Sepultura

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sepultura
Metalmania 2007 - Sepultura 05.jpg
Sepultura at the Metalmania festival in 2007
Background information
Origin Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Genres Thrash metal, Death Metal, ((Metalcore, Nu Metal (after Thrash/death Era, end of Max Cavalera Era))
Years active 1984–present
Labels Cogumelo, New Renaissance, Roadrunner, Steamhammer, Nuclear Blast
Associated acts Sarcófago, Nailbomb, Soulfly, Cavalera Conspiracy, Udora, Korn, Les Tambours du Bronx Lody Kong
Website sepultura.com
Members Paulo Jr.
Andreas Kisser
Derrick Green
Eloy Casagrande
Past members Wagner Lamounier
Jairo Guedz
Max Cavalera
Igor Cavalera
Jean Dolabella

Sepultura (Portuguese for "grave")[1] is a Brazilian heavy metal band from Belo Horizonte. Formed in 1984 by brothers Max and Igor Cavalera,[2] the band was a major force in the death metal and thrash metal genres during the late 1980s and early 1990s,[3] with their later experiments drawing influence from nu metal,[4] hardcore punk and industrial metal.[5][6] Sepultura has had several changes in its lineup since its formation, with the band's founders, lead singer/rhythm guitarist Max Cavalera and drummer Igor Cavalera departing in 1996 and 2006, respectively. Sepultura's current line up consists of vocalist Derrick Green, guitarist Andreas Kisser, bassist Paulo Jr. and drummer Eloy Casagrande.

Sepultura has released 13 studio albums so far, the latest being The Mediator Between Head and Hands Must Be the Heart (2013). Their most successful records are Arise (1991), Chaos A.D. (1993), and Roots (1996).[7] Sepultura has sold over 3 million units in the USA and almost 30 million worldwide,[8] gaining multiple gold and platinum records across the globe, including in countries as diverse as France,[9][10] Australia,[11] Indonesia,[12] United States,[13] Cyprus[14] and their native Brazil.[15]

History[edit]

Max Cavalera era[edit]

Sepultura was formed in 1984 in Belo Horizonte, the capital city of Minas Gerais, Brazil.[2] The band was founded by teen brothers Max and Igor Cavalera, the impoverished sons of Vânia, a model, and Graciliano, a well-to-do Italian diplomat whose fatal heart attack left his family in financial ruin.[16] Graciliano's death deeply affected his sons, inspiring them to form a band after Max heard the album Black Sabbath Vol. 4 the very same day.[17] They chose the band name Sepultura, the Portuguese word for "grave," when Max translated the lyrics of the Motörhead song "Dancing on Your Grave".[1]

The brothers' early influences included Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple, and the popular metal and hard rock artists of the early 1980s, such as Van Halen, Iron Maiden, Motörhead, AC/DC, Judas Priest and Ozzy Osbourne.[2] They would travel to a record shop in São Paulo that mixed tapes of the latest records by American bands.[18] Their listening habits changed dramatically after being introduced to Venom. As Igor Cavalera put it:

I remember the first time I listened to Venom, it was on a friend's borrowed tape. It was similar to Motörhead, only a lot heavier. I remember someone saying: it's the devil's Motörhead! After we got acquainted with Venom, we stopped listening to Iron Maiden and all that lighter stuff.[19]

The Cavalera brothers started listening to bands such as Hellhammer/Celtic Frost, Kreator, Sodom, Megadeth, Exodus and Exciter.[20] By 1984, they had dropped out of school.[18] After several early membership changes, Sepultura established a stable lineup of Max on guitar, Igor on drums, vocalist Wagner Lamounier, and bassist Paulo Jr.[21] Lamounier departed in March 1985 after disagreements with the band, and moved on to become the leader of the pioneering Brazilian black metal band Sarcófago. After his departure, Max took over the vocal duties. Jairo Guedes was invited to join the band as lead guitarist.[22]

Bestial Devastation and Morbid Visions (1984–1986)[edit]

After about a year of performing, Sepultura signed to Cogumelo Records in 1985. Later that year, they released Bestial Devastation, a shared EP with fellow Brazilian band Overdose. It was self-produced and recorded in just two days. The band recorded their first full-length album, Morbid Visions, in August 1986. It contained their first hit, "Troops of Doom," which gained some media attention. The band then decided to relocate to the larger city of São Paulo.[23]

Schizophrenia, Beneath the Remains and Arise (1987–1992)[edit]

In early 1987, Jairo Guedes quit the band after losing interest in playing death metal. Jairo was replaced by São Paulo-based guitarist Andreas Kisser,[24] and they released their second studio album, Schizophrenia, in 1987. The album reflected a stylistic change towards a more thrash metal-oriented sound, while still keeping the death metal elements of Morbid Visions. Schizophrenia was an improvement in production and performance, and became a minor critical sensation across Europe and America as a much sought-after import. The band sent tapes to North America(USA) that made radio playlists at a time when they were struggling to book gigs because club owners were afraid to book them due to their style.[18] The band gained attention from Roadrunner Records who signed them and released Schizophrenia internationally before seeing the band perform in person.[23][25]

The band's third studio album, Beneath the Remains, was released in 1989. The album was recorded in a rustic studio in Rio de Janeiro while the band communicated through translators with the American producer Scott Burns.[18] It was an immediate success and became known in thrash metal circles as a classic on the order of Slayer's Reign in Blood.[25] It is hailed by Terrorizer magazine as one of the all-time top 20 thrash metal albums,[26] as well as a gaining a place in their all-time top 40 death metal records.[27] Allmusic gave the album 4.5 stars out of 5 and said, "The complete absence of filler here makes this one of the most essential death/thrash metal albums of all time."[28] A long European and American tour furthered the band's reputation, despite the fact that they were still very limited English speakers. Their first US show was held on October 31, 1989 at the Ritz in New York City, opening for Danish heavy metal band King Diamond. The band filmed its first video for the single "Inner Self".

In January 1991 Sepultura played for more than 100,000 people at the Rock in Rio II festival. The band relocated from their native Brazil to Phoenix, Arizona in 1990, obtained new management, and recorded the album Arise at Morrisound Studios in Tampa, Florida.[18] By the time the album was released in 1991, the band had become one of the most critically praised thrash/death metal bands of the time. The first single "Dead Embryonic Cells" was a success, and the title track gained additional attention when its video was banned by MTV America due to its apocalyptic religious imagery. The album was critically acclaimed and their first to chart on the Billboard 200, reaching No. 119.[29]

Max Cavalera married the band's manager, Gloria Bujnowski, during this period.[23] In 1992, Sepultura was part of two major tours: Helmet/Ministry and Alice in Chains/Ozzy Osbourne. Reflecting on their past in Brazil at the time, Max Cavalera said, "Traveling on trains. Getting beat up by cops. Sleeping behind the stage. It's part of growing up. It's part of the nature of this stuff. If you don't have that kind of background, you can't be a band like us."[18]

Chaos A.D., Nailbomb and Roots (1993–1996)[edit]

Sepultura's fifth album, Chaos A.D., was released in 1993. It saw a departure from their death/thrash metal style,[30] adding elements of industrial and hardcore punk.[5] Allmusic gave the album 4.5 stars out of 5 and wrote that, "Chaos A.D. ranks as one of the greatest heavy metal albums of all time."[31] In 1994, Max and Igor, along with Alex Newport of Fudge Tunnel, released an even more industrial-oriented album, Point Blank, under the group name Nailbomb. The group performed only one full live gig, and the performance was released as Proud to Commit Commercial Suicide. Nailbomb disbanded in 1995.

Sepultura's departure from death and thrash metal continued with their sixth album, Roots, which was released in 1996. On this album the band experimented with elements of the music of Brazil's indigenous peoples, and adopted a slower, down-tuned sound. The album was hailed as a modern day heavy metal classic. Allmusic gave it 4.5 stars out of 5 and said, "Roots consolidates Sepultura's position as perhaps the most distinctive, original heavy metal band of the 1990s."[32] In 1996, Sepultura performed "War (Guerra)" for the AIDS benefit album Silencio=Muerte: Red Hot + Latin produced by the Red Hot Organization.

Departure of Max Cavalera (1996–1997)[edit]

In 1996, Sepultura played on the Castle Donington Monsters of Rock main stage alongside Ozzy Osbourne, Paradise Lost, Type O Negative, Biohazard and Fear Factory. The band was suddenly a three-piece with Andreas Kisser taking over on lead vocals, after Max Cavalera left the concert site earlier in the day upon learning of the death of his stepson Dana Wells in a car accident. After Dana Wells' funeral was finished, Max returned and continued to tour with Sepultura. A few months after Wells' death, the band told Max that they wanted to fire their manager Gloria Bujnowski, who was Max's wife and Dana's mother, and have her replaced with someone else. The other band members felt that Bujnowski was paying more attention to Max rather than the band itself. Max, who was still dealing with the death of Wells, felt betrayed by his band members for wanting to rid of Bujnowski and abruptly quit the band.[23] For many years, the true reasons behind his departure remained unknown.[33] In 1997, regarding how he felt when leaving Sepultura, Max Cavalera said, "I started Sepultura back in the day. I used to write that name on my schoolbooks. What I'm going through now, is like watching my own son die. I cry every day, I feel hurt, sad, angry, it's like half of me has died."[34] Max Cavalera's final performance with Sepultura was at Brixton Academy in England on December 16, 1996.

In an interview with Faceculture in 2010, Max Cavalera explains that one of the reasons he left Sepultura was that Kisser's wife attempted to arrange Dana Wells' funeral before Max and his wife Gloria Bujnowski could return home from England. Max also said in the interview that he regrets the events that led to his departure but a reunion is currently unlikely due to lingering disputes between him and Kisser, although Max has expressed interest in such an idea in the future.[35][36] The events also led to a feud between Max and Igor Cavalera that lasted until Igor's own departure from the band ten years later.[34]

Derrick Green era[edit]

Against, Nation and Roorback (1998–2005)[edit]

Sepultura on stage

Following Max Cavalera's departure, the rest of Sepultura announced plans to find a new vocalist. North American musician Derrick Green from Cleveland, Ohio, was selected as the band's new front-man. The first album with the new line-up was Against, which was released in 1998. The album was critically and commercially less successful than previous albums and sold considerably fewer copies than the debut album by Max Cavalera's new band Soulfly.[23][37] Allmusic gave the album 3 stars out of 5, stating that "...there are enough flashes of the old Sepultura brilliance to suggest that great things are still to come."

The band's eighth album, Nation, released in 2001, sold poorly. It would be their last studio album with Roadrunner Records. Allmusic gave the album 3 stars out of 5 and said, "As Green scrapes the lining of his vocal chords through the brash, impassioned tracks, he's singing about more than just 'one nation, Sepulnation'; he's suggesting something bigger, something worth shouting about and fighting for." In an interview, Derrick Green said that, "Every song will be related to the idea of building this nation. We will have our own flags, our own anthem."[38] A recording of Max Cavalera's last live show with Sepultura, titled Under a Pale Grey Sky, was released in 2002 by Roadrunner Records.

After recording Revolusongs, an EP of covers in 2002, the band released their ninth studio album, Roorback, in 2003. Despite receiving greater critical acclaim than its predecessors, sales remained low. It was their first album with SPV Records. Allmusic gave the album 4 stars out of 5 and said, "...if there are still any lingering doubts about the Green/Sepultura match, 2003's excellent Roorback should put them to rest for good. Green is passionate and focused throughout the album — he has no problem going that extra mile — and the writing is consistently strong."[39] In 2005, the band played in Dubai for the annual Dubai Desert Rock Festival. In November of that year, a live double DVD/double CD package, Live in São Paulo, was released. This was the first official live album from the band.

Dante XXI, A-Lex and departure of Igor Cavalera (2006–2010)[edit]

Sepultura in Poland.

Sepultura's tenth album, Dante XXI, was released on March 14, 2006. It is a concept album based on Dante Alighieri's The Divine Comedy. Music videos were recorded for the songs "Convicted in Life" and "Ostia". Allmusic gave the album 3.5 stars out of 5 and said that, "Overall, Dante XXI is easily one of Sepultura's strongest releases to feature Green on vocals."[40]

In a 2007 interview with Revolver Magazine, Max Cavalera stated that he and Igor, both of whom having recently reconciled after a decade-long feud, would reunite with the original Sepultura lineup. There were also rumors that the reunited line up would play on the main stage at Ozzfest 2007. However, this was denied by Kisser and the reunion did not occur.[41] Instead, Igor Cavalera left the band after the release of Dante XXI and was replaced by Brazilian drummer Jean Dolabella. After leaving Sepultura, Igor and Max formed Cavalera Conspiracy.

Sepultura appeared in a successful ad campaign for Volkswagen motors commercial that aired nationally throughout Brazil in 2008. The spot said that “it's the first time you've seen Sepultura like this. And a Sedan like this one too”.[42] The Volkswagen TV spot shows Sepultura playing bossa nova, the opposite of its heavy metal style, to say that “you never saw something like this, as you never saw a car like the new Voyage”.

Sepultura released the album A-Lex on 26 January 2009. This was the first Sepultura album to include neither of the Cavalera brothers, with bassist Paulo Jr. as the sole remaining member from the band's debut album. A-Lex is a concept album based on the book A Clockwork Orange. The album was recorded at Trama Studios in São Paulo, Brazil, with producer Stanley Soares. Allmusic gave the album 4 stars out of 5 and said, "Personnel changes can have a very negative effect on a band, but Sepultura have maintained their vitality all these years — and that vitality is alive and well on the superb A-Lex."[43]

The band was one of the featured musical guests at the Latin Grammy Awards of 2008 on November 13. They performed a cover of "The Girl from Ipanema", and "We've Lost You" from the album A-Lex.[44] The 9th annual Latin Grammy Awards ceremony was held at the Toyota Center in Houston, Texas and aired on Univision.[45] Sepultura supported Metallica on January 30 and January 31, 2010 at Morumbi Stadium in São Paulo, Brazil. The two concerts were attended by 100,000 people.[46] The band filmed a concert DVD in 2010.[47] Sepultura played at Kucukciftlik Park, Istanbul, on April 27, 2010. On August 8, 2010 visited the UK to play at the Hevy Music Festival near Folkestone.

Kairos and The Mediator Between Head and Hands Must Be the Heart (2010–present)[edit]

On July 6, 2010, it was announced that Sepultura were signed with Nuclear Blast Records, and would release their first album for the label in 2011.[48] The band confirmed that there would be no reunion of the classic lineup.[49] By the end of 2010, the band began writing new material and entered the studio to begin recording their 12th album with producer Roy Z (Judas Priest, Halford, Iron Maiden's Bruce Dickinson, Helloween and Andre Matos).[50][51][52] On March 1, 2011, Sepultura had completed recording their new album, entitled Kairos, which was released in June 2011.[53]

The album includes cover versions of Ministry's "Just One Fix" and The Prodigy's "Firestarter", both of which are available as bonus tracks on various special-edition releases.[54] Sepultura played on the Kairos World Tour and at Wacken Open Air 2011. Drummer Jean Dolabella left the band and was replaced by 20 year old Eloy Casagrande in November 2011, who had already played in Brazilian heavy metal singer Andre Matos' solo band. In November and December 2011 Sepultura participated the Thrashfest Classics 2011 tour alongside thrash metal bands like Exodus, Destruction, Heathen and Mortal Sin.

In May 2012, guitarist Andreas Kisser told Metal Underground that Sepultura would soon "start working on something new with Eloy" and see if they could "get ready for new music early next year."[55] In an interview at England's Bloodstock Open Air on August 10, 2012, Kisser revealed that Sepultura would be filming a live DVD with the French percussive group Les Tambours du Bronx. He also revealed that the band was "already thinking about new ideas" for their next album and would "have something new going on" in 2013.[56]

On December 10, 2012, producer Ross Robinson, who produced Sepultura's Roots album, tweeted: "Oh, didn't mention.. Spoke to Andreas, it's on. My vision, smoke Roots- It can be done",[57] suggesting he would be producing the band's next album. This was later confirmed, as well as an announcement that the album would be co-produced by Steve Evetts.[58] Former Slayer drummer Dave Lombardo made a guest appearance on the album.[59]

On January 25, 2013, it was announced that author Jason Korolenko was working on Relentless - The Book of Sepultura, which is described in a press release as "the only book-length biography to cover the band's entire 30-year career." Relentless is scheduled for publication in late 2013.[60]

On July 19, 2013, it was revealed that the title of the band's thirteenth album was The Mediator Between Head and Hands Must Be the Heart.

Musical style[edit]

Sepultura's early influences were heavy metal groups such as Iron Maiden, Metallica, Celtic Frost and Slayer, and death metal bands like Possessed and Death.[23] Andreas Kisser affirmed that "without Slayer, Sepultura would never be possible".[61]

MTV has called Sepultura the most successful Brazilian heavy metal band in history and "perhaps the most important heavy metal band of the '90s".[23] In 1993, Robert Baird of Phoenix New Times wrote that the band played "machine-gun-tempo mayhem" and that the members "love to attack organized religion and repressive government".[18]

Sepultura's is in general terms Heavy metal, music is predominately Thrash Metal but to the extreme borderlining with genres Death Metal, later to Metalcore type up til after Max Cavalera left in the late 90's to evolve into Nu metal, incorporating styles from Black Metal, Hardcore punk and Doom Metal. Plus they also later experimented with tribal music from Brazil, and a little bit of japanese music. Their recent releases of albums are all majorly influenced by their own Country of Traditional Brazil music and stand out to the sub genre of Nu Metal.

Band members[edit]

Current
Former
  • Wagner Lamounier – lead vocals, rhythm guitar (1984–1985)
  • Max Cavalera – lead vocals, rhythm guitar, 4-string guitar, berimbau, percussion (1985–1997), lead guitar, backing vocals (1984–1985)
  • Igor Cavalera – drums, percussion (1984–2006)
  • Jairo Guedes – lead guitar (1985–1987)
  • Jean Dolabella – drums, percussion (2006–2011)
Touring

Timeline[edit]

Discography[edit]

Main article: Sepultura discography
Studio albums

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 17.
  2. ^ a b c Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 16.
  3. ^ Darzin, Daina (1994-05-05). "Sepultura: Chaos A.D.". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2008-07-13. 
  4. ^ Dimery 2006 pg 782, "Drawing on Brazilian Latin and tribal music, nu-metal, and Sepultura's own thrash/death style, the results were unique,"
  5. ^ a b Haagsma, Robert (1993). "Sepultura". Aardschok / Metal Hammer. Retrieved 2008-05-03.  Archived at Sepultura.be
  6. ^ Barcinski & Gomes 1999, pages 89 & 90.
  7. ^ Colmatti 1997, page 22.
  8. ^ "Sepultura" (in Portuguese). akg.com. Retrieved 2011-07-17. 
  9. ^ "Les certifications Albums - Année 1994". Musique sur Disque en France (SNEP). Retrieved 2008-07-08. [dead link]
  10. ^ "Les certifications Albums - Année 1997". Musique sur Disque en France (SNEP). Retrieved 2008-07-08. [dead link]
  11. ^ "Aria Charts - Accreditations - 1997 Albums". Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  12. ^ Barcinski & Gomes 1999, pages 109 & 143.
  13. ^ "Gold and Platinum – Searchable Database". RIAA. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  14. ^ "Sepultura - Dante XXI Certified Gold in Cyprus". Brave Words & Bloody Knuckles. 21 March 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2009. 
  15. ^ Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 143.
  16. ^ Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 14.
  17. ^ Chirazi, Steffan (2005). "The Roots of Sepultura". Roots (CD booklet). Sepultura. New York, New York: Roadrunner Records. p. 13. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Baird, Robert (1993-05-12). "The Boys from Brazil Transplanted to Phoenix, Sepultura Strives for Death Metal with a Conscience". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  19. ^ Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 19.
  20. ^ Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 26.
  21. ^ Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 21.
  22. ^ Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 28.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Sepultura: Artist Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved October 4, 2013. 
  24. ^ Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 49.
  25. ^ a b Colon, Suzan (1991-08-01). "Name That Tomb". Miami New Times. Retrieved 2010-08-02. 
  26. ^ Terrorizer No. 109 (2003), page 35 (author unknown)
  27. ^ Hinchliffe 2006, page 54
  28. ^ Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Beneath the Remains - Sepultura". AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  29. ^ "Top Music Charts - Hot 100 - Billboard 200 - Music Genre Sales". Billboard Music Charts. Retrieved 2008-10-30. [dead link]
  30. ^ Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 131.
  31. ^ Huey, Steve. "Chaos A.D. - Sepultura". AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  32. ^ Huey, Steve. "Roots - Sepultura". AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  33. ^ Rock Sound Issue 15576:pg 56. Sepultura: what really happened in London?
  34. ^ a b Pratt, Greg (August 2011). "Sepultura: Troops of Doom". Exclaim!. Retrieved October 4, 2013. 
  35. ^ ""Max Cavalera quit Sepultura over funeral", July 10, 2010". Faceculture.com. 2011-04-04. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  36. ^ "Sepultura Biography". Retrieved 26 September 2012. 
  37. ^ "Metal/Hard Rock Album Sales In The US As Reported By SoundScan". 
  38. ^ Smith, Kerry L. (2001-03-20). "((( Nation > Overview )))". allmusic. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 
  39. ^ Henderson, Alex (2003-08-26). "((( Roorback > Overview )))". allmusic. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 
  40. ^ Prato, Greg (2006-03-14). "Dante XXI - Sepultura". AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  41. ^ "There will be no Sepultura reunion i2007". Blabbermouth.net. 2006-11-15. Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  42. ^ “”. "Sepultura em comercial da Volkswagen (novo Voyage)". YouTube. Retrieved 2010-12-11. 
  43. ^ Henderson, Alex (2009-01-27). "((( A-Lex > Review )))". allmusic. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 
  44. ^ "Sepultura Performs at Latin Grammy Awards; Video Available". Blabbermouth.net. Roadrunner Records. 2008-11-14. Retrieved 2008-12-02. 
  45. ^ "Sepultura to Perform New Song at Latin Grammy Awards in Houston". Blabbermouth.net. Roadrunner Records. 2008-11-10. Retrieved 2008-12-02. 
  46. ^ "MetallicaHQ.com". MetallicaHQ.com. 2010-01-12. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  47. ^ "SEPULTURA's 'A-Lex' To Be Re-Released With Two New Tracks". 
  48. ^ "SEPULTURA Signs With NUCLEAR BLAST RECORDS". 
  49. ^ "Sepultura Definitely Not Reuniting With Cavalera Brothers -- Video". 
  50. ^ "SEPULTURA Writing New Material On The Road". 
  51. ^ Prakash KL (2010-08-03). "Sepultura's new album is in pipeline – oneindia entertainment". Entertainment.oneindia.in. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  52. ^ "SEPULTURA Taps Producer ROY Z. For New Album". 
  53. ^ "Exclusive: New SEPULTURA Album Title Revealed". 
  54. ^ "SEPULTURA Completes Recording New Album; Lays Down MINISTRY, THE PRODIGY Covers". 
  55. ^ "Brazilian Guitarist Andreas Kisser: "The Spirit Of Sepultura Is Still Very Much Alive"". 
  56. ^ "SEPULTURA To Film Concert DVD With French Percussive Group LES TAMBOURS DU BRONX". 
  57. ^ "Twitter / ROSS_ROBINSON". 
  58. ^ Egging, Kiel (April 9, 2013). "Sepultura Reunite With ‘Roots’ Producer Ross Robinson For New LP". Music Feeds. Retrieved October 4, 2013. 
  59. ^ Pasbani, Robert (June 14, 2013). "Dave Lombardo To Guest On The Upcoming Sepultura Record". Metal Injection. Retrieved October 4, 2013. 
  60. ^ "SEPULTURA: 'Relentless' biography due later this year". 
  61. ^ "Andreas Kisser: "Without Slayer, Sepultura Would Never Be Possible"". Blabbermouth.net. May 29, 2013. Retrieved October 4, 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Anonymous (May 2003). Beneath the Remains. In: A Megaton Hit Parade: The All-Time Thrash Top 20. Terrorizer No. 109, page 35.
  • Barcinski, André & Gomes, Silvio (1999). Sepultura: Toda a História. São Paulo: Ed. 34. ISBN 85-7326-156-0
  • Colmatti, Andréa (1997). Sepultura: Igor Cavalera. Modern Drummer Brasil, 6, 18-26, 28-30.
  • Hinchliffe, James (December 2006). Beneath the Remains. In: Death Metal|The DM Top 40. Terrorizer No. 151, page 54.
  • Lemos, Anamaria (1993). Caos Desencanado. Bizz, 98, 40-45.
  • Schwarz, Paul (2005). Morbid Visions. In: The First Wave. Terrorizer, 128, 42.
  • Sepultura (1996). Roots. [CD]. New York, NY: Roadrunner Records. The 25th Anniversary Series (2-CD Reissue, 2005).
  • Thoroddsen, Arnar (2006). Dimery, Robert, ed. 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. Quintet Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-7893-1371-5. 

External links[edit]