Municipalities of Puerto Rico

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Map of Puerto Rico by municipalities.
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The municipalities of Puerto Rico number seventy-eight and they make up the smallest electoral division in Puerto Rico. Each municipality is led by a mayor and divided into barrios, though the latter are not vested with political authority. Geographically, a municipality has a urban core that consists of either a town or a city. Urban cores with a population of 50,000 or above are considered cities, while those under 50,000 inhabitants are terms towns.[1]

Overview[edit]

There are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the United States Government, but Puerto Rico has 78 municipalities or "municipios" at the secondary order. For U.S. Census purposes, the municipalities are equivalent to counties.[2] They are conveniently grouped into eight electoral districts, which do not possess administrative functions. In 1991, the Autonomous Municipalities of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Act was passed as a strategy for the decentralizing control and for improving government services to the people.[3]

Every municipality is composed of several barrios, except for Florida which has only one barrio. The municipality of Ponce has the largest number of barrios, 31.[4][5][6][7][8]

Every municipality (except San Juan) also has an urban area made up of one or more barrios.[9] When the urban area is made up of only one barrio, it is called "Barrio Pueblo". Some urban areas are made up of multiple barrios: Ponce's urban area, for example, is made up of 12 barrios. All of San Juan's barrios are urban barrios, and the municipality of San Juan is composed of urban barrios only - thus, the entire municipality of San Juan consists of one large urban zone only.[10]

Every municipality's urban zone is named by the same name as the municipality. For example, the municipality of Caguas has an urban zone called Caguas - just like the municipality. Some municipalities' urban zones are termed "pueblo" (town) while others are termed "ciudad" (city). The difference resides in the population of the municipality: if the municipality has an urban zone below 50,000 inhabitants, then its urban zone is called a pueblo. If a municipality has a population above 50,000 inhabitants in its urban zone, then its urban zone is called a ciudad.[11]

Politics[edit]

The municipalities elect a Mayor and a legislative assembly in the general elections every four years.

Demographics[edit]

The following is an alphabetical list of the municipalities in Puerto Rico, and their corresponding foundation year, population, and geographic area.

Municipality FIPS code[12] Founded Population (2010)[13] Area[14]
Adjuntas 001 1815 19,483 66.69 sq mi (172.73 sq km)
Aguada 003 1508 41,959 30.85 sq mi (79.90 sq km)
Aguadilla 005 1780 60,949 36.53 sq mi (94.61 sq km)
Aguas Buenas 007 1838 28,659 30.08 sq mi (77.92 sq km)
Aibonito 009 1824 25,900 31.31 sq mi (81.10 sq km)
Añasco 011 1733 29,261 39.29 sq mi (101.75 sq km)
Arecibo 013 1616 96,440 125.95 sq mi (326.20 sq km)
Arroyo 015 1855 19,575 15.01 sq mi (38.87 sq km)
Barceloneta 017 1881 24,816 18.69 sq mi (48.41 sq km)
Barranquitas 019 1803 30,318 34.25 sq mi (88.71 sq km)
Bayamón 021 1772 208,116 44.32 sq mi (114.80 sq km)
Cabo Rojo 023 1771 50,917 70.37 sq mi (182.27 sq km)
Caguas 025 1775 142,893 58.60 sq mi (151.77 sq km)
Camuy 027 1807 35,159 46.35 sq mi (120.06 sq km)
Canóvanas 029 1909 47,648 32.87 sq mi (85.12 sq km)
Carolina 031 1816 176,762 45.32 sq mi (117.38 sq km)
Cataño 033 1927 28,140 4.84 sq mi (12.55 sq km)
Cayey 035 1773 48,119 51.93 sq mi (134.51 sq km)
Ceiba 037 1838 13,631 29.04 sq mi (75.20 sq km)
Ciales 039 1820 18,782 66.53 sq mi (172.31 sq km)
Cidra 041 1809 43,480 36.02 sq mi (93.29 sq km)
Coamo 043 1579 40,512 78.10 sq mi (202.27 sq km)
Comerío 045 1826 20,778 28.40 sq mi (73.56 sq km)
Corozal 047 1795 37,142 42.57 sq mi (110.26 sq km)
Culebra 049 1880 1,818 11.62 sq mi (30.10 sq km)
Dorado 051 1842 38,165 23.09 sq mi (59.80 sq km)
Fajardo 053 1772 36,993 29.86 sq mi (77.34 sq km)
Florida 054 1971 12,680 15.21 sq mi (39.39 sq km)
Guánica 055 1508 19,427 37.05 sq mi (95.96 sq km)
Guayama 057 1736 45,362 64.99 sq mi (168.32 sq km)
Guayanilla 059 1833 21,581 42.27 sq mi (109.48 sq km)
Guaynabo 061 1769 97,924 27.58 sq mi (71.43 sq km)
Gurabo 063 1815 45,369 27.89 sq mi (72.23 sq km)
Hatillo 065 1823 41,953 41.78 sq mi (108.21 sq km)
Hormigueros 067 1874 17,250 11.34 sq mi (29.37 sq km)
Humacao 069 1722 58,466 44.75 sq mi (115.90 sq km)
Isabela 071 1819 45,631 55.30 sq mi (143.23 sq km)
Jayuya 073 1911 16,642 44.53 sq mi (115.33 sq km)
Juana Díaz 075 1798 50,747 60.28 sq mi (156.12 sq km)
Juncos 077 1797 40,290 26.49 sq mi (68.61 sq km)
Lajas 079 1883 25,753 59.95 sq mi (159.15 sq km)
Lares 081 1827 30,753 61.45 sq mi (159.15 sq km)
Las Marías 083 1871 9,881 46.36 sq mi (120.07 sq km)
Las Piedras 085 1773 38,675 33.88 sq mi (87.75 sq km)
Loíza 087 1719 30,060 19.37 sq mi (50.17 sq km)
Luquillo 089 1797 20,068 25.81 sq mi (66.85 sq km)
Manatí 091 1738 44,113 46.13 sq mi (119.48 sq km)
Maricao 093 1874 6,276 36.62 sq mi (94.85 sq km)
Maunabo 095 1799 12,225 21.07 sq mi (54.57 sq km)
Mayagüez 097 1760 89,080 77.65 sq mi (201.11 sq km)
Moca 099 1772 40,109 50.34 sq mi (130.38 sq km)
Morovis 101 1818 32,610 38.87 sq mi (100.67 sq km)
Naguabo 103 1821 26,720 51.66 sq mi (133.80 sq km)
Naranjito 105 1824 30,402 27.40 sq mi (70.97 sq km)
Orocovis 107 1772 23,423 63.62 sq mi (164.78 sq km)
Patillas 109 1811 19,277 46.7 sq mi (120.95 sq km)
Peñuelas 111 1793 24,282 44.62 sq mi (115.57 sq km)
Ponce 113 1692 166,327 114.76 sq mi (297.23 sq km)
Quebradillas 115 1823 25,919 22.68 sq mi (58.74 sq km)
Rincón 117 1771 15,200 14.29 sq mi (37.01 sq km)
Río Grande 119 1840 54,304 60.62 sq mi (157.01 sq km)
Sabana Grande 121 1813 25,265 35.83 sq mi (92.80 sq km)
Salinas 123 1851 31,078 69.37 sq mi (179.67 sq km)
San Germán 125 1573 35,527 54.50 sq mi (141.15 sq km)
San Juan 127 1509 395,326 47.85 sq mi (123.93 sq km)
San Lorenzo 129 1811 41,058 53.11 sq mi (137.55 sq km)
San Sebastián 131 1752 42,430 70.42 sq mi (182.39 sq km)
Santa Isabel 133 1842 23,274 34.02 sq mi (88.119 sq km)
Toa Alta 135 1751 74,066 27.02 sq mi (69.98 sq km)
Toa Baja 137 1745 89,609 23.24 sq mi (60.19 sq km)
Trujillo Alto 139 1801 74,842 20.76 sq mi (53.77 sq km)
Utuado 141 1739 33,149 113.53 sq mi (294.04 sq km)
Vega Alta 143 1775 39,951 27.73 sq mi (71.82 sq km)
Vega Baja 145 1776 59,662 45.86 sq mi (118.78 sq km)
Vieques 147 1852 9,301 50.77 sq mi (131.49 sq km)
Villalba 149 1917 26,073 35.64 sq mi (92.31 sq km)
Yabucoa 151 1793 37,941 55.21 sq mi (142.99 sq km)
Yauco 153 1756 42,043 68.19 sq mi (176.61 sq km)

Racial composition[edit]

The following is an alphabetical list of the municipalities and their population together with a breakdown of their racial composition.

Municipality (2010) White
(both Hispanic and Non-Hispanic)[15][16]
Black
(Both Hispanic and Non-Hispanic)[17]
Amerindian
(Both Hispanic and Non-Hispanic)
Asian
(Both Hispanic and Non-Hispanic)
Multiracial
(Both Hispanic and Non-Hispanic)
Hispanic
(Of any Race)
Adjuntas 93.1 3.1 0.3 0.0 3.4 99.6
Aguada 86.6 5.3 0.3 0.1 7.7 99.4
Aguadilla 83.0 7.4 0.3 0.2 8.2 98.5
Aguas Buenas 72.5 12.6 0.6 0.1 14.2 99.5
Aibonito 83.5 7.3 0.2 0.0 9.0 99.3
Añasco 82.0 7.2 0.4 0.1 10.3 99.2
Arecibo 84.5 6.1 0.4 0.1 7.9 99.2
Arroyo 53.5 32.5 0.9 0.2 13.0 99.1
Barceloneta 80.7 7.6 0.3 0.1 11.2 99.4
Barranquitas 86.0 5.4 0.3 0.0 8.3 99.3
Bayamón 78.3 10.3 0.6 0.2 10.7 99.0
Cabo Rojo 84.1 5.4 0.3 0.1 10.1 98.9
Caguas 76.1 11.0 0.6 0.2 12.1 99.1
Camuy 87.9 4.1 0.3 0.1 7.6 99.4
Canóvanas 61.2 21.6 0.9 0.2 16.1 99.2
Carolina 64.3 22.8 0.9 0.4 11.7 98.6
Cataño 70.7 14.4 1.0 0.3 13.7 99.0
Cayey 79.9 8.3 0.4 0.1 11.3 99.3
Ceiba 70.6 16.5 0.7 0.1 12.0 98.8
Ciales 89.5 4.2 0.1 0.0 6.2 99.7
Cidra 76.6 8.3 0.4 0.1 14.6 99.4
Coamo 76.8 10.4 0.3 0.1 12.3 99.6
Comerío 78.6 8.6 0.6 0.1 12.1 99.6
Corozal 85.4 5.3 0.2 0.1 9.0 99.4
Culebra 56.9 26.6 0.9 0.2 15.4 91.7
Dorado 69.5 15.7 0.7 0.2 13.9 98.0
Fajardo 64.8 18.6 0.7 0.3 15.7 98.2
Florida 90.4 4.6 0.3 0.1 4.5 99.6
Guánica 79.9 7.7 0.5 0.0 11.8 99.4
Guayama 68.2 18.5 0.8 0.1 12.3 99.1
Guayanilla 81.9 8.3 0.4 0.1 9.3 99.5
Guaynabo 79.4 9.8 0.4 0.2 10.1 98.2
Gurabo 72.5 14.6 0.4 0.1 12.5 99.2
Hatillo 87.3 4.4 0.2 0.1 8.0 99.2
Hormigueros 81.2 8.3 0.4 0.1 10.0 99.5
Humacao 66.1 18.5 0.8 0.2 14.3 99.0
Isabela 83.4 7.5 0.3 0.1 8.6 99.0
Jayuya 90.7 3.4 0.4 0.1 5.5 99.6
Juana Díaz 75.3 14.3 0.5 0.1 9.9 99.4
Juncos 71.7 13.7 0.5 0.1 14.1 99.3
Lajas 80.6 5.2 0.2 0.1 13.9 99.3
Lares 91.1 3.0 0.2 0.1 5.6 99.3
Las Marías 86.3 5.3 0.4 0.0 8.0 99.4
Las Piedras 70.5 11.8 0.5 0.1 17.1 99.4
Loíza 26.5 64.3 0.5 0.1 8.6 99.4
Luquillo 65.5 20.8 0.9 0.2 12.6 97.9
Manatí 81.8 8.7 0.5 0.1 8.9 99.2
Maricao 89.2 4.8 0.4 0.0 5.3 99.4
Maunabo 47.9 30.4 0.8 0.1 20.8 99.2
Mayagüez 78.7 8.2 0.8 0.2 12.1 98.9
Moca 89.5 4.5 0.2 0.1 5.8 99.4
Morovis 88.4 5.2 0.2 0.1 6.1 99.4
Naguabo 71.1 15.9 0.4 0.2 12.4 99.2
Naranjito 84.2 6.0 0.5 0.1 9.4 99.5
Orocovis 86.7 6.2 0.4 0.1 6.6 99.6
Patillas 61.7 19.9 0.6 0.1 17.7 99.3
Peñuelas 81.8 9.2 0.4 0.2 8.4 99.4
Ponce 82.0 9.0 0.5 0.2 8.3 99.2
Quebradillas 89.2 3.7 0.1 0.1 6.9 99.3
Rincón 85.7 5.3 0.5 0.2 8.2 96.4
Río Grande 61.9 24.6 0.7 0.2 12.6 99.0
Sabana Grande 85.3 5.5 0.4 0.0 8.8 99.5
Salinas 67.4 16.4 0.6 0.1 15.5 99.3
San Germán 83.4 5.6 0.4 0.1 10.5 99.2
San Juan 68.0 18.6 0.8 0.4 12.2 98.2
San Lorenzo 76.1 9.9 0.8 0.1 13.2 99.5
San Sebastián 88.5 3.0 0.3 0.1 8.1 99.3
Santa Isabel 73.0 15.6 0.5 0.1 10.9 99.6
Toa Alta 76.3 9.6 0.4 0.1 13.5 99.3
Toa Baja 70.2 16.8 0.6 0.3 12.1 99.0
Trujillo Alto 72.1 14.6 0.7 0.2 12.3 98.9
Utuado 92.7 2.7 0.2 0.1 4.3 99.4
Vega Alta 71.2 14.9 0.7 0.2 13.1 98.7
Vega Baja 77.3 11.5 0.5 0.1 10.6 99.3
Vieques 58.7 28.1 0.7 0.1 12.5 94.3
Villalba 82.1 8.5 0.2 0.0 9.1 99.7
Yabucoa 65.6 14.1 0.5 0.2 19.8 99.3
Yauco 83.0 5.9 0.3 0.1 9.6 99.5
Puerto Rico 75.8 12.4 0.5 0.2 11.1 99.0

Finances[edit]

36 of the 78 municipalities currently experience a budget deficit, putting 46% of the municipalities in financial stress.[18] In total, the combined debt carried by the municipalities stands at about $590 million USD.[a]

      Surplus        Deficit
Municipality Mayor's party Population[13] Surplus or deficit[20] Surplus or deficit per capita[20] Public debt[20] Public debt per capita[20]
Adjuntas PNP 19,483
$ 525,858
$ 26.99
$
$
Aguada PPD 41,959
$ 2,209,807
$ 52.67
$
$
Aguadilla PNP 60,949
$ 10,220,728
$ 167.69
$
$
Aguas Buenas PPD 28,659
$ (1,638,355)
$ (57.17)
$ 9,183,000
$ 320.42
Aibonito PNP 25,900
$ 681,875
$ 26.33
$
$
Añasco PPD 29,261
$ 2,074,042
$ 70.88
$
$
Arecibo PNP 96,440
$ (17,784,327)
$ (184.41)
$ 63,403,451
$ 657.44
Arroyo PPD 19,575
$ (390,219)
$ (19.93)
$ 10,521,000
$ 537.47
Barceloneta PPD 24,816
$ (8,833,426)
$ (355.96)
$ 59,354,780
$ 2,391.79
Barranquitas PNP 30,318
$ 6,673,615
$ 220.12
$
$
Bayamón PNP 208,116
$ 4,179,967
$ 20.08
$ 243,233,534
$ 1,168.74
Cabo Rojo PNP 50,917
$ (60,841)
$ (1.19)
$ 35,561,000
$ 698.41
Caguas PPD 142,893
$ 16,938,668
$ 118.54
$ 267,248,251
$ 1,870.27
Camuy PNP 35,159
$ (1,810,542)
$ (51.50)
$ 11,603,000
$ 330.02
Canóvanas PNP 47,648
$ 203,324
$ 4.27
$
$
Carolina PPD 176,762
$ 32,757,250
$ 185.32
$ 350,605,890
$ 1,983.49
Cataño PPD 28,140
$ (11,320,761)
$ (402.30)
$ 47,386,000
$ 1,683.94
Cayey PPD 48,119
$ 7,544,584
$ 156.79
$
$
Ceiba PNP 13,631
$ 1,833,525
$ 134.51
$
$
Ciales PPD 18,782
$ (5,465,145)
$ (290.98)
$ 9,829,100
$ 523.33
Cidra PNP 43,480
$ (1,053,391)
$ (24.23)
$ 29,445,000
$ 677.21
Coamo PPD 40,512
$ 1,672,291
$ 41.28
$
$
Comerío PPD 20,778
$ 188,417
$ 9.07
$
$
Corozal PPD 37,142
$ 854,163
$ 23.00
$
$
Culebra PPD 1,818
$ 802,707
$ 441.53
$
$
Dorado PPD 38,165
$ 2,620,615
$ 68.67
$
$
Fajardo PNP 36,993
$ 17,821,689
$ 481.76
$
$
Florida PNP 12,680
$ (1,619,740)
$ (127.74)
$ 3,702,000
$ 291.96
Guánica PNP 19,427
$ (5,319,384)
$ (273.81)
$ 8,815,000
$ 453.75
Guayama PPD 45,362
$ 1,987,097
$ 43.81
$
$
Guayanilla PPD 21,581
$ (2,706,166)
$ (125.40)
$ 16,818,000
$ 779.30
Guaynabo PNP 97,924
$ 8,216,448
$ 83.91
$ 290,116,691
$ 2,962.67
Gurabo PNP 45,369
$ (5,797,927)
$ (127.79)
$ 46,390,045
$ 1,022.51
Hatillo PPD 41,953
$ (1,024,986)
$ (24.43)
$ 15,456,830
$ 368.43
Hormigueros PPD 17,250
$ 1,288,509
$ 74.70
$
$
Humacao PPD 58,466
$ 11,360,216
$ 194.30
$
$
Isabela PPD 45,631
$ 24,738,813
$ 542.15
$ 16,397,000
$ 359.34
Jayuya PPD 16,642
$ 629,946
$ 37.85
$
$
Juana Díaz PPD 50,747
$ (531,606)
$ (10.48)
$ 22,005,000
$ 433.62
Juncos PPD 40,290
$ (2,994,898)
$ (74.33)
$ 44,404,819
$ 1,102.13
Lajas PPD 25,753
$ (1,988,168)
$ (77.20)
$ 11,075,000
$ 430.05
Lares PNP 30,753
$ (3,361,629)
$ (109.31)
$ 5,339,000
$ 173.61
Las Marías PPD 9,881
$ 660,746
$ 66.87
$
$
Las Piedras PNP 38,675
$ 362,063
$ 9.36
$
$
Loíza PNP 30,060
$ (3,171,401)
$ (105.50)
$ 9,207,000
$ 306.29
Luquillo PPD 20,068
$ 1,646,739
$ 82.06
$
$
Manatí PNP 44,113
$ (12,622,526)
$ (286.14)
$ 52,688,487
$ 1,194.40
Maricao PNP 6,276
$ (1,812,106)
$ (288.74)
$ 10,928,300
$ 1,741.28
Maunabo PPD 12,225
$ (2,678,351)
$ (219.09)
$ 8,600,000
$ 703.48
Mayagüez PPD 89,080
$ 10,816,117
$ 121.42
$
$
Moca PNP 40,109
$ 632,570
$ 15.77
$
$
Morovis PNP 32,610
$ (3,742,360)
$ (114.76)
$ 20,239,020
$ 620.64
Naguabo PNP 26,720
$ (3,737,140)
$ (139.86)
$ 7,905,100
$ 295.85
Naranjito PNP 30,402
$ 1,581,161
$ 52.01
$
$
Orocovis PNP 23,423
$ 367,461
$ 15.69
$
$
Patillas PPD 19,277
$ (6,001,248)
$ (311.32)
$ 17,179,000
$ 891.17
Peñuelas PPD 24,282
$ 4,106,788
$ 169.13
$
$
Ponce PNP 166,327
$ (18,480,789)
$ (111.11)
$ 190,625,905
$ 1,146.09
Quebradillas PPD 25,919
$ 2,327,410
$ 89.80
$
$
Rincón PPD 15,200
$ 1,992,326
$ 131.07
$
$
Río Grande PPD 54,304
$ (4,147,852)
$ (76.38)
$ 32,059,000
$ 590.36
Sabana Grande PPD 25,265
$ (2,835,535)
$ (112.23)
$ 10,176,423
$ 402.79
Salinas PPD 31,078
$ (8,546,853)
$ (275.01)
$ 14,650,000
$ 471.39
San Germán PPD 35,527
$ 760,077
$ 21.39
$
$
San Juan PPD 395,326
$ (45,455,571)
$ (114.98)
$ 668,238,329
$ 1,690.35
San Lorenzo PPD 41,058
$ (2,998,994)
$ (73.04)
$ 27,034,000
$ 658.43
San Sebastián PNP 42,430
$ 2,296,524
$ 54.13
$
$
Santa Isabel PNP 23,274
$ (3,900,907)
$ (167.61)
$ 23,273,736
$ 999.99
Toa Alta PPD 74,066
$ (3,387,399)
$ (45.73)
$ 33,140,000
$ 447.44
Toa Baja PNP 89,609
$ (10,543,311)
$ (117.66)
$ 116,363,919
$ 1,298.57
Trujillo Alto PPD 74,842
$ (1,736,394)
$ (23.20)
$ 55,516,000
$ 741.78
Utuado PPD 33,149
$ (3,007,984)
$ (90.74)
$ 8,174,000
$ 246.58
Vega Alta PNP 39,951
$ 3,408,501
$ 85.32
$
$
Vega Baja PPD 59,662
$ (1,849,612)
$ (31.00)
$ 44,303,000
$ 742.57
Vieques PPD 9,301
$ (6,672,774)
$ (717.43)
$ 12,420,100
$ 1,335.35
Villalba PPD 26,073
$ (2,228,520)
$ (85.47)
$ 9,969,216
$ 382.36
Yabucoa PPD 37,941
$ (2,216,509)
$ (58.42)
$ 17,394,380
$ 458.46
Yauco PNP 42,043
$ (5,049,263)
$ (120.10)
$ 39,904,000
$ 949.12

Amalgamation[edit]

In October 2009, a Puerto Rican legislator proposed a bill that would reduce to 20 the 78 municipalities currently making up the Island. The bill called for a referendum to take place on June 13, 2010, and which would let the people decide on the matter.[21] The bill never made into law.[22]

It was not the first time that an attempt to consolidate municipalities had failed. In 1902 the Puerto Rico legislature, under pressure from the US.-appointed governor of the Island, passed a law consolidating the then-76 municipalities of Puerto Rico into 46.[23] The law was repealed three years later.[24][25]

A legislator's proposal of Puerto Rico's future set of municipalities and their boundaries

The proposed twenty new municipalities (in bold) and the existing municipalities that would have made them up:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ WAPA-TV (2014; in Spanish) "El informe sobre la medida señala que al presente los municipios arrastran una deuda agregada de aproximadamente $590 millones [...]"[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Puerto Rico: la isla de los 900 barrios. Héctor Sánchez Martínez. La Perla del Sur. Ponce, Puerto Rico. 10 October 2012. Year 30. Issue 1506. Page 36. 21 October 2012.
  2. ^ county equivalent
  3. ^ An Act: To amend Sections 1 and 2 of Act No. 100 of June 27, 1956 Act No. 81 of August 30, 1991: Autonomous Municipalities Act of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. In An Act: To amend Sections 1 and 2 of Act No. 100 of June 27, 1956, Act No. 66, 3rd Session of the 13th Legislature of Puerto Rico. April 14, 1998. Retrieved November 22, 2009.
  4. ^ Historia de Nuestros Barrios: Portugués, Ponce. Rafael Torrech San Inocencio. El Sur a la Vista. elsuralavista.com. 14 February 2010. Accessed 12 February 2011.
  5. ^ Ponce. Proyecto Salon Hogar. Map of Barrios of Ponce. (Map with fully urbanized barrios conglomerated and merged as "Zona Urbana". Barrio not labeled is named "Machuelo Abajo".) Retrieved November 30, 2009.
  6. ^ "Ponce: General Information." Puerto Rico Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
  7. ^ Ponce Puerto Rico. AreciboWeb. (Map showing the 31 geo-numbered barrios of Ponce.) Retrieved November 30, 2009.
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External links[edit]

http://www.diariodepuertorico.com