is a super-tall skyscraper designed by architect Omero Marchetti as part of his proposed "ethic city" concept. The aims of the project are to reach a nautical mile in height while "not using concrete, orthogonal grids, traditional systems, mortars, [and] cranes." The building would dispense with right angles and perpendicular planes as those structural engineering norms make large quantities of cast iron and concrete "follow an unnatural and twisted geometry,". Instead, the project uses the hexagonal matrices of snowflakes, which as structurally supported objects combine high volume with low weight, as the basis of its structural design principles. According to Marchetti, there are currently three groups of investors in different parts of the world interested in pursuing his project. If built, the tower would reach 1,852 metres (6,076 ft).||N/A|
|Xtopia||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||China||Shanghai||undetermined||Xtopia is a concept building for a 300-floor high-rise self-contained community. The concept was featured on the Discovery Channel as part of its series Mega Engineering on 25-April-2010. The building is a hypothetical method to combat geographic urban sprawl and lower the environmental impact of human populations.
Xtopia features a tripod base which combats wind and ground tremor, while allowing sunlight to pass through to surrounding buildings and parks. There are industrial sections in the legs, commercial floors in the first panoramic levels, residential levels, and aeroponic gardens further up. The Discovery Channel program was written and directed by documentary filmmaker Scott Tiffany. The program stated that a traditional lift system wouldn't have worked in the building because it might take hours to reach the destination. So special lift system is used which not only slide with the iron bars of the building in upward and downward direction but also move sideways. One complete floor of the building is reserved for the growth of vegetables and fruits which not only fulfill the needs of building but also of the city. || N/A
|Bionic Tower||1,228 m (4,029 ft)||1997||Arcology||Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real-estate||China Hong Kong||Shanghai and Hong Kong have both expressed serious interest||undetermined||The Bionic Tower is a proposed vertical city, an extremely large building designed for human habitation, designed by architects Eloy Celaya, and Mª Rosa Cervera and Javier Gómez Pioz. It would have a main tower 1,228 m (4,029 ft) high, with 300 stories that would house about 100,000 people.||300|
|Orbita Residence||1,111 m (3,645 ft)||2004||N/A||N/A||Brazil||São Paulo||2026||A supertall building planned to be built around 2026.||N/A|
|Azerbaijan Tower||1,050 m (3,440 ft)||2012||Skyscraper||Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate||Azerbaijan||Baku||2019||Azerbaijan Tower, 1,050 m (3,440 ft) tall, is a building in Baku, Azerbaijan that has been announced, as part of the planned Khazar Islands project.||189|
|Murjan Tower||1,022 m (3,353 ft)||2006||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, and retail real-estate||Bahrain||Manama||undetermined||Murjan Tower, 1,022 m (3,353 ft) tall, is a Swedish company's proposal for a super-tall skyscraper in Bahrain. Designed by architect Henning Larsens Tegnestue A/S, it is expected to comprise 200 floors.||200|
|Mubarak al-Kabir Tower||1,001 m (3,284 ft)||2006||Skyscraper||Residential, Commercial, and Retail real-estate||Kuwait||Madinat al-Hareer||2016||The Mubarak al-Kabir Tower, 1,001 m (3,284 ft) tall, in Madinat al-Hareer (City Of Silk), (Kuwait) by Eric Kuhne and Associates.[clarification needed]||N/A|
|Sky City 1000||1,000 m (3,300 ft)||1989||Arcology||Residential, Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate||Japan||Tokyo||undetermined||The Sky City 1000, 1,000 m (3,300 ft) tall, is an arcology project proposal aimed at helping put an end to major congestion and lack of greenspace in the Tokyo, Japan metropolitan area. The plan consists of a building 1,000 m (3,281 ft) tall and 400 m (1,312 ft) wide at the base, and a total floor area of 8 km² (3.1 sq mi). Drawn up by construction firm Takenaka for the city of Tokyo in 1989, its design was the first of the modern super-tall mega-structures to gain serious attention and consideration by any government.||196|
|Buenos Aires Forum||1,000 m (3,300 ft)||2006||Skyscraper||Residential, Commercial, and Retail real-estate||Argentina||Buenos Aires||2016||The Buenos Aires Forum, 1,000 m (3,300 ft) tall, is a proposed super-tall skyscraper that is planned to be built in Buenos Aires, Argentina.||200|
|Miapolis||975 m (3,199 ft)||2002||Skyscraper||Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate||U.S.||Miami||2017||Miapolis, 3,200 ft (980 m) tall, is a proposed supertall skyscraper planned for construction on Watson Island in Miami, Florida with 160 floors.||160|
|DIB-200||800 m (2,600 ft)||1993||Skyscraper||Residential, Commercial, and Retail real-estate||Japan||Tokyo||undetermined||DIB-200, 800 m (2,600 ft) tall, is a possible mixed use supertall skyscraper project proposed by Kajima Construction, and designed by Sadaaki Masuda and Scott Howe.||200|
|India Tower||700 m (2,300 ft)||2008||Skyscraper||Retail, Residential, and Leisure real-estate||India||Mumbai||2016 (construction halted in 2011 for financial reasons)||India Tower, 700 m (2,300 ft) tall, has its construction currently on hold. Estimated completion date is 2016.||126|
|Dream Tower||665 m (2,182 ft)||2009||Skyscraper||Commercial and retail real-estate||South Korea||Seoul||2016||Dream Tower, 665 m (2,182 ft) tall, is a proposed tower to be built in Seoul, South Korea; it will have 150 floors and is planned to be completed in 2016.||150|
|Signature Tower Jakarta||638 m (2,093 ft)||2013||Skyscraper||Hotel, and Office||Indonesia||Jakarta||2020||||113 (6 basement floors)|
|Philippine Diamond Tower||612 m (2,008 ft)||Observation Tower||Leisure, Observation, Broadcast||Philippines||Quezon City||2018||Approx. 200|
|Port Tower||593.5 m (1,947 ft)||2006||Skyscraper||Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate||Pakistan||Karachi||2018||The Port Tower is a project approved for construction in Karachi, the financial capital of Pakistan. If completed, it would reach a height of 593 m (1,947 ft), representing the independence year of Pakistan (1947).||130|
|Untitled Phnom Penh Skyscraper||555 m (1,821 ft)||N/A||N/A||N/A||Cambodia||Phnom Penh||undetermined||An as yet unnamed 555 metres (1,821 ft) skyscraper has been approved by the Prime Minister of Cambodia to be built in the capital, Phnom Penh.||N/A|
|Bay Area Tower||500 m (1,600 ft)||N/A||skyscraper||Office, Hotel, and Residential||United States||San Francisco||Unknown||Bay Area Tower will be tallest building in San Francisco if built.||101|
|Citygate Ecotower||485 m (1,591 ft)||2007||Skyscraper||Commercial and retail real-estate||UK||London||2017||The Citygate Ecotower is a proposed building in London, consisting of 108 stories.||108|
|GIFT Diamond Tower||410 m (1,350 ft)||2002||Skyscraper||Commercial||India||Gandhinagar||2017||GIFT Diamond Tower is a skyscraper proposed for Gujarat International Finance Tec-City in Gandhinagar in the Indian state of Gujarat. The proposed height is 410 metres (1,345 ft) in height. Diamond Tower and the core CBD of GIFT will comprise a total of 25,800,000 sq ft (2,400,000 m2).||87|
|555 Collins Street||404 m (1,325 ft)||2013||skyscraper||Office||Australia||Melbourne||2017||555 Collins Street will be tallest building in Melbourne if built, therefore making it the tallest building in Southern Hemisphere, surpassing recently approved Australia 108.||91|
|Solar updraft tower||400–1,000 m (1,300–3,300 ft)||2001||Power-Plant||Power generation||Australia||Buronga, New South Wales||activity halted, fate unclear||Solar updraft tower, Buronga, Australia, planned height between 400 m (1,300 ft) and 1,000 m (3,300 ft), state uncertain.||N/A|
US planned broadcasting towers
- In the U.S., at several sites, broadcasting towers with heights between 600 and 610 metres are planned according to the FCC database. Some of them will be built close to existing towers of similar height, making them the tallest twin-towers in the world.
|Central Missouri State Broadcasting Tower||Syracuse, Missouri||609.6 m||2,000 ft.||1040329|
|Hitchcock Univision Radio Tower||Hitchcock, Texas||609.6 m||2,000 ft.||1254220|
|Agate American Media Tower||Agate, Colorado||609.5 m||2,000 ft.||1240243|
|Busterville Vertical Properties Broadcasting Tower||Busterville, Texas||609.5 m||2,000 ft.||1223883|
|Metcalf Pegasus Broadcasting Tower||Metcalf, Georgia||609 m||1,998 ft.||1054890|
|Beasley Broadcasting Tower||Immokalee, Florida||608.7 m||1,997 ft.||1235389|
|Hoyt KKDD-FM Tower||Hoyt, Colorado||608.1 m||1,995 ft.||1235187|
|Wiliam Smith Broadcasting Tower||Walker, Iowa||607 m||1,991 ft.||1223188|
|Plymouth Pappas Telecasting Tower 2||Plymouth County, Iowa||603.5 m||1,980 ft.||1058291|
Xtopia features a tripod base which combats wind and ground tremor, while allowing sunlight to pass through to surrounding buildings and parks. There are industrial sections in the legs, commercial floors in the first panoramic levels, residential levels, and aeroponic gardens further up. The Discovery Channel program was written and directed by documentary filmmaker Scott Tiffany. The program stated that a traditional lift system wouldn't have worked in the building because it might take hours to reach the destination. So special lift system is used which not only slide with the iron bars of the building in upward and downward direction but also move sideways. One complete floor of the building is reserved for the growth of vegetables and fruits which not only fulfill the needs of building but also of the city.
|Name||Pinnacle height||Year of first proposal||Structure type||Main use||Country||City||Year of Projected Completion||Description|
|Houston Tower||2,092 m (6,864 ft)||1979||Skyscraper||Residential, Commercial||U.S.||Houston||Never begun||The Houston Tower was an envisioned skyscraper that would have been nearly 1.3 miles (2.1 km) tall (6864 ft/2092 m) and taken up nine city blocks in Houston.|
|Aeropolis 2001||2,000 m (6,600 ft)||1989||Arcology||Residential, Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate||Japan||Tokyo||Never begun||The Aeropolis 2001 was a proposed project for construction of a massive 500-story high-rise building over Tokyo Bay in Japan. It was proposed to be a 2,000 m (6,562 ft) high building.|
|The Illinois||1,609 m (5,279 ft)||1956||Skyscraper||Commercial, Residential, and Leisure real-estate||U.S.||Chicago||Never begun||The Illinois, envisioned by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1956, was to be a mile high (1609 m / 5280 ft) skyscraper in Chicago.|
|Nakheel Tower||1,400 m (4,600 ft)||2003||Skyscraper||Residential, Retail, and Leisure real-estate||United Arab Emirates||Dubai||2019 (cancelled 2009)||Nakheel Tower (previously Al Burj) was a proposed skyscraper, planned for Dubai, UAE. It was expected to be approximately 1,400 m (4,600 ft) tall but the project was cancelled in November 2009 as a result of the 2009 financial crisis in Dubai.|
|Phare du Monde||701 m (2,300 ft)||1934||Concrete observation tower||Leisure and Retail real-estate||France||Paris||1937 (construction never begun)||Phare du Monde, was a project for a 701 metre tall observation tower for the world exhibition in Paris, 1937. It was planned as a concrete tower similar to a modern TV tower, but also with a ramp for drive up access.|
|Australian towers series||various; (Grollo) 678 m (2,224 ft), (Brisbane Central) 450 m (1,480 ft), (Minuzzo) 450 m (1,480 ft), (CBD-1) 445 m (1,460 ft), (Melbourne Plaza) 338 m (1,109 ft), (City Tower) 305 m (1,001 ft), (Westralia) 287 m (942 ft)||1996||Skyscrapers||Residential, Commercial, and Leisure real-estate||Australia||Melbourne, Brisbane Sydney, Perth||2004 (cancelled 1997)||A series of super-tall sky-scrapers were planned for the major Australian cities of Melbourne, Brisbane, Sydney and Perth from 1985-95 but were all cancelled. The plans included (in order of height) the Grollo Tower (mentioned above), Brisbane Central Tower (450m/1476 ft, Brisbane), Minuzzo Tower (450m/1476 ft, Brisbane), CBD-1 (445m/1459 ft, Sydney), Melbourne Plaza (338m/1109 ft, Melbourne), City Tower (305m/1000 ft, Sydney) and the Westralia Tower (287m/941 ft, Perth). The buildings would have been some of the tallest buildings in the world at the time, but were cancelled mainly due to their great heights which would have dwarfed all surrounding buildings.|
|Grollo Tower||678 m (2,224 ft)||1997||Skyscraper||Residential, Commercial, and Leisure real-estate||Australia||Melbourne||2004 (cancelled 2001)||Construction was cancelled on the Grollo Tower (named after the architect) in Melbourne's developing Dockland precinct in April 2001 after Melbourne's Docklands Authority ruled it out of the tender for development of the Batman Hill's precinct due to disagreements over who would pay for infrastructure improvements. The area is now occupied by a mixture of smaller commercial and residential buildings. The Grollo Tower would have been the world's tallest building at the time at 560 m (1837 ft) tall, down from the originally planned 678 m (2,224 ft) height.|
|PAGCOR Tower||665 m (2,182 ft)||2008||Observation tower||Leisure and Observation facilities||Philippines||Manila||Cancelled in 2010||Originally part of the plans for the PAGCOR Entertainment City, the project was scrapped due to various reasons including air traffic regulations (due to close proximity to the Ninoy Aquino International Airport|
|Warsaw Radio Mast||646 m (2,119 ft)||Original in 1968, Replacement in 1992||Guyed mast||VHF-UHF transmission||Poland||Warsaw||1997 (cancelled 1995)||Until late 1995, there were plans to rebuild the collapsed 646 m (2,119 ft) Warsaw Radio Mast to its previous height on the same site, using the basements of the old mast. Although some refurbishment of the basements started, work was canceled after violent protests by local residents, who feared harmful radiation effects from the high-power transmitter served by the antenna. A new transmission facility with two smaller masts measuring 330 and 289 m was built as a replacement in 1998-99 at Solec Kujawski.|
|7 South Dearborn||610 m (2,000 ft)||1999||Skyscraper||Residential, Commercial, and Retail real-estate as well as communications facilities||U.S.||Chicago||2004 (cancelled in 2000 due to lack of funding)||7 South Dearborn in Chicago was planned in 1999 to be 610 m (2,001 ft).|
|1 Dubai||600 m (2,000 ft)||2006||Skyscraper||Unknown||U.A.E||Dubai||2010 (cancelled in 2009)||1 Dubai is a proposal in Dubai to planned to be completed, but in 2009, it was cancelled.|
|Chicago Spire||610 m (2,000 ft)||2005||Skyscraper||Residential real-estate||U.S.||Chicago||2010 (cancelled 2008)||The Chicago Spire designed by Santiago Calatrava was intended to be the tallest building in the western hemisphere as well as the tallest residential building in the world. It was abandoned in 2008 due to financial problems. As of March 11, 2014, as long as the project is funded, it assumed to resume construction.|
|Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle||610 m (2,000 ft)||1988||Skyscraper||Commercial, and Residential real-estate||U.S.||Chicago||1994 (cancelled 1992)||The Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle in Chicago was to be 610 m (2,001 ft) tall in 1988.|
|International Business Center||580 m (1,900 ft)||2007||Skyscraper||Commercial real-estate||South Korea||Seoul||2013 (cancelled 2008)||International Business Center was a proposed skyscraper to be constructed in Seoul, South Korea for a height of 580 m (1,900 ft),it was to have 130 floors planned to be completed in 2013.|
|Grant USA Tower||533.4 m (1,750 ft)||1970||Skyscraper||Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate||U.S.||Newark, New Jersey||1986 (cancelled 1986)||The Grant USA Tower was planned by developer Harry Grant, who started New York Apple Tours. The building was to be completed in 1986 in Newark, New Jersey and to be the tallest hotel, tallest building and tallest structure. Harry Grant went bankrupt and the building never broke ground.|
|Eaton's / John Maryon Tower||503 m (1,650 ft)||1971||Skyscraper||Commercial, and Leisure real-estate||Canada||Toronto||1976 (cancelled 1972)||Eaton's / John Maryon Tower was a planned 503 m (1,650 ft) (686m to spire) tall building in Toronto in 1971.|
|Dragon Tower||500 m (1,600 ft)||1996||Skyscraper||Residential, Commercial, Retail, and Leisure real-estate||Indonesia||Jakarta||2002 (cancelled 1998)||The 500 m tall, 101 story, Dragon Tower in Jakarta, Indonesia was cancelled in 1998 due to the Asian financial crisis.|
|Kaisa Feng Long Center (Removed)||500 m (1,600 ft)||2011||Skyscraper||Hotel / Office||China||Shenzhen||2012 (cancelled 2011)|
|Psary, Poland broadcast tower||440 m (1,440 ft)||2009||Reinforced concrete and steal television tower||DVB-T signal transmission||Poland||Psary, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship||undetermined||At Bodzentyn, Poland a 440 metres tall tower is proposed for distributing DVB-T signals from the satellite station to TV broadcasting sites. It will be, if built, the tallest man-made structure in Europe outside Russia.|
|Palace of Soviets||415 m (1,362 ft)||1932||Skyscraper||Bureaucratic administrative center and conference hall||U.S.S.R.||Moscow||1947 (cancelled 1942)||The Palace of Soviets in Moscow, planned in 1932, was to be 415 m (including a 100 m Lenin statue), and would have been the tallest building in the world at the time if completed. Construction was halted during World War II, during which the uncompleted structure was partially dismantled; its foundations were later to serve as the world's largest open-air swimming pool before being razed in 1995.|
|The Monument to the Third International||400 m (1,300 ft)||1919||Grand Monument||Conference Hall, Bureaucratic administrative center, Information administrative center||U.S.S.R.||Moscow||None given||During the Russian October Revolution of 1917, Vladimir Tatlin designed a structure named The Monument to the Third International, which was to serve as the international headquarters of the Komintern. Better known as the Tatlin Tower, the structure was to rise to a height of 400 m (1,312 ft), which would have made it by far the tallest building in the world at that time, but time & resource shortages as well as the social upheavals that resulted from the Russian Civil War, economic mismanagement, and political repressions halted the project.|
|Millennium Freedom Tower||376.8 m (1,236 ft)||1998||Observation Tower||Leisure and Observation facilities||U.S.||Newport, Kentucky||2000 (above ground construction never begun)||The Millennium Freedom Tower was a project to be located in Newport, Kentucky, United States was originally proposed in 1998 to be dedicated on Dec 31, 1999. The original height was a proposed 1,234 feet (376 m) and was later lowered to 1,103 ft (306 m). Pilings were driven in 1998, but construction never continued above ground.|
|Watkin's Tower||358 m (1,175 ft)||1890||Iron latticed observation tower||Leisure and Retail real-estate||U.K.||Wembley||1894 (construction halted 1896)||Watkin's Tower in Wembley, London was planned in 1891 to surpass the Eiffel Tower by 50 m (164 ft), but construction stopped before that height was reached due to unstable land and insufficient funds. The tower remnants were dismantled in the 1900s, and the site was redeveloped as Wembley Stadium.|
|Scandinavian Tower||325 m (1,066 ft)||1997||Skyscraper||Residential||Sweden||Malmö||2004||The Scandinavian Tower was intended to be been the tallest skyscraper in Europe. It was abandoned in 2004 in favor of Malmö Tower.|
|World Science Tower||N/A||1964||Guyed mast||Leisure facilities||U.S.||Larkspur, Colorado||N/A||The World Science Tower was to be one of the world's tallest buildings, proposed in 1964. It was to be located near Larkspur, Colorado, U.S.A. Its design would have had an amusement park at the base.|
- PDF version of Lofstrom's 1985 launch loop publication (AIAA 1985)[dead link]
- "A free-standing space elevator structure: a practical alternative to the space tether". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Canadian Mini Space Elevator Paper Available - The Space Elevator Reference". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- These futuristic cities are housed inside a single, gigantic building
- "Top 8 Skyscrapers That Will Push the Limits of Design". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "World's Tallest Building May Be In Azerbaijan". Huffington Post, Feb.3rd, 2012. 
- "Murjan Tower 1, Manama". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "KORAIL Tower, Seoul, South Korea | Emporis.com". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Signature Tower Jakarta - The Skyscraper Center". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Sky-high plans - Money Matters - livemint.com". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "ASR Registration 1040329". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "ASR Registration 1254220". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "ASR Registration 1240243". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "ASR Registration 1223883". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "ASR Registration 1054890". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "ASR Registration 1235389". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "ASR Registration 1235187". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "ASR Registration 1223188". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "ASR Registration 1058291". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Nakheel designs 1km-high tower". Retrieved 2007-08-10.
- "Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle, Chicago". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Grant USA Tower, Newark / Emporis.com". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Kielce: Najwyższa w Polsce budowla powstanie w Górach Świętokrzyskich! Wieża będzie miała 440 metrów wysokości i na stałe zmieni krajobraz - 20 lipca 2010". 20 July 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Emporis Buildings accessed February 21, 2008". Retrieved 6 October 2014.