Science and technology in Germany
Germany's achievements in science and technology have been significant and research and development efforts form an integral part of the country's economy. Germany has been the home of some of the most prominent researchers in various scientific disciplines, notably physics, mathematics, chemistry and engineering. For most of the 20th century, Germany had more Nobel Prizes in the sciences (physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine) than any other nation.
Scientific research in the country is supported by industry, by the network of German universities and by scientific state-institutions such as the Max Planck Society and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. The raw output of scientific research from Germany consistently ranks among the world's best.
- Alexander von Humboldt Foundation
- Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
- Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology (BMWi)
- German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), promoting international exchange of scientists and students)
National science libraries
- German National Library of Economics (ZWB)
- German National Library of Medicine (ZB MED)
- German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB)
- Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
- Max Planck Society (fundamental research)
- Fraunhofer Society (applied research and mission oriented research)
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community (fundamental and applied research)
- Gesellschaft für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik
The work of Albert Einstein and Max Planck was crucial to the foundation of modern physics, which Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrödinger developed further. They were preceded by such key physicists as Hermann von Helmholtz, Joseph von Fraunhofer, and Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, among others. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovered X-rays, an accomplishment that made him the first winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901 and eventually earned him an element name, roentgenium. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz's work in the domain of electromagnetic radiation were pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication. Mathematical aerodynamics was developed in Germany, especially by Ludwig Prandtl.
Paul Forman in 1971 argued the remarkable scientific achievements in quantum physics were the cross-product of the hostile intellectual atmosphere whereby many scientists rejected Weimar Germany and Jewish scientists, revolts against causality, determinism and materialism, and the creation of the revolutionary new theory of quantum mechanics. The scientists adjusted to the intellectual environment by dropping Newtonian causality from quantum mechanics, thereby opening up an entirely new and highly successful approach to physics. The "Forman Thesis" has generated an intense debate among historians of science.
At the start of the 20th century, Germany garnered fourteen of the first thirty-one Nobel Prizes in Chemistry, starting with Hermann Emil Fischer in 1901 and until Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius in 1931.
Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers, such as Johannes Gutenberg, who is credited with the invention of movable type printing in Europe; Hans Geiger, the creator of the Geiger counter; and Konrad Zuse, who built the first electronic computer. German inventors, engineers and industrialists such as Zeppelin, Daimler, Diesel, Otto, Wankel, Von Braun and Benz helped shape modern automotive and air transportation technology including the beginnings of space travel.
Biological and earth sciences
Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, two key figures in microbiology, were from Germany. Alexander von Humboldt's (1769–1859) work as a natural scientist and explorer was foundational to biogeography. Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) was an eclectic Russian-born botanist and climatologist who synthesized global relationships between climate, vegetation and soil types into a classification system that is used, with some modifications, to this day. Alfred Wegener (1880–1930), a similarly interdisciplinary scientist, was one of the first people to hypothesize the theory of continental drift which was later developed into the overarching geological theory of plate tectonics.
Besides natural sciences, German researchers have added much to the development of humanities. Contemporary examples are the philosopher Jürgen Habermas, the egyptologist Jan Assmann, the sociologist Niklas Luhmann, the historian Reinhart Koselleck and the legal historian Michael Stolleis. In order to promote the international visibility of research in these fields a new prize, Geisteswissenschaften International, has been established in 2008. It serves the translation of studies in humanities into English.
- German inventors and discoverers
- Hitler's Scientists (book)
- Operation Paperclip
- Technology during World War II
- Back to the Future: Germany - A Country of Research German Academic Exchange Service (2005-02-23). Retrieved 2006-12-08
- National Science Nobel Prize shares 1901-2009 by citizenship at the time of the award and by country of birth. From J. Schmidhuber (2010), Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th Century at arXiv:1009.2634v1
- Swedish academy awards. ScienceNews web edition, Friday, October 1st, 2010: http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/63944/title/Swedish_academy_awards
- Top 20 Country Rankings in All Fields, 2006, Thomson Corporation, retrieved 4 January 2007.
- Roberts, J. M. The New Penguin History of the World, Penguin History, 2002. Pg. 1014. ISBN 0-14-100723-0
- The Alfred B. Nobel Prize Winners, 1901-2003 History Channel from The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-02
- Historical figures in telecommunications. International Telecommunication Union. Jan. 14, 2004. Retrieved 2007-01-02
- Paul Forman, "Weimar Culture, Causality, and Quantum Theory, 1918-1927: Adaptation by German Physicists and Mathematicians to a Hostile Intellectual Environment," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 3 (1971): 1-116
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- Horst, Zuse. The Life and Work of Konrad Zuse Everyday Practical Electronics (EPE) Online. Retrieved 2007-01-02
- Automobile. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-02
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- The Natural History Legacy of Alexander von Humboldt (1769 to 1859) Humboldt Field Research Institute and Eagle Hill Foundation. Retrieved 2007-01-02
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- Kim, Alan. Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Jun. 16, 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-02
- Competing Modernities: Science and Education, Kathryn Olesko and Christoph Strupp. (A comparative analysis of the history of science and education in Germany and the United States.
- English section of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research's website
- Website of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
- Germany's science and research landscape
- Articles and dossiers about Research and Technology in Germany, Goethe-Institut