United States presidential election, 1916

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"1916 presidential election" redirects here. For the elections in Guatemala and Panama that year, see Guatemalan presidential election, 1916 and Panamanian presidential election, 1916.
United States presidential election, 1916
United States
1912 ←
November 7, 1916
→ 1920

531 electoral votes of the Electoral College
266 electoral votes needed to win
  Woodrow Wilson-H&E.jpg Governor Charles Evans Hughes.jpg
Nominee Woodrow Wilson Charles E. Hughes
Party Democratic Republican
Home state New Jersey New York
Running mate Thomas R. Marshall Charles W. Fairbanks
Electoral vote 277 254
States carried 30 18
Popular vote 9,126,868 8,548,728
Percentage 49.2% 46.1%

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About this image
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Hughes/Fairbanks, Blue denotes those won by Wilson/Marshall. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic

Elected President

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic

The United States presidential election of 1916 was the 33rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1916. Incumbent President Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic candidate, was pitted against Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, the Republican candidate. After a hard-fought contest, Wilson defeated Hughes by nearly 600,000 votes in the popular vote and secured a narrow Electoral College margin by winning several swing states by razor-thin margins. As a result, Wilson became the first Democratic president since Andrew Jackson to be elected to two consecutive terms of office.

The election took place while Mexico was going through the Mexican Revolution and Europe was embroiled in World War I. Public sentiment in the still neutral United States leaned towards the British and French (Allied) forces, due to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army, which had invaded and occupied large parts of Belgium and northern France. However, despite their sympathy with the Allied forces, most American voters wanted to avoid involvement in the war, and preferred to continue a policy of neutrality. Wilson's campaign used the popular slogan "He kept us out of war" to appeal to those voters who wanted to avoid a war in Europe or with Mexico. The progressive Hughes criticized Wilson for not taking the "necessary preparations" to face a conflict, which served to strengthen Wilson's image as an anti-war candidate. The Republicans had supported a moderate interventionist policy under the previous three administrations, while no Democratic president had presided over a major war since James Knox Polk with the Mexican-American War.

Despite the narrow margin of his win, the 1916 election saw an increase in Wilson's popular vote from his election in 1912, when he won in a landslide in the Electoral College. Wilson accomplished this due to the split in the Republican vote in 1912 between William Howard Taft and Theodore Roosevelt, the former Republican president who was ran as a Progressive. In 1916, conservative and progressive Republicans were largely united under the moderate Hughes in their bid to oust Wilson. However, Wilson attracted many voters who had earlier supported Roosevelt. It is one of only three elections in which a nominee was elected president without the support of his state of residence (New Jersey). The other two were James Knox Polk (Tennessee, 1844) and Richard Nixon (New York, 1968). Wilson, however, did win his state of birth (Virginia), like Nixon (born in California), but unlike Polk (born in North Carolina). Wilson's re-election marked the first time since the Civil War that the Democratic Party won two consecutive Presidential elections, and Wilson himself became the first Democrat to win two consecutive Presidential elections since Andrew Jackson.

Nominations[edit]

Republican Party nomination[edit]

Republican candidates:

Candidates gallery[edit]

Republican National Convention[edit]

The 1916 Republican National Convention was held in Chicago between June 7 and 10. A major goal of the party's bosses at the convention was to heal the bitter split within the party that had occurred in the 1912 presidential campaign. In that year, Theodore Roosevelt bolted the Republican Party and formed his own political party, the Progressive Party, which attracted most of the Republican liberals. William Howard Taft, the incumbent president, won the nomination of the regular Republican Party. This split in the Republican ranks divided the Republican vote and led to the election of Democrat Woodrow Wilson. Although several candidates were openly competing for the 1916 nomination—most prominently conservative Senator Elihu Root of New York and liberal Senator John W. Weeks of Massachusetts—the party's bosses wanted a moderate who would be acceptable to both factions of the party. They turned to Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, who had been serving on the court since 1910 and had the advantage of not having publicly spoken about political issues in six years. Although he had not actively sought the nomination, Hughes made it known that he would not turn it down; he won the nomination on the third ballot. Former Vice-President Charles W. Fairbanks was nominated as his running mate. Hughes was the only Supreme Court Justice to be nominated for president by a major political party.

Republican Convention, The Coliseum, Chicago
Ballot 1 2 3
Charles Evans Hughes 253 326 950
John W. Weeks 105 102 2
Elihu Root 103 89 9
Charles W. Fairbanks 89 75 7
Albert B. Cummins 85 77 2
Theodore Roosevelt 81 65 19
Theodore E. Burton 78 69 9
Lawrence Yates Sherman 66 59 5
Philander C. Knox 36 30 6
Henry Ford 32 29 9
Martin Grove Brumbaugh 29 22 2
Robert M. La Follette 25 25 23
William Howard Taft 14 4 0
T. Coleman du Pont 7 13 6
Henry Cabot Lodge 7 2 0
John Wanamaker 5 1 1
Frank B. Willis 1 2 2
William Borah 2 0 2
Warren G. Harding 1 0 1
Samuel W. McCall 0 1 1
Leonard Wood 0 1 1

Democratic Party nomination[edit]

Democratic candidate:

Candidates gallery[edit]

Democratic National Convention[edit]

The 1916 Democratic National Convention was held in St. Louis, Missouri between June 14 and 16. Given Wilson's enormous popularity within the party, he was overwhelmingly re-nominated. Vice-President Thomas R. Marshall was also re-nominated with no opposition.

In the campaign Colonel House declined any public role, but was Wilson's top campaign advisor. Hodgson says, "he planned its structure; set its tone; guided its finance; chose speakers, tactics, and strategy; and, not least, handled the campaign's greatest asset and greatest potential liability: its brilliant but temperamental candidate."[1]

Progressive Party nomination[edit]

Candidates gallery[edit]

The Progressives re-nominated former President Theodore Roosevelt and nominated John Parker of Louisiana as his running-mate; others suggested for the Vice-Presidency were California Governor and the 1912 Vice-Presidential nominee Hiram Johnson, and Chairman of the Party Convention Raymond Robins, but both withdrew their names in favor of Parker. However, Roosevelt later telegraphed the convention and declared that he could not accept their nomination and would be endorsing Republican nominee Charles Hughes for the Presidency. With Roosevelt refusing to be their candidate, the Progressive Party quickly fell into disarray; there was a temporary shout led by former Congressman Victor Murdock of Kansas for a ticket consisting of three-time Democratic nominee William Jennings Bryan and industrialist Henry Ford but it amounted to little. Some like National Committeeman Harold L. Ickes refused to consider endorsing Hughes, and there was some talk of nominating another for the Presidency in Roosevelt's stead, such as Hiram Johnson or Gifford Pinchot. However those discussed refused to consider the notion, and by this point some leaders like Henry Justin Allen had started to follow Roosevelt's lead and endorsed the Republican ticket, and various state parties such as those in Iowa and Maine began to disband. Finally, when the Progressive Party National Committee met in Chicago on June 26, those in attendance begrudgingly endorsed Hughes; even those like Ickes who had vehemently refused to consider granting an endorsement to Hughes began to recognize that without Roosevelt the party had no electoral staying power. There had been a weak attempt to replace Roosevelt on the ticket with the former Kansas Congressman Victor Murdock, but the motion was defeated 31 to 15.

Most of its members would return to the Republican Party, although a substantial minority supported Wilson for his efforts in keeping the United States out of World War I. Roosevelt had turned down the Progressive nomination for both personal and political reasons; he had become convinced that running for president on a third-party ticket again would merely give the election to the Democrats, a result he was loath to make possible, since he had developed a strong dislike for President Wilson. He also believed Wilson was allowing Germany and other warring nations in Europe to "bully" and intimidate the United States.[2][3][4]

"Middle-Road" Progressive Party nomination[edit]

"Middle-Road" Progressive ticket[edit]

However many in the party, notably the Vice-Presidential nominee John Parker and Bainbridge Colby, remained steadfast in their refusal to back the Republican ticket, though they differed in their ultimate aims; Parker for example desired for a Progressive ticket to be put into the Presidential race (himself now being the major contender for the top of the ticket among the bolters), whereas Colby, while opposed to the endorsement of Hughes, considered a Progressive ticket at this point impractical and privately supported Wilson for the Presidency. Still it appeared likely for a time that another convention would be called in early August until a Conference held among the remaining representatives of the party in Indianapolis decided against it, while also narrowly voting against filling the vacancy that had been caused by Roosevelt's refusal to be placed on the ticket (though Parker remained the Vice-Presidential nominee). Electoral tickets would still be put in place where the Progressive Party remained organized in the hopes of electing enough electors so as to possibly hold the balance of power in a close contest between the Democratic and Republican candidates.

While running as the Vice-Presidential nominee, John Parker would endorse Woodrow Wilson for the Presidency.[5][6][7]

Socialist Party nomination[edit]

Socialist candidates[edit]

While the initial frontrunner for the nomination was the popular Eugene V. Debs, he opted to instead run for Congress in his native Indiana, leaving the field open to other contenders. Allan Benson, a newspaper editor from New York within a short time came to dominate the field through his fervent opposition to militarism, running on the proposal that all future participation in wars should be voted upon in a national referendum. The vote for the nomination was conducted through a mail-order ballot with Benson capturing 16,639 out of a total of 32,398 cast (to 12,264 for Maurer and 3,495 for Le Sueur). A vote for the Vice-Presidential nomination was jointly held with George Ross Kirkpatrick, a lecturer from New Jersey, winning the nomination 20,607 to 11,388 over Kate Richards O'Hare of Missouri.[8]

General election[edit]

The fall campaign[edit]

The Democrats built their campaign around the slogan, "He Kept Us out of War," saying a Republican victory would mean war with both Mexico and Germany. Wilson's position was probably critical in winning the Western states.[9] Charles Evans Hughes insisted on downplaying the war issue. He advocated a program of greater mobilization and preparedness.[10] With Wilson having successfully pressured the Germans to suspend unrestricted submarine warfare, it was difficult for Hughes to attack Wilson's peace platform. Instead, Hughes criticized Wilson's military interventions in Mexico, where the U.S. was supporting various factions in the Mexican civil war. Hughes also attacked Wilson for his support of various "pro-labor" laws (such as limiting the workday to eight hours), on the grounds that they were harmful to business interests. His criticisms gained little traction, however, especially among factory workers who supported such laws. Hughes was helped by the vigorous support of popular former President Theodore Roosevelt, and by the fact that the Republicans were still the nation's majority party at the time. A key mistake by Hughes was made in California. Just before the election, Hughes made a campaign swing through the state, but he never met with the powerful Republican Governor Hiram Johnson to seek his support. Johnson took this as a snub and never gave Hughes his full support.

Results[edit]

Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of blue are for Wilson (Democratic), shades of red are for Hughes (Republican), and shades of green are for "No Candidate" (Progressive).[11]

The result was exceptionally close and the outcome was in doubt for several days, partially because of the wait for returns from California in the west. The electoral vote was one of the closest in American history – with 266 votes needed to win, Wilson took 30 states for 277 electoral votes, while Hughes won 18 states and 254 electoral votes. Wilson was the second of just four presidents in US history to win re-election with a lower percentage of the electoral vote than in their prior elections, following James Madison in 1812. As the electoral college had increased during Madison's first term, but held steady throughout Wilson's, Wilson was also the first of only three to receive fewer total electoral votes. This result would be experienced again only by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1940 and 1944 and Barack Obama in 2012.

The key state proved to be California, which Wilson won by only 3,800 votes out of nearly a million cast. New Hampshire may not have been a deciding state in the election, but the margin of victory for Wilson there was the smallest ever recorded in an American presidential election: 56 votes.[12][13] If Hughes had carried California and its 13 electoral votes, he would have won the election. A popular legend from the 1916 campaign states that Hughes went to bed on election night thinking that he was the newly elected president. When a reporter tried to telephone him the next morning to get his reaction to Wilson's comeback, someone (stories vary as to whether this person was his son or a butler or valet) answered the phone and told the reporter that "the president is asleep." The reporter retorted, "When he wakes up, tell him he isn't the president."

Wilson's popular vote margin of 3.1% was the smallest attained by a victorious sitting president until 2004. By defeating Hughes, Woodrow Wilson became the first Democratic president to win a second consecutive term since Andrew Jackson in 1832. Vice-President Thomas R. Marshall also earned the distinction of becoming the first vice-president elected to a second term since John C. Calhoun in 1828.

The total popular vote cast in 1916 exceeded that of 1912 by 3,500,000. The very large total vote was an indication of an aroused public interest in the campaign. It was larger in every section, notably in the East North Central section. Some of this was due to the state extension of suffrage to women. In Illinois, for example, the total vote was 1,000,000 greater than in 1912. It increased by more than 260,000 in Kansas, and in Montana, it more than doubled.

Wilson's vote was 9,126,868, an increase of nearly 3,000,000. There was a gain in every section and in every state. Hughes, the nominee of the united Republican Party, polled more votes by nearly 1,000,000 than had ever been cast for a Republican candidate. In some of the states carried by Wilson, particularly in the South, the margin of popular vote was large. Considering the vote by sections, Wilson ran behind Hughes in New England, the (Northeastern) Mid-Atlantic states, and in the East North Central section.[14] His lead was not great in the West North Central, but was very large in the West South Central and Mountain as well as in the East South Central and South Atlantic sections.[15] 1/2 of Wilson's total vote was cast in the 18 states that he did not carry.

Of the 3,022 counties making returns, Wilson led in 2,039 counties (67.47%). Hughes managed to carry only 976 counties (32.30%), the smallest number in the Republican column in a two-party contest during the Fourth Party System. Two counties (0.07%) split evenly between Wilson and Hughes. Although the Progressive Party had no presidential candidate, just candidates for presidential elector who were unpledged for president, they carried 5 counties (0.17%).

There was a shift of votes to the Democratic Party, at least for this election, which was in locality and degree a novel phenomenon in party voting for the Fourth Party System. Wilson carried 200 counties that had never been Democratic in a two-party contest prior to that time.[16] This shift of votes led some to believe that the Democratic Party might have the position of decided advantage in the election of 1920, a judgment that later proved disastrously wrong.[17]

Wilson was the last Democrat to be elected without ever carrying Minnesota and the last Democrat to win an election without Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Although he had previously won both states in 1912). He was also the last Democrat elected to two terms without carrying Michigan and Pennsylvania either time (Although other Democrats since have won elections without one or both states, they either only served one term or they carried them both in another Presidential election).

As of 2012, this is the last election where North Dakota and South Dakota did not vote for the same candidate.

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Pct Vice-presidential candidate Home state Elect. vote
Woodrow Wilson Democratic New Jersey 9,126,868 49.24% 277 Thomas R. Marshall Indiana 277
Charles Evans Hughes Republican New York 8,548,728 46.12% 254 Charles W. Fairbanks Indiana 254
Allan L. Benson Socialist New York 590,524 3.19% 0 George Ross Kirkpatrick New Jersey 0
Frank Hanly Prohibition Indiana 221,302 1.19% 0 Ira Landrith Tennessee 0
No Candidate Progressive (n/a) 33,406 0.18% 0 (n/a) (n/a) 0
Arthur E. Reimer Socialist Labor Massachusetts 15,295 0.08% 0 Caleb Harrison Illinois 0
Other 462 0.00% Other
Total 18,536,585 100% 531 531
Needed to win 266 266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1916 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (July 28, 2005).

Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 31, 2005).

Popular vote
Wilson
  
49.24%
Hughes
  
46.12%
Benson
  
3.19%
Hanly
  
1.19%
Others
  
0.27%
Electoral vote
Wilson
  
52.17%
Hughes
  
47.83%

Results by state[edit]

[18]

States won by Wilson/Marshall
States won by Hughes/Fairbanks
Woodrow Wilson
Democratic
Charles Evans Hughes
Republican
Allan Benson
Socialist
James Hanly
Prohibition
No Candidate
Progressive
Arthur Reimer
Socialist Labor
Margin State Total
State electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % #
Alabama 12 99,409 76.04 12 28,662 21.92 - 1,916 1.47 - 741 0.57 - - - - - - - 70,747 54.12 130,728 AL
Arizona 3 33,170 57.17 3 20,524 35.37 - 3,174 5.47 - 1,153 1.99 - - - - - - - 12,646 21.80 58,021 AZ
Arkansas 9 112,211 65.97 9 48,879 28.73 - 6,999 4.11 - 2,015 1.18 - - - - - - - 63,332 37.23 170,104 AR
California 13 466,289 46.65 13 462,516 46.27 - 42,898 4.29 - 27,713 2.77 - - - - - - - 3,773 0.38 999,603 CA
Colorado 6 178,816 60.74 6 102,308 34.75 - 10,049 3.41 - 2,793 0.95 - 409 0.14 - - - - 76,508 25.99 294,375 CO
Connecticut 7 99,786 46.66 - 106,514 49.80 7 5,179 2.42 - 1,789 0.84 - - - - 606 0.28 - -6,728 -3.15 213,874 CT
Delaware 3 24,753 47.78 - 26,011 50.20 3 480 0.93 - 566 1.09 - - - - - - - -1,258 -2.43 51,810 DE
Florida 6 55,984 69.34 6 14,611 18.10 - 5,353 6.63 - 4,786 5.93 - - - - - - - 41,373 51.25 80,734 FL
Georgia 14 127,754 79.51 14 11,294 7.03 - 941 0.59 - - - - 20,692 12.88 - - - - 107,062 66.63 160,681 GA
Idaho 4 70,054 52.04 4 55,368 41.13 - 8,066 5.99 - 1,127 0.84 - - - - - - - 14,686 10.91 134,615 ID
Illinois 29 950,229 43.34 - 1,152,549 52.56 29 61,394 2.80 - 26,047 1.19 - - - - 2,488 0.11 - -202,320 -9.23 2,192,707 IL
Indiana 15 334,063 46.47 - 341,005 47.44 15 21,855 3.04 - 16,368 2.28 - 3,898 0.54 - 1,659 0.23 - -6,942 -0.97 718,848 IN
Iowa 13 218,699 42.55 - 280,439 54.57 13 10,973 2.14 - 3,371 0.66 - - - - 460 0.09 - -61,740 -12.01 513,942 IA
Kansas 10 314,588 49.95 10 277,658 44.09 - 24,685 3.92 - 12,882 2.05 - - - - - - - 36,930 5.86 629,813 KS
Kentucky 13 269,990 51.91 13 241,854 46.50 - 4,734 0.91 - 3,039 0.58 - 129 0.02 - 332 0.06 - 28,136 5.41 520,078 KY
Louisiana 10 79,875 85.90 10 6,466 6.95 - 292 0.31 - - - - 6,349 6.83 - - - - 73,409 78.95 92,982 LA
Maine 6 64,033 46.97 - 69,508 50.99 6 2,177 1.60 - 596 0.44 - - - - - - - -5,475 -4.02 136,314 ME
Maryland 8 138,359 52.80 8 117,347 44.78 - 2,674 1.02 - 2,903 1.11 - - - - 756 0.29 - 21,012 8.02 262,039 MD
Massachusetts 18 247,885 46.61 - 268,784 50.54 18 11,058 2.08 - 2,993 0.56 - - - - 1,097 0.21 - -20,899 -3.93 531,823 MA
Michigan 15 286,775 44.05 - 339,097 52.09 15 16,120 2.48 - 8,139 1.25 - - - - 842 0.13 - -52,322 -8.04 650,973 MI
Minnesota 12 179,152 46.25 - 179,544 46.35 12 20,117 5.19 - 7,793 2.01 - 290 0.07 - 468 0.12 - -392 -0.10 387,364 MN
Mississippi 10 80,422 92.78 10 4,253 4.91 - 1,484 1.71 - - - - 520 0.60 - - - - 76,169 87.87 86,679 MS
Missouri 18 398,032 50.59 18 369,339 46.94 - 14,612 1.86 - 3,884 0.49 - - - - 902 0.11 - 28,693 3.65 786,769 MO
Montana 4 101,063 56.88 4 66,750 37.57 - 9,564 5.38 - - - - 302 0.17 - - - - 34,313 19.31 177,679 MT
Nebraska 8 158,827 55.28 8 117,771 40.99 - 7,141 2.49 - 2,952 1.03 - - - - 624 0.22 - 41,056 14.29 287,315 NE
Nevada 3 17,776 53.36 3 12,127 36.40 - 3,065 9.20 - 348 1.04 - - - - - - - 5,649 16.96 33,316 NV
New Hampshire 4 43,781 49.12 4 43,725 49.06 - 1,318 1.48 - 303 0.34 - - - - - - - 56 0.06 89,127 NH
New Jersey 14 211,018 42.68 - 268,982 54.40 14 10,405 2.10 - 3,182 0.64 - - - - 855 0.17 - -57,964 -11.72 494,442 NJ
New Mexico 3 33,527 50.20 3 31,152 46.64 - 1,996 2.99 - 112 0.17 - - - - - - - 2,375 3.56 66,787 NM
New York 45 759,426 44.51 - 879,238 51.53 45 45,944 2.69 - 19,031 1.12 - - - - 2,666 0.16 - -119,812 -7.02 1,706,305 NY
North Carolina 12 168,383 58.10 12 120,890 41.71 - 509 0.18 - 55 0.02 - - - - - - - 47,493 16.39 289,837 NC
North Dakota 5 55,206 47.84 5 53,471 46.34 - 5,716 4.95 - 997 0.86 - - - - - - - 1,735 1.50 115,390 ND
Ohio 24 604,161 51.86 24 514,753 44.18 - 38,092 3.27 - 8,080 0.69 - - - - - - - 89,408 7.67 1,165,086 OH
Oklahoma 10 148,113 50.59 10 97,233 33.21 - 45,527 15.55 - 1,646 0.56 - 234 0.08 - - - - 50,880 17.38 292,753 OK
Oregon 5 120,087 45.90 - 126,813 48.47 5 9,711 3.71 - 4,729 1.81 - 310 0.12 - - - - -6,726 -2.57 261,650 OR
Pennsylvania 38 521,784 40.22 - 703,823 54.26 38 42,638 3.29 - 28,525 2.20 - - - - 419 0.03 - -182,039 -14.03 1,297,189 PA
Rhode Island 5 40,394 46.00 - 44,858 51.08 5 1,914 2.18 - 470 0.54 - - - - 180 0.20 - -4,464 -5.08 87,816 RI
South Carolina 9 61,846 96.71 9 1,550 2.42 - 135 0.21 - - - - 162 0.25 - - - - 60,296 94.28 63,952 SC
South Dakota 5 59,191 45.91 - 64,217 49.80 5 3,760 2.92 - 1,774 1.38 - - - - - - - -5,026 -3.90 128,942 SD
Tennessee 12 153,280 56.31 12 116,223 42.70 - 2,542 0.93 - 145 0.05 - - - - - - - 37,057 13.61 272,190 TN
Texas 20 286,514 76.92 20 64,999 17.45 - 18,969 5.09 - 1,985 0.53 - - - - - - - 221,515 59.47 372,467 TX
Utah 4 84,145 58.78 4 54,137 37.82 - 4,460 3.12 - 149 0.10 - 111 0.08 - 144 0.10 - 30,008 20.96 143,146 UT
Vermont 4 22,708 35.22 - 40,250 62.43 4 798 1.24 - 709 1.10 - - - - - - - -17,542 -27.21 64,475 VT
Virginia 12 101,840 66.99 12 48,384 31.83 - 1,056 0.69 - 678 0.45 - - - - 67 0.04 - 53,456 35.16 152,025 VA
Washington 7 183,388 48.13 7 167,208 43.89 - 22,800 5.98 - 6,868 1.80 - - - - 730 0.19 - 16,180 4.25 380,994 WA
West Virginia 8 140,403 48.44 1 143,124 49.38 7 6,150 2.12 - 175 0.06 - - - - - - - -2,721 -0.94 289,852 WV
Wisconsin 13 191,363 42.80 - 220,822 49.39 13 27,631 6.18 - 7,318 1.64 - - - - - - - -29,459 -6.59 447,134 WI
Wyoming 3 28,316 54.62 3 21,698 41.86 - 1,453 2.80 - 373 0.72 - - - - - - - 6,618 12.77 51,840 WY
TOTALS: 531 9,126,868 49.24 277 8,548,728 46.12 254 590,524 3.19 - 221,302 1.19 - 33,406 0.18 - 15,295 0.08 - 578,140 3.12 18,536,585 US

Close states[edit]

Business advertising postcard exploiting public interest in the election; parts of Wilson's and Hughes' faces can be seen in this image, with the U.S. Capitol building in the background

Margin of victory of less than 5% (129 electoral votes):

  1. New Hampshire, 0.06%
  2. Minnesota, 0.10%
  3. California, 0.38%
  4. West Virginia, 0.94%
  5. Indiana, 0.97%
  6. North Dakota, 1.50%
  7. Delaware, 2.43%
  8. Oregon, 2.57%
  9. Connecticut, 3.15%
  10. New Mexico, 3.56%
  11. Missouri, 3.65%
  12. South Dakota, 3.90%
  13. Massachusetts, 3.93%
  14. Maine, 4.02%
  15. Washington, 4.25%

Margin of victory of between 5% and 10% (162 electoral votes):

  1. Rhode Island, 5.08%
  2. Kentucky, 5.41%
  3. Kansas, 5.86%
  4. Wisconsin, 6.59%
  5. New York, 7.02%
  6. Ohio, 7.67%
  7. Maryland, 8.02%
  8. Michigan, 8.04%
  9. Illinois, 9.23%

Geography of Results[edit]

Cartographic Gallery[edit]

Statistics[edit]

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Democratic)

  1. Dillon County, South Carolina 100.00%
  2. Hampton County, South Carolina 100.00%
  3. Jasper County, South Carolina 100.00%
  4. Tunica County, Mississippi 100.00%
  5. Echols County, Georgia 100.00%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Republican)

  1. Leslie County, Kentucky 91.55%
  2. Sevier County, Tennessee 90.42%
  3. Zapata County, Texas 89.17%
  4. Jackson County, Kentucky 87.90%
  5. Johnson County, Tennessee 87.33%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Other)

  1. Lafourche Parish, Louisiana 59.38%
  2. Glascock County, Georgia 53.79%
  3. Paulding County, Georgia 53.52%
  4. Fannin County, Georgia 51.29%
  5. Iberia Parish, Louisiana 47.59%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cooper, Jr., John Milton. Woodrow Wilson (2009), ch 16
  • Leary, William M., Jr. (1967). "Woodrow Wilson, Irish Americans, and the Election of 1916". The Journal of American History 54 (1): 57–72. doi:10.2307/1900319. JSTOR 1900319. 
  • Link, Arthur Stanley (1954). Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, 1910–1917. New York: Harper. 
  • Link, Arthur Stanley (1965). Wilson: Campaigns For Progressivism and Peace 1916–1917. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 
  • Lovell, S. D. (1980). The Presidential Election of 1916. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-8093-0965-3. 
  • Pusey, Merlo J. (1951). Charles Evans Hughes 1. New York: Macmillan.  volume 1 ch 31-34

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