List of state and union territory capitals in India
India is a country located in southern Asia. With over 1.2 billion people, India is the most populous democracy in the world. It is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 28 states and 7 union territories. All states, as well as the union territories of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments, both patterned on the Westminster model. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the centre through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis. Since then, their structure has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts.
The state and union territory capitals are sorted according to the administrative, legislative and judicial capitals. The administrative capital is where the executive government offices are located, the legislative capital is where the state assembly convenes, and the judicial capital is the location of the state or territorial High Courts of India. Union territories are marked with a dagger ().
State and union territory capitals
|No.||State/Union territory||Administrative capital||Legislative capital||Judiciary capitals||Year of establishment||Former capital|
|1||Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Port Blair||Port Blair||Kolkata (formerly Calcutta)||1956||Calcutta (1945–1956)|
|2||Andhra Pradesh||Hyderabad||Hyderabad||Hyderabad (1956–present)||1956|
|8||Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Silvassa||—||Mumbai||1944||Mumbai (1954–1961)
|9||Daman and Diu||Daman||—||Mumbai||1987||Ahmedabad (1961–1963)
|10||National Capital Territory of Delhi||Delhi||Delhi||New Delhi||1952||—|
|14||Himachal Pradesh||Shimla||Shimla||Shimla||1971||Bilaspur (1950–1956)|
|15||Jammu and Kashmir||Srinagar (S)
|20||Madhya Pradesh||Bhopal||Bhopal||Jabalpur||1956||Nagpur[d] (1861–1956)|
- Shilong was the joint capital of Assam and Meghalaya until 1971.
- Chandigarh is the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana, and is a Union Territory, separate from the two states.
- Panaji was the capital of Goa from 1843 when it was ruled by the Portuguese.
- Nagpur was the capital of Central Provinces and Berar which was a province from 1861 until 1950. Central Province became the major constituent of Madhya Pradesh, after it was formed in 1950. Nagpur remained the capital of the new state. In 1956, Berar (Vidarbha) was separated from Madhya Pradesh, and merged with the Bombay State. Nagpur thus lost the status of a capital city. In 1960, under the Nagpur pact, Nagpur became the second capital of Maharashtra.
- Mumbai / Bombay was the capital of Bombay Presidency which was a province until 1950. After that Bombay became the capital of Bombay State. Subsequently, Bombay State was split into Gujarat and Maharashtra in 1960.
- In 1960, under the Nagpur pact, Nagpur became the second capital of Maharashtra. Although an official notification to this effect was only given in 1988. The India yearbook of the government of India still does not mention Nagpur, being either the second or winter capital of Maharashtra.
- Under the Nagpur pact, one of the preconditions for Vidarbha joining the state of Maharastra was that, at least one of the legislative sessions every year should be held in Nagpur. The winter session is held in Nagpur.
- Lahore was the capital of Punjab province of British India. It is now a part of Pakistan.
- Gangtok has been the capital of Sikkim since 1890. Sikkim joined the Indian Union in 1975.
- Chennai (Madras) was the capital of the Madras Presidency since 1839, which was redrawn as Madras State in 1956. Madras State was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1968.
- Dehradun is the provisional capital of Uttarakhand. The town of Gairsen is envisaged as the state's new capital.
- Library of Congress 2004.
- Sharma 2007, p. 49.
- Baruah 1999, p. xiii.
- Menon & Banerjea 2002, p. 5.
- Ring 1996, p. 288.
- Boland-Crewe & Lea 2002, p. 155.
- Kumāra 1998, p. 136.
- Kini 1974, pp. 34–35.
- Khandewale 1989, p. 21.
- Kippen 2006, p. 26.
- Spate 1953, p. 200.
- Sati & Kumar 2004, pp. 9–10.
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