Sayings of Jesus on the cross
The Sayings of Jesus on the cross (also called the Seven Last Words from the Cross) are seven expressions traditionally attributed to Jesus during his crucifixion, gathered from the four Canonical Gospels. Three of the sayings appear exclusively in the Gospel of Luke and three appear exclusively in the Gospel of John. The other saying appears both in the Gospel of Mark and the Gospel of Matthew. In Mark and Matthew, Jesus cries out to God. In Luke, he forgives his killers, reassures the good thief, and commends his spirit to the Father. In John, he speaks to his mother, says he thirsts, and declares the end of his earthly life.
The Bible says he hung there for six hours and probably said far more than this, and these were the words remembered. They each have special meaning. Since the 16th century these sayings have been widely used in the preachings on Good Friday and entire books have been written on the theological analysis, and the devotional elements of the seven sayings. The Seven Last Words from the Cross are an integral part of the liturgy in the Anglican, Catholic, Methodist, and other Christian traditions.
Physicians and scientists who have studied the medical aspects of the crucifixion concluded that the sayings had to be short because crucifixion causes asphyxia. This makes inhaling air to speak difficult and painful, especially as death approaches.
The seven sayings tradition is an example of the Christian approach to the construction of a Gospel harmony in which material from different Gospels is combined, producing an account that goes beyond each Gospel. Several composers have set the Seven Last Words to music. Theologian James Dunn considers the sayings part of the elaborations of the diverse retellings of Jesus' final hours.
- 1 Seven sayings
- 2 Theological interpretations
- 3 Other interpretations and translations
- 4 Historicity of the sayings
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 External links
- Luke 23:34: Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they do.
- Luke 23:43: Truly, I say to you, today you will be with me in paradise.
- John 19:26–27: Woman, behold your son. Behold your mother.
- Matthew 27:46: My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?
- John 19:28: I thirst.
- Luke 23:46: Father, into your hands I commit my spirit.
- John 19:30: It is finished.
Traditionally, these seven sayings are called words of 1. Forgiveness, 2. Salvation, 3. Relationship, 4. Abandonment, 5. Distress, 6. Reunion and 7. Triumph.
As can be seen from the above list, not all seven sayings can be found in any one account of Jesus' crucifixion. The ordering is a harmonisation of the texts from each of the four canonical gospels. In the gospels of Matthew and Mark, Jesus is quoted in Aramaic, shouting the fourth phrase only, and cries out wordlessly before dying. In Luke's Gospel, the first, second, and seventh sayings occur. The third, fifth and sixth sayings can only be found in John's Gospel. In other words:
- In Matthew and Mark :
- My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?
- In Luke:
- Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do
- Truly, I say to you, today you will be with me in paradise (in response to one of the two thieves crucified next to him)
- Father, into your hands I commit my spirit (last words)
- In John:
- Woman, behold your son: behold your mother (directed at Mary, the mother of Jesus, either as a self-reference, or as a reference to the beloved disciple and an instruction to the disciple himself)
- I thirst (just before a wetted sponge, mentioned by all the Canonical Gospels, is offered)
- It is finished (last words)
1. Father forgive them, for they do not know what they do
- Then Jesus said, "Father forgive them, for they do not know what they do".
This first saying of Jesus on the cross is traditionally called "The Word of Forgiveness". It is theologically interpreted as Jesus' prayer for forgiveness for those who were crucifying him: the Roman soldiers, and apparently for all others who were involved in his crucifixion.
In the words of award-winning author and United Methodist pastor Adam Hamilton from his book 24 Hours That Changed The World, "From the cross Jesus looked at the soldiers casting lots for his clothing, at the priests pointing to him derisively, at the crowd yelling their insults. The evil in humanity was at its greatest height. While Jesus could have summoned legions of angels to bring vengeance on all of them, instead he pulled himself up and, with all his strength, offered a prayer on behalf of those who mocked and crucified him."
Some early manuscripts omit Luke 23:34.
2. Today you will be with me in paradise
- And he said to him, "Truly, I say to you today you will be with me in paradise".
This saying is traditionally called "The Word of Salvation". According to Luke's Gospel, Jesus was crucified between two thieves (Dismas and Gestas), one of whom supports Jesus' innocence and asks him to remember him when he comes into his kingdom. Jesus replies, "Truly, I say to you..." (ἀμήν λέγω σοί, amēn legō soi), followed with the only appearance of the word "Paradise" in the Gospels (παραδείσω, paradeisō, from the Persian pairidaeza "paradise garden").
Pastor Hamilton from "24 Hours": "Jesus, hanging on the cross, was still seeking to save those who were lost. This confessed thief did not know Scripture or understand theology, had not recited a creed nor joined a church or been baptized. He was in no position to do anything redemptive or to clean up his life. He simply turned to Jesus and asked, 'Remember me when you come into your kingdom'."
A seemingly simple change in punctuation in this saying has been the subject of doctrinal differences among Christian groups, given the lack of punctuation in the original Greek texts. Protestant Christians usually use a version which reads "today you will be with me in Paradise". This reading assumes a direct voyage to Heaven and has no implications of purgatory. On the other hand, Catholics have used a reading which emphasizes "I say to you today", leaving open the possibility that the statement was made today, but arrival in Heaven may be later.
3. Behold your son: behold your mother
- Jesus saw his own mother, and the disciple standing near whom he loved, he said to his mother, "Woman, behold your son". Then he said to the disciple, "Behold your mother". And from that hour, he took his mother into his family.
Pastor Hamilton from "24 Hours": "Jesus looked down from the cross to see his mother standing nearby. As far as we know, only one of the twelve apostles was there at the foot of the cross: "the disciple whom Jesus loved," usually identified as John. Naked and in horrible pain, he thought not of himself but was concerned for the well-being of his mother after his death. This shows Jesus' humanity and the depth of love he had for his mother and the disciple into whose care he entrusted her."
4. My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?
- Around the ninth hour, Jesus shouted in a loud voice, saying "Eli Eli lama sabachthani?" which is, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"
- And at the ninth hour, Jesus shouted in a loud voice, "Eloi Eloi lama sabachthani?" which is translated, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"
It is the only saying that appears in more than one Gospel, and is a quote from King David in Psalm 22:1. This saying is taken by some as an abandonment of the Son by the Father. Other theologians understand the cry as that of one who was truly human and who felt forsaken. Put to death by his foes, very largely deserted by his friends, he may have felt also deserted by God. The mystery of incarnation, "far beyond our power to fathom", is that "he who died at Golgotha (Calvary) is one with the Father, that God was in Christ, and that at the same time he cried out to the Father".
5. I thirst
- He said, "I thirst".
Jesus became dehydrated by the loss of blood and sweat. Having had nothing to eat or drink since the Last Supper the night before, he was painfully thirsty. John, like the other Gospels, says someone offered Jesus a drink of sour wine. Only John says this person placed a sponge dipped in wine on a hyssop branch and held it to Jesus' lips. Hyssop branches had figured significantly in the Old Testament and in the Book of Hebrews.
6. Father, into your hands I commit my spirit
- And speaking in a loud voice, Jesus said, "Father, into your hands I commit my spirit".
From Psalm 31:5, this saying, which is an announcement and not a request, is traditionally called "The Word of Reunion" and is theologically interpreted as the proclamation of Jesus joining the God the Father in Heaven.
Pastor Hamilton from "24 Hours": "When darkness seem to prevail in life, it takes faith even to talk to God, even if it is to complain to him. These last words of Jesus from the cross show his absolute trust in God: 'Father, into your hands I commit my spirit'. This has been termed a model of prayer for everyone when afraid, sick, or facing one's own death. It says in effect:"
I commit myself to you, O God. In my living and in my dying, in the good times and in the bad, whatever I am and have, I place in your hands, O God, for your safekeeping.:p.112
7. It is finished
- Jesus said, "It is finished".
This statement is traditionally called "The Word of Triumph" and is theologically interpreted as the announcement of the end of the earthly life of Jesus, in anticipation for the Resurrection.
Pastor Hamilton from "24 Hours": "These last words are seen as a cry of victory, not of dereliction. Jesus had now completed what he came to do. A plan was fulfilled; a salvation was made possible; a love shown. He had taken our place. He had demonstrated both humanity's brokenness and God's love. He had offered himself fully to God as a sacrifice on behalf of humanity. As he died, it was finished. With these words, the noblest person who ever walked the face of this planet, God in the flesh, breathed his last.":p.112
The last words of Jesus have been the subject of a wide range of Christian teachings and sermons, and a number of authors have written books specifically devoted to the last sayings of Christ.
Priest and author Timothy Radcliffe states that in the Bible, seven is the number of perfection, and he views the seven last words as God's completion of the circle of creation and performs analysis of the structure of the seven last words to obtain further insight.
Other interpretations and translations
The saying "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me" is generally given in transliterated Aramaic with a translation (originally in Greek) after it. This phrase is the opening line of Psalm 22, a psalm about persecution, the mercy and salvation of God. It was common for people at this time to reference songs by quoting their first lines. In the verses immediately following this saying, in both Gospels, the onlookers who hear Jesus' cry understand him to be calling for help from Elijah (Eliyyâ). The slight differences between the two gospel accounts are most probably due to dialect. Matthew's version seems to have been more influenced by Hebrew, whereas Mark's is perhaps more colloquial.
The phrase could be either:
- אלי אלי למה עזבתני [ēlî ēlî lamâ azavtanî]; or
- אלי אלי למא שבקתני [ēlî ēlî lamâ šabaqtanî]; or
- אלהי אלהי למא שבקתני [ēlâhî ēlâhî lamâ šabaqtanî]
The Aramaic word šabaqtanî is based on the verb šabaq, 'to allow, to permit, to forgive, and to forsake', with the perfect tense ending -t (2nd person singular: 'you'), and the object suffix -anî (1st person singular: 'me').
Historicity of the sayings
James Dunn considers the seven sayings weakly rooted in tradition and sees them as a part of the elaborations in the diverse retellings of Jesus' final hours. Dunn, however, argues in favour of the authenticity of the Mark/Matthew saying in that by presenting Jesus as seeing himself 'forsaken' it would have been an embarrassment to the early Church, and hence would not have been invented. Geza Vermes, states that the first saying from (Mark and Matthew) is a quotation from Psalm 22, and is therefore occasionally seen as a theological and literary device employed by the writers. According to Vermes, attempts to interpret the expression as a hopeful reference to scripture provide indirect evidence of its authenticity. Leslie Houlden, on the other hand, states that Luke may have deliberately excluded the Mark/Matthew saying from his Gospel because it did not fit in the model of Jesus he was presenting.
- Aramaic of Jesus
- Crucifixion of Jesus
- Life of Jesus in the New Testament
- Musical settings of The Seven Last Words of Christ
- Three Hours' Agony
- Geoffrey W. Bromiley, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Eerdmans Press 1995, ISBN 0-8028-3784-0 p. 426
- Joseph F. Kelly, An Introduction to the New Testament for Catholics Liturgical Press, 2006 ISBN 978-0-8146-5216-9 p. 153
- Jesus: the complete guide by Leslie Houlden 2006 ISBN 0-8264-8011-X p. 627
- Hamilton, Adam. 24 Hours That Changed the World. Abingdon Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-687-46555-2
- Jesus of Nazareth by W. Mccrocklin 2006 ISBN 1-59781-863-1 p. 134
- Jesus in history, thought, and culture: an encyclopedia, Volume 1 by James Leslie Houlden 2003 ISBN 1-57607-856-6 p. 645
- The Seven Last Words From The Cross by Fleming Rutledge 2004 ISBN 0-8028-2786-1 p. 8–10
- Richard Young (Feb 25, 2005). Echoes from Calvary: meditations on Franz Joseph Haydn's The seven last words of Christ, Volume 1. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742543843. Retrieved 1 April 2012. "Interestingly, the Methodist Book of Worship adopted by the General Conference of 1964 presented two services for Good Friday: a Three Hours' Service for the afternoon and a Good Friday evening service that includes the "Adoration at the Cross" (the Gospel, Deprecations, and Adoration of the Cross) but omits a communion service, which would be the Methodist equivalent of the Mass of the Presanctified."
- The Encyclopædia Americana: a library of universal knowledge, Volume 13. Encyclopedia Americana. 1919. Retrieved 1 April 2012. "The 'Three Hours' Devotion, borrowed from Roman usage, with meditation on the 'seven last words' from the Cross, and held from 12 till 3, when our Lord hung on the Cross, is a service of Good Friday that meets with increasing acceptance among the Anglicans."
- Columbia University page of Pierre Barbet on Crucifixion
- Barbet, Pierre. Doctor at Calvary, New York: Image Books, 1963.
- Frederick Zugibe, 2005, The Crucifixion of Jesus: A Forensic Inquiry Evans Publishing, ISBN 1-59077-070-6
- Catholic Doctors on Crucifixion
- Ehrman, Bart D.. Jesus, Interrupted, HarperCollins, 2009. ISBN 0-06-117393-2
- James G. D. Dunn, Jesus Remembered, Eerdmans, 2003, pp. 779–781.
- Jan Majernik, The Synoptics, Emmaus Road Press: 2005 ISBN 1-931018-31-6, p. 190
- The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1988 ISBN 0-8028-3785-9 p. 426
- Vernon K. Robbins in Literary studies in Luke-Acts by Richard P. Thompson (editor) 1998 ISBN 0-86554-563-4 pp. 200–201
- Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 1998 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 p. 648
- Reading Luke-Acts: dynamics of Biblical narrative by William S. Kurz 1993 ISBN 0-664-25441-1 p. 201
- Luke's presentation of Jesus: a Christology by de:Robert F. O'Toole 2004 ISBN 88-7653-625-6 p. 215
- Steven L. Cox, Kendell H. Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 p. 234
- The Blackwell Companion to Catholicism by James Buckley, Frederick Christian Bauerschmidt and Trent Pomplun, 2010 ISBN 1-4443-3732-7 p. 48
- Conner, W.T. The Cross in the New Testament. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1954. ASIN: B0007EIIPI p.34
- Stagg, Frank. New Testament Theology. Broadman Press, 1962. ISBN 0-8054-1613-7
- Hyssop. cf. Exodus 12:22: used to sprinkle the blood of the Passover lamb above the doors of the Israelite's dwellings when the firstborn of the Egyptians were killed; Leviticus 14: hyssop wrapped in yarn was used to sprinkle blood and water upon the lepers; Leviticus 14: hyssop wrapped in yarn also used on the ceremonially unclean so they might be made clean again; Psalm 51:7: David, in his prayer of confession, cried out to God, "Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean."; and Hebrews 9:19-20: after Moses gave the people the Ten Commandments, "he took the blood of calves and goats, with water and scarlet wool and hyssop, and sprinkled both the scroll itself and all the people, saying, 'This is the blood of the covenant that God has ordained for you.'" Hamilton, Adam (2009). 24 Hours That Changed the World. Nashville: Abington Press. ISBN 978-0-687-46555-2
- David Anderson-Berry, The Seven Sayings of Christ on the Cross, Glasgow: Pickering & Inglis Publishers, 1871
- Arthur Pink, The Seven Sayings of the Saviour on the Cross, Baker Books 2005, ISBN 0-8010-6573-9
- Simon Peter Long, The wounded Word: A brief meditation on the seven sayings of Christ on the cross, Baker Books 1966
- Timothy Radcliffe, 2005 Seven Last Words, ISBN 0-86012-397-9 p. 11
- Dictionary of biblical tradition in English literature by David L. Jeffrey 1993 ISBN 0-8028-3634-8 p. 233
- Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament (Broadman-Holman, 1973), vol. 1. ISBN 0-8054-1307-3.
- Geza Vermes, The Passion, Penguin 2005, p. 75.
- Vermes, Géza. The authentic gospel of Jesus. London, Penguin Books. 2004.
- The Reader's Encyclopedia, Second Edition 1965, publisher Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York, editions 1948, 1955. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 65-12510, pp. 917–918