Yemeni Civil War (1994)

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Yemeni Civil War (1994)
Part of Effects of the Cold War
Map of Yemen
Map of Yemen
Date 4 May – 7 July 1994
Location Yemen
Result

Yemeni nationalist victory

Belligerents

Yemen Republic of Yemen (north Yemen)

  • Yemen Arab Republic Former North Yemeni Army
  • Yemen Arab Republic Yemeni pro-unionists

Supported by:

 United States[1]

People's Democratic Republic of Yemen Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen)

  • People's Democratic Republic of Yemen South Yemeni separatist fighters
  • Yemeni socialists

Supported by:

 Saudi Arabia
Commanders and leaders
Ali Abdullah Saleh

Brigadier General Ali Mohammed Assadi

Ali Salim al-Bayd
Casualties and losses

931 soldiers and civilians killed

5,000 wounded (N. Yemen claim)[2]
6,000 fighters and 513 civilians

7,000–10,000 dead[3]

Unknown number of socialist and separatist civilians executed

The May–July 1994 civil war in Yemen was a civil conflict waged between the two Yemeni forces of the pro-union northern and the socialist separatist southern Yemeni states and their supporters. The war resulted in the defeat of the southern armed forces, the reunification of Yemen, and the flight into exile of many Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP) leaders and other separatists.

Background[edit]

The Republic of Yemen (ROY) was declared on 22 May 1990[4]:12 with Ali Abdullah Saleh becoming President and Ali Salim al-Beidh Vice President. Greater Yemen had been politically united for the first time in centuries. A unification of the two countries' political and economic systems was to take place over 30 months. In that time, a unified parliament was formed and a unity constitution was agreed upon. Elections were held in April 1993.[4]:83

Vice President Ali Salim Al-Beidh withdrew to Aden in August 1993 and said he would not return to the government until his grievances were addressed. These included northern violence against his Yemeni Socialist Party, as well as the economic marginalization of the south.[5] Negotiations to end the political deadlock dragged on into 1994. The government of Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr Al-Attas, the former PDRY Prime Minister, became ineffective due to political infighting.

An accord between northern and southern leaders was signed in Amman, Jordan on 20 February 1994, but this could not stop the civil war. During these tensions, both the northern and southern armies–which had never integrated–gathered on their respective frontiers.[6]

Events[edit]

On 27 April, a major tank battle erupted in Amran, near San'a. Both sides accused the other of starting it. On 4 May, the southern air force bombed San'a and other areas in the north; the northern air force responded by bombing Aden. President Saleh declared a 30-day state of emergency, and foreign nationals began evacuating the country.[7] Vice President al-Beidh was officially dismissed. South Yemen also fired Scud missiles into San'a, killing dozens of civilians.[8] Prime Minister Haidar Abu Bakr al-Attas was dismissed on May 10 after appealing for outside forces to help end the war.[7]

Southern leaders seceded and declared the Democratic Republic of Yemen (DRY) on 21 May 1994.[5] No international government recognized the DRY. In mid-May, northern forces began a push toward Aden. The key city of Ataq, which allowed access to the country's oil fields, was seized on May 24.[9] The United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 924 calling for an end to the fighting and a cease-fire. A cease-fire was called on 6 June, but lasted only six hours; concurrent talks to end the fighting in Cairo collapsed as well.[7] The north entered Aden on 4 July. Supporters of Ali Nasir Muhammad greatly assisted military operations against the secessionists and Aden was captured on 7 July 1994. Most resistance quickly collapsed and top southern military and political leaders fled into exile.

Almost all of the actual fighting in the 1994 civil war occurred in the southern part of the country, despite air and missile attacks against cities and major installations in the north. Southerners sought support from neighbouring states and may have received military assistance from Saudi Arabia, which felt threatened by a united Yemen.[4]:82 The United States repeatedly called for a cease-fire and a return to the negotiating table. Various attempts, including by a UN special envoy and Russia, were unsuccessful to effect a cease-fire.[4]:87

Aftermath[edit]

President Saleh now had control over all of Yemen. A general amnesty was declared, except for 16 southern figures; legal cases against four — Ali Salim al-Beidh, Haydar Abu Bakr Al-Attas, Abd Al-Rahman Ali Al-Jifri, and Salih Munassar Al-Siyali — were prepared, for misappropriation of official funds.

YSP leaders within Yemen reorganized following the civil war and elected a new politburo in July 1994. However, much of its influence had been destroyed in the war. President Ali Abdallah Saleh was elected by Parliament on 1 October 1994 to a 5-year term. However, he remained in office until 2012.

As of 2007, a group called the South Yemen Movement calling for the secession of the south and the re-establishment of an independent southern state has grown in strength across many parts of south Yemen, leading to an increase in tensions and often violent clashes.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Embassy of Yemen - Yemeni-American relations, "[In mid-nineties...] Washington demonstrated favorable intentions concerning Yemen. That became evident when the U.S. fully supported the Yemeni unity against the failed Separatist attempt in the summer of 1994."
  2. ^ "Yemen Civil War Caused Almost 6,000 Northern Casualties." Associated Press, July 12, 1994.
  3. ^ "Saleh down plays Yemeni war death toll." AFP, July 12, 1994.
  4. ^ a b c d Jamal S. al-Suwaidi, ed. (1995). The Yemeni War of 1994: Causes and Consequences. Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research. ISBN 0863563007. 
  5. ^ a b Civil war
  6. ^ Yemen timeline
  7. ^ a b c The Middle East and North Africa, 2004, p. 1221
  8. ^ "Five Scuds fired at Yemeni capital as war worsens - The Guardian, 7 April 1994". Archived from the original on 2009-05-11. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  9. ^ "North Yemeni Troops Seize Oil Field Center; Region Controls Country's Chief Resource | Article from The Washington Post | HighBeam Research". Archived from the original on 2009-05-11. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  10. ^ "Policemen killed in south Yemen in clash with rebels". News (UK: BBC). 2010-03-01. 

External links[edit]