Shia view of the Sahabah
|Beliefs and practices|
Succession to Muhammad
Imamate of the Family
Mourning of Muharram
Intercession · Ismah
The Occultation · Clergy
|The Qur'an · Sahaba
|Ashura · Arba'een · Mawlid
Eid al-Fitr · Eid al-Adha
· Ismāʿīlī · Zaidi
The verse of purification
Mubahala · Two things
Khumm · Fatimah's house
First Fitna · Second Fitna
The Battle of Karbala
|Muhammad · Ali · Fatimah
Hasan · Hussein
|List of Shia companions|
|Fatimah · Khadija bint Khuwaylid · Zaynab bint Ali · Fatimah bint Hasan · Sukayna bint Husayn · Rubab · Shahrbanu · Nijmah · Fātimah bint Mūsā · Hakimah Khātūn · Narjis · Fatimah bint Asad · Farwah bint al-Qasim ·|
Shia do not accept the Sunni view that the testimony of nearly all Sahaba is an authenticated part of the chain of narrators in a hadith. Shias argue that not all the Sahaba were righteous, just because they saw or were with Muhammad. The Quran states:
And among those around you of the wandering Arabs there are hypocrites, and among the townspeople of Al-Madinah (there are some who) persist in hypocrisy whom thou (O Muhammad) knowest not. We, We know them, and We shall chastise them twice; then they will be relegated to a painful doom.
Above ayah stated that there are hypocrites in the city of Medina around Muhammad but no one knows them but God. Shias further argue that after Muhammad's demise the righteousness of Sahaba can be assessed by their loyalty towards Ahl al-Bayt, Muhammads family. Also Shias accept hadith from the Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt. This is due to that Shia believes them to be thoroughly cleansed from all sin, through their interpretation of the Quran Surah 33 Verse 33 and the hadith of the Cloak.
Regarding the other parts of chain of narration, all people are up to be scrutinized. There is no distinction made between a Sahaba and a taba'een or anyone else regarding trustworthiness, everyone have the same demand to prove or disprove their trustworthiness. Therefore, Shia look at each Sahaba as an individual, preferring some above others.
Shia do not have a ranking system dependent on when the Sahabi embraced Islam, because they argue that this does not matter for one's faith at all. Rather, they have an individual view of each one, according to what they did during their life. For example, if a Sahaba made Muhammad angry or questioned his decision several times then he is viewed as unrealiable. Furthermore a Sahaba who engaged in open warfare against the Ahl al-Bayt have their trustworthiness reduced to near nothing in the Shia view. In fact, under the doctrine of Tabarra, it is obligatory to disassociate from such a person.
Shias consider that any hadith where Muhammad is claimed to have, in one way or another, absolved all Sahaba from sin or elevated their trustworthiness is false. Shias claim that, in most cases, such hadiths have been reported by those who opposed the Ahl al-Bayt.
On the other hand, the Sahaba that are agreed to have sacrificed life and property for the sake of Muhammad are held in a very positive view, and under the doctrine of Tawalla, it is obligatory to love such a person.
Merit for seeing Muhammad
Shias have different views on each Sahabi, depending on what he or she accomplished. In the Shia view, some Sahaba lived lives contrary to Islamic teaching. Shias support their arguments using verses from the Qur'an, in particular, in relation to Muhammad's wives:
[66.10] sets forth an example to those who disbelieve: the wife of Nuh and the wife of Lut: they were both under two of Our righteous servants, but they acted treacherously towards them so they availed them naught against Allah, and it was said: Enter both the fire with those who enter.
Shias also support their view by citing the following verses addressing Muhammad's wives:
[33.30] O wives of the prophet! whoever of you commits an open indecency, the punishment shall be increased to her doubly; and this is easy to Allah.
[33.31] And whoever of you is obedient to Allah and His Apostle and does good, We will give to her her reward doubly, and We have prepared for her an honorable sustenance.
In other words, a wife of the prophet who "commits an open indecency" will be twice as blameworthy, because she was in the presence of God's best creation, Muhammad, and thus should have been inspired to act justly. Also, a wife who "is obedient to God and His Messenger and does good" is considered twice as admirable, because she received Muhammad's direct guidance and aided him and his Ahl al-Bayt.
[9.101] And from among those who are round about you of the dwellers of the desert there are hypocrites, and from among the people of Medina (also); they are stubborn in hypocrisy; you do not know them; We know them; We will chastise them twice then shall they be turned back to a grievous chastisement.
There is no standardized guideline of status according to the Shia school of thought; a Shia consensus can not be established regarding a detailed list based on rank.
However there is a general consensus on an approximate view of each Sahaba, in the same way that most people would think very badly of Adolf Hitler and Ted Bundy and very well of Mahatma Gandhi and Jesus.
It would be impossible to establish a list showing the approximate view of each Sahaba for all the people in the world, since most people have very different frames of preference. However, it is much easier to do so if the targeted group have a similar frame of preference.
Most Shias have the same frame of preference regarding the relevant issues, since most disagreements between the Shi'as sects start after Husayn ibn Ali's era. This, and all sects being minority to the twelvers, explains why almost all Shi'a have a very similar frame of preference regarding the Sahaba, making this list relevant and accurate in the field of Social sciences rather than Hard science.
Shi'as can in general be expected to have a certain view on each Sahaba after having understood what relevant actions the specific Sahaba have accomplished during his or her life.
This is in contrast to Sunnis. Egyptian and Saudi Arabian scholars have in general different views on, for example, Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan, one more favorable and the other more dim, however, both are within the Sunni doctrines that claim the uprightness of all Sahaba and go to heaven.
The list of the Shia view of the Sahaba
The list of Sahaba includes events that are relevant for establishing a view, ranked accordingly to their general perceived status.
The Ahl ul-Bayt are not included in this list, since the list revolves around them.
Believers (Companions of Muhammad)
- Ja'far ibn Abu Talib Ali's brother.
- Abdullah ibn Ja'far Zainab bint Ali's husband.
- Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib uncle of Muhammad
- Salman the Persian gave Muhammad the idea to dig the trench. He, like the other, did not supposedly give allegiance to Abu Bakr
- Abu Dharr al-Ghifari Jundub ibn Junadah ibn Sakan (Arabic جُندب بن جَنادة), better known as Abu Dharr, Abu Dharr al-Ghafari, or Abu Tharr Al-Ghefari (Arabic أبو ذر الغفاري) was an early convert to Islam.
- Bilal ibn Ribah is called by Muhammed as "the most truthful man between heaven and earth".
- Abdullah ibn Abbas was a staunch follower of Ali. Did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr, until Ali supposedly did so. Accompanied Ali when he demanded his inheritance from Umar and sought very badly of Umar and Abu Bakr. Convinced 20'000 of the 24'000 Khawarij to return to Ali..
- Malik ibn Ashter was Ali's general when he came close to killing Muawiya, then became his governor, has long and beautiful letter addressed to him in Nahj ul-Balagha Letter No.53 in which Ali gives guidance in how to uphold a government. That letter was referred to in the United Nations as an advice to Arabs.
- Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr was Abu Bakr's son and an adopted of Ali. He was chosen to govern Egypt.
- Ammar ibn Yasir was killed by Muawiyas army in the Battle of Siffin when he was 90 years old, as predicted by Muhammad.
- Miqdad ibn al-Aswad al-Kindi
- Zayd ibn Harithah
- Uthman ibn Maz'un
- Uthman ibn Hunaif Dhu'sh-Shahadatain He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr.
- Jabir Ibn Abdullah Ansari He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr.
- Ouwais al Qarniy
- Harith ibn Abd al-Muttalib An uncle of Muhammad
- Obaidah ibn al-Harith was the first Muslim to be killed in battle. He was a cousin of Muhammad and Ali, and he was the first Martyr of the Battle of Badr.
- Fatima bint Asad Aunt of Muhammad and the mother of Ali
- Fatima bint Hizam married Ali and gave him four sons that were martyred at the Battle of Karbala, not to be confused with Ali's first wife Fatima bint Muhammad
- Umm Kulthum bint Ali daughter of Ali and Fatimah, was taken to Yazids palace after the Battle of Karbala.
- Zaynab bint Ali eldest daughter of Ali and Fatimah was taken to Yazids palace after the Battle of Karbala.
- Khabbab ibn al-Aratt was a great role model in life.
- Akib ibn Usaid was the first governor of Makkah.
- Aqeel ibn Abi Talib a brother of Ali and cousin of Muhammad
- Talib ibn Abi Talib a brother of Ali and cousin of Muhammad
- Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib an uncle of Muhammad and Ali
- Asma bint Umais a widow of Abu Bakr, who later married Ali
- Zaid ibn Arqam
- Sa'ad ibn Mu'adh
- Abdu'l-Rahman ibn Abu Bakr
- Zaid mawla Muhammad was the freed slave of Muhammad and the father of Usama ibn Zaid.
- Usama ibn Zaid
- Ubaidullah bin Abdullah retold the event of the pen and paper as he heard from
- Ibn Abbas.
- Lubaynah accepted Islam
- Fazl ibn Abbas A cousin of Muhammad and Ali, he did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr.
- Khalid ibn Sa'id ibn al-As He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr.
- Buraida Aslami He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr.
- Ubai ibn Ka'b He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr. (He is the one who based on authentic Sunni sources the Prophet ordered the companions to trust him in the matter of Quran as one of the three trustee persons in this regard. See Sahih al-Bukhari, English, vol. 6, Tradition #521)
- Khuzaima ibn Thabit Dhu'sh-Shahadatain He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr.
- Abu'l-Hathama Bin Tihan He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr.
- Sahl ibn Hunaif He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr.
- Abu Ayub Ansari He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr.
- Hudhaifa ibn Yaman He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr.
- Sa'd ibn Ubaida He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr.
- Qays ibn Sa'd He did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr.
- Abdullah ibn Jahsh
- Sa'ad ibn Al-Rabee
- Malik ibn Nuwayra
- Arwa bint Abd al-Muttalib was one of the meritorious women.
- Mus`ab ibn `Umair
- Bilal ibn al-Harith
- Amr ibn Jamooh died in the Battle of Uhud while defending the Prophet of Islam
- Yasir ibn Amir, father of Ammar ibn Yasir
- Sumayyah bint Khabbab, mother of Ammar ibn Yasir, also the first martyr of Islam
- Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud
- Anas ibn al-Nadr died in the battle of Uhud
- Abu Dujana defended Muhamamd in the battle of Uhud
- Kumayl ibn Ziyad companion of Ali ibn Abi Talib. Dua Kumayl is named after him
- Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqas
Shi'a regarded this group as people who where not truly sincere in following Islam
- Zubayr ibn al-Awwam
- Talha Fought against Ali in the Battle of Jamal.
- Abdullah ibn Zubayr argued with ibn Abbas for the legitimacy of the ban against temporary marriage, fought Yazid for the Caliphat.
- Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf demanded that Ali not only to follow the Quran, the way of Muhammad but also the way of Umar and Abu Bakr in order to be the third Caliph.
- Um Ruman was Abu Bakr's wife
- Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah
- Said ibn Zayd
- Al-Nuayman ibn Amr Took part in the Battles of Badr and Uhud. Got caught drinking alcohol twice. Was known in Medina as a joker who used to make the Muslims laugh a lot
- Abu Sufyan ibn Harb for he was Muhammads arch enemy and Muawiya's father.
- Muaviya ibn Abu Sufyan cursed Imam Ali, deceived the shia during the arbitration after Siffin, caused further division among the Muslims, had non Muslim advisers, and is responsible for poisoning Imam Hassan.
- Abu Bakr ibn abu Qahafa with Umar's help he usurped Ali's caliphate.
- Umar ibn al-Khattab Regarded as an illegitimate leader, and according to shia he killed Fatima bintu Muhammad; see his main Wikipedia entry for partial further details of the Shia view (and the sharply contrasting Sunni view).
- Uthman ibn Affan is a from the family of Umayyad. He allowed Muawiyah expand his power in Syria.
- Khalid ibn al-Walid he is believed to have forced Imam Ali (as) to give bayah to Abu Bakr.
- Amr ibn al-As aided Muawiya during the Battle of Siffin and on his order poisoned Malik ibn Ashter.
- Marwan ibn al-Hakam cursed and oppressed the Ahlul Bayt, prevented the 2nd imam from being buried beside his grandfather, and usurped leadership after Muawiyah bin Yazid killed his commander Talha.
- Anas ibn Malik was famous for his disillusionment towards Ali
- Abdullah ibn Umar contradicted his father regarding temporary marriage and also other of his misunderstandings, did not give oath of allegiance to Ali.After Mauwiyah' death He also gave his oath of allegiance to Yazid.
- Abd-Allah ibn Aamir Hadhrami was assigned as governor by Uthman.
- Ziyad ibn Abu Sufyan father of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, the man that killed Muslim ibn Aqeel
This Sahaba have not been ranked according to the Shia view. You can help Wikipedia by doing that.
The list is divided into parts to make it easier to overview
- Ruqayya bint Muhammad
- Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad
- Fatima bint al-Khattab
- Sumayya bint Khubbat
- Asma bint 'Umays
- Umm Ayman
- Bashir ibn Sa'd Abu'n-Nu'man ibn Tha'labah al-Ansari al-Khazraji
- an-Nu'man ibn Bashir
- Abu Fakih
- Safwan ibn Umayyah
- Khabbab ref, 2
- Sa'id ibn Zayd
- Umm Ubays
- Abu Fuhayra
- Asma bint Abu Bakr
- Uthman Abu Qahafa
- Salma Umm-ul-Khair
- Umm Shareek
- Ammar ref
- Sumaiyya ref
- Yasir ref
- Suhaib ref
- Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl
- Umm Hakim — Ikrimah’s wife
- Nayla bint Farasa — was Uthman's wife
- Umm Kulthum binte Uqba ibn Abi Mayyath — divorced wife of Amr ibn al-As
- Abdullah ibn Sailam
- Abdullah ibn Umm Maktum
ibn 'Asim ibn Sa'id ibn Qurrah ibn Khaladah ibn Tha'labah Abu 'Abd ar-Rahman al-Mazani
- Nufay ibn al-Harith — also known as Abu Bakrah (is by the way among the Fuqaha and Ahl al-Fatwa of the Companions in whose time *extremely few of whom* )
- Nafi ibn al-Harith ibn Kalada al-Thaqafi — Abu Bakrah's half-brother
- Saffiyah bint ‘Abd al-Muttalib — Mohammad's aunt
- Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith
- Rabi'ah ibn al-Harith
- Samra ibn Jundab
- Abdullah ibn Zama (ref)
- Abu Obaida bin al-Jarrah — the gravedigger that was with Umar and Abu Bakr the shed of Banu Sa'ad
- Hisham ibn Al-Aas
- Hakim ibn Hazm
Ibn Mandah's book "Those of the Companions Who Lived 120 years." there are fourteen:
- 1. Hakim ibn Hizam — died 54, Medina
- 2. `Asim ibn `Adi al-Badri
- 3. Huwaytib ibn `Abd al-`Uzza
- 4. Sa`d ibn Iyas al-Shaybani
- 5. Makhrama ibn Nawfal
- 6. Sa`id ibn Yarbu`
- 7. Sa`d ibn Junada al-`Awfi al-Ansari
- 8. Hassan ibn Thabit — the poet of the Prophet and the one supported by the Holy Spirit
- 9. Abu `Umara `Abd Khayr ibn Yazid
- 10. Hamnan ibn `Awf
- 11. al-Muntaji`al-Najdi
- 12. Nafi` Abu Sulayman al-`Abdi
- 13. al-Lajlaj
- 14. Abu Shaddad al-`Umani
- Hind the wife of Amr
- Muawwaz ibn Amr
- Muaaz ibn Amr
- Khallad ibn Amr
- Mus`ab ibn `Umair
- Abdulla Jahsh
- Safwan ibn Umayah — son of Bilals former master
- Umayr ibn Wahb al-Jumahi
- Khubayb ibn Adiy
- Said ibn Amir Al Jumahi — link in Khubayb ibn Adiy
- Abu Hudhaifah ibn al-Mughirah — of Ammar
- Zayd ibn al-Khattab — brother
- Salim mawla Abu Hudaifa — freed slave of Abu Hudhaifah Ibn `Utbah
- Abu Hudaifah ibn Utbah
- Sahla bint Suhail Ibn Amr — Hudhaifah ibn Utbah'a wife
- Muhammad ibn Ja'far
- Mughira ibn Shu'ba
- Abbad ibn Bishr
- Suhayl ibn Amr
- Abd-Ya-Layl ibn Amr
- Uthman ibn Abu-al-Aas
- At-Tufayl ibn Amr ad-Dawsi
- X bint al-Walid ibn al-Mughira
- Malik al-Dar
- Salma bint Umays — wife
- Wahshy ibn harb — killed Hamza
- Husayl ibn Jabir Abu Hudhayfah — killed by Muslims in the battle of Uhud 
- Umm Ammarra Ansariyya — Muhammad in the battle of Uhud 
- Khunais bin Hudhaifa — husband
- Masaab ibn Umayr
- Shams ibn Uthman
- Hatib ibn Abu Baitah — sent with a letter to Muqawqis
- Mugheera ibn Shuba
- Abu Ubaidah — the third one in Saqifah
- Abu-Musa al-Asha'ari — was Ali's unchosen advocate during the arbitration with Muawiya
- Abu-Sa'id al-Khudri — narrated that God can be seen
- Abd-Allah ibn Rawahah
- Umm Kulthum binte Uqba
- Habibah bint Ubayd-Allah
- Muadh ibn Jabal
- Urwah ibn Mas'ud
- Abu Ayyub al-Ansari
- Kinanah ibn Rabi - Sahaba(?)
- Habibah binte Ubayd-Allah
- Saffiyah bint ‘Abd al-Muttalib
- Al-Ala'a Al-Hadrami
- Abd-Allah ibn Abd-al-Asad
- Khuzaima ibn Thabit Ansari 
- Suhaib ibn Sinaan 
- Arwa binte al-Harith
- Hisham ibn al-A'as
- Hassan ibn Thabit
- Umayr ibn Sad al-Ansari
- Abd-Allah ibn Umm-Maktum
- Uqbah ibn Aamir
- Abu al-Aas ibn al-Rabiah
- Abd-Allah ibn Sailam
- Abu al-Dardaa
- Fayruz al-Daylami
- Muhammad ibn Maslamah
- Abd-Allah ibn Ubaiy
- Abdullah ibn Hudhafah as-Sahmi
- Abdullah ibn Sailam
- Abu Dujana
- An-Numan ibn Muqarrin
- Bashir ibn Sa'ad
- Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman
- Malik Bin Deenar
- Muhammad Ibn Maslamah
- Sa'ad ibn Al-Rabee
- Said ibn Aamir al-Jumahi
- Suhayb ar-Rumi
- Utbah ibn Ghazwan
- Wahb ibn Abd Manaf
- Halima Sadia