User:Altaileopard

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I am from Nürnberg in Franconia, Germany. Here, in the english Wikipedia, I work almost exclusively on vertebrates, escpecially wild, recent mammals and pleistocene mammals. I am also active as Altaileopard in the german Wikipedia.


The World´s Greatest Wildlife Reserves[edit]

This list is a work base for me and might also inspire people to visit these places. Tourism could be on a long term the best chance to save large wildlife reserves especially in poor countries. So please do keep visiting wildlife sanctuaries and help conserve the big game of our earth (...if you have the opportunity). Some of the listed reserves are also important areas for birds and some include marine habitats, but the focus is on large terrestrial animals, which often rely on large, undisturbed reserves.

Australian Region[edit]

Name Protected area Notable mammal species Reserves Map Image
Tasmanian Wilderness (Tasmania, Australien) 13,800 km² Tasmanian devil, common wombat, Eastern grey kangaroo, Bennett's wallaby, Tasmanian pademelon, platypus, short-beaked echidna
Altaileopard is located in Australia
Altaileopard
CradleMountain.jpg
Greater Blue Mountains Area (New South Wales, Australien) ca. 10,000 km² Dingo, Eastern grey kangaroo, common wombat , tiger quoll
Altaileopard is located in Australia
Altaileopard
Threesisters2006.jpg
Kakadu (Northern Territory, Australia) 19,804 km² Dingo, antilopine kangaroo, black wallaroo, saltwater crocodile
Altaileopard is located in Australia
Altaileopard
Kakadu 1752.jpg
Shrubland, semi desert, and desert with dingo, large population of the Southern hairy-nosed wombat, red kangaroo, emu. In Gawler Ranges also a population of the rare yellow-footed rock-wallaby
Kangaroo Island kangaroo, tammar wallaby koala, platypus, short-beaked echidna
Australian rainforest with Southern cassowary, Bennett's tree-kangaroo, musky rat-kangaroo, swamp wallaby, platypus, and short-beaked echidna
Rainforests between sea shore and alpine areas inhabited by Southern cassowary, long-beaked echidna, short-beaked echidna, dingiso and other tree kangaroos

Southern Asia[edit]

Name Protected area Notable mammal species Reserves Map Image
Komodo National Park (Indonesia) ca. 1800 km² Komodo dragon, Javan rusa deer, wild boar
Altaileopard is located in Indonesia
Altaileopard
Komodo-dragon-2.jpg
Ujung Kulon (Java, Indonesia) 1.206 km² Last refuge of the Javan rhinoceros; also Java leopard, Javan rusa and Javan banteng
Altaileopard is located in Indonesia
Altaileopard
232 UJUNG KULON.JPG
Way Kambas National Park (Sumatra, Indonesia) 1.300 km² Important stronghold for Sumatran tiger, Sumatran rhinoceros, Sumatran elephant, and Malayan tapir
Altaileopard is located in Indonesia
Altaileopard
Sumatran Rhinoceros Way Kambas 2008.jpg
Gunung Leuser National Park (Sumatra, Indonesia) 9.000 km² One of the largest populations of Sumatran tiger, Sumatran rhinoceros, Sumatran orang utan, and Sumatran elephant
Altaileopard is located in Indonesia
Altaileopard
Orang-utan bukit lawang 2006.jpg
Kinabatangan and Danum Valley (Borneo, Malaysia) ne of the most important refugees for Borneo elephant, Sumatran rhinoceros and Bornean banteng, also home to Bornean orang-utan (mainly Danum valley), Bornean clouded leopard, sambar deer, and proboscis monkey (especially Kinabatangan)
Altaileopard is located in Indonesia
Altaileopard
Borneo clouded leopard.jpg
Taman-Negara (Malay Peninsula, Malaysia) One of the last refugees for Malayan tiger, Indochinese leopard, Sumatran rhinoceros, Malayan gaur (seladang) and Asian elephant
Altaileopard is located in Malaysia
Altaileopard
Taman-Negara.jpg
Western Forest Complex (Thailand) 18,730 km² Largest protected area in mainland South East Asia with almost complete forest large mammal fauna, including Indochinese tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, dhole, Asian elephant, wild water buffalo (perhaps last population of southeast Asia), gaur, banteng, sambar deer
Altaileopard is located in Thailand
Altaileopard
Thung Yai Ramit-River.JPG
Mondulkiri Plains (Laos) Dry forest and evergreen forest landscape, holding the worldwide largest population of banteng, large population of Asian elephant. It is one of the last refuges of brow-antlered deer and has good potential for a large tiger population. Also other mammals like leopard, dhole, wild boar.
Altaileopard is located in Vietnam
Altaileopard
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (Karnataka / Tamil Nadu / Kerala, India) 5,520 km² Asian elephant, gaur, Bengal tiger, leopard, Asian wild dog, chital, sambar, black buck, four-horned antelope, wild boar and some species endemic to South India, like Nilgiri tahr, Nilgiri langur, and lion-tailed macaque
Altaileopard is located in India
Altaileopard
Gaur bandipur.jpg
Kaziranga National Park (Assam, India) 430 km² Very large populations of Asian elephant, Indian rhinoceros, and wild water buffalo; also large populations of bengal tiger, barasingha, sambar deer, and hog deer
Altaileopard is located in India
Altaileopard
Rhino - mother and calf.jpg
Manas (Assam,India/Bhutan)  km² Manas and Royal Manas: Bengal tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, sloth bear, Asian elephant, Indian rhinoceros, wild water buffalo, gaur, barasingha, pygmy hog, hoolock gibbon, barking deer, hog deer, sambar deer; Jigme Dorji: snow leopard and blue sheep.Phibsoo: chital
Altaileopard is located in India
Altaileopard
Manas National Park Landscape.jpg
Chitwan (Nepal/India) Bengal tiger, leopard, Indian rhinoceros (one of the largest populations), Asian elephant, sambar deer, axis deer
Altaileopard is located in India
Altaileopard
Chitwan 2.jpg
Corbett-Rajaji (Uttarakhand,India)  km² Indian elephant, tiger, leopard, spotted deer, sambar deer, nilgai
Altaileopard is located in India
Altaileopard
An elephant herd at Jim Corbett National Park.jpg
Kanha (Madhya Pradesh, India) Large population of bengal tiger; also dhole, gaur, barasingha, chital
Altaileopard is located in India
Altaileopard
Axis axis Kanha 1.jpg
Ranthambore-Kuno (Rajasthan, India) Bengal tigers, sloth bear, Indian leopard, nilgai, sambar deer, chital, and Indian gazelles in a dry savannah habitat, Kuno is also possible reintroduction site of Asian lion and cheetah and has feral zebu cattle (proxy to extinct Indian aurochs)
Altaileopard is located in India
Altaileopard
Ranthambore Tiger.jpg
Gir Forest (Gujarat,India) Last stronghold of the Asiatic lion; also leopard, nilgai, chital, sambar
Altaileopard is located in India
Altaileopard
Asiatic Lion Gir Forest.jpg
Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary (Gujarat, India) ca. 5000 km² Last strongjold of the Asian wild ass; also Indian wolf, nilgai,

blackbuck

Altaileopard is located in India
Altaileopard
Wild ass india.jpg
Important refuge for the larger mammals of Sulawesi, like Lowland anoa, babirusa, Sulawesi warty pig
Indochinese Tiger (few), leopard, clouded leopard, dhole, Asian elephant, gaur, sambar deer; originally also kouprey
saola, giant muntjac, Red-shanked douc, gaur
Large population of bengal tigers in a Mangrove Swamp, other animals include chital, wild boar and saltwater crocodile
Asian elephant, Indian rhinoceros, bengal tiger, barasingha, sambar deer, chital
Sri Lankan leopard, Asian elephant, water buffalo
Large population of black buck antelope and also nilgai, Indian wolf, striped hyena
Arabian wolf, Small relict population of Arabian leopard; also Nubian ibex, dorcas gazelle, as well as introduced Asian wild ass and Arabian oryx
Very large enclosured desert area free from domestic live stock, large population of Arabian oryx and Arabian goitered gazelle

Africa[edit]

Name Protected area Notable mammal species Reserves Map Image
Tsavo and Kilimanjaro (Kenya/Tansania) >20.000 km² Typical East African dry savannah elements like gerenuk, hirola, Grevy's zebra, and fringe-eared oryx; also Tsavo lion, leopard, cheetah, spotted hyena, striped hyena, African hunting dog, African elephant, black rhinoceros, common zebra, warthog, cape buffalo, eland, masai giraffe, lesser kudu, Coke's hartebeest, waterbuck, impala, bohor reedbuck, bushbuck, Blue Duiker, bush duiker, red duiker, klipspringer, suni, yellow baboon
Altaileopard is located in Africa
Altaileopard
Maneless lion from Tsavo East National Park.png
Serengeti (Tansania/Kenia) ca. 25,000 km² biggest herds of big game in the world, among them blue wildebeest, plains zebra, and African buffalos; in addtition complete African savannah fauna with African elephant, lion, wild dog, spotted hyena, leopard, hippopotamus, giraffe, common eland and a few remaining black rhinos
Altaileopard is located in Africa
Altaileopard
Streifengnus im Ngorongoro.jpg
KAZA (Botswana) ca. 444.000 km² worldwide largest population of African elephant and one of few viable wild dog populations; in addition complete megafauna of Southern African savannah, including lion, leopard, cheetah, spotted hyena, white rhinoceros, black rhinoceros, hippopotamus, plains zebra, African buffalo, giraffe, blue wildebeest, sable, greater kudu, hartebeest, sassaby, impala, warthog; in the swamps also red lechwe, sitatunga and Nile corocodile
Altaileopard is located in Africa
Altaileopard
Gnus zebras chobe national park.jpg
Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (South Africa/Mosambique) ca. 30,000 km² Complete Southern African savannah fauna with African lion, leopard, cheetah, wild dog, spotted hyena, African elephant, white rhinoceros, black rhinoceros, plains zebra, African Cape buffalo, giraffe, greater kudu, blue wildebeet, impala ect.

Lion

Altaileopard is located in Africa
Altaileopard
Ceratotherium simum Kruger Park 03.JPG
Etosha-Skeleton Coast (Nambibia) Typical fauna of the Namib-Etosha area, like gemsbock, springbuck, desert elephants, mountain zebra, lion, leopard, cheetah; also typical savannah fauna with plains zebra, impala, giraffe
Altaileopard is located in Africa
Altaileopard
Etosha Parkea.JPG
South Luangwa National Park (Zambia) 9.050 km² Complete African savannah fauna including some large mammal forms restricted to the Luangwa valley region, like Cookson's wildebeest, Crawshay's zebra, and Thornicroft giraffe; also lion, leopard, spotted hyena, African elephant, African buffalo, hippo, kob, impala
Altaileopard is located in Africa
Altaileopard
South Luangwa National Park, Zambia (2506430686).jpg
W.A.P. National Park Complex (Benin, Niger, Burkina Faso) > 14,000 km² One of the largest populations of the West African lion, largest elephant population of western Africa, one of the last populations of the Northwest African cheetah; also leopard, wild dog, spotted hyena, Sudanese buffalo, korrigum, Western hartebeest, roan antelope, Defassa waterbuck, Buffon kob, red-fronted gazelle, warthog
Altaileopard is located in Africa
Altaileopard
Alcelaphus buselaphus herd.png
Nature Reserves of the Virunga Mountains (Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Ruanda) Last populations of the mountain gorilla; in addition chimpanzee, okapi, bongo, giant forest hog, red river hog, African elephant, lion, leopard, African buffalo, defassa waterbuck, buffon kob, yellow-backed duiker
Altaileopard is located in Africa
Altaileopard
Bwindi.JPG
Dzanga-Sangha Complex ((Cameroon / Republic of the Congo / Central African Republic)) Central African rainforest area with large clearings inhabited by forest elephants, forest buffaloes, bongo antelopes, leopards
Altaileopard is located in Africa
Altaileopard
Dzanga.jpg
Fenced areas with scimitar oryx, addax, dama gazelle; wild population of dorcas gazelle; potential reintroduction site for Cuvier's gazelle and hartebeest (entirely extinct in North Africa)
Large reserves in the Sahara desert with Northwest African cheetah, dorcas gazelle, Barbary sheep
One of the last refugees for the critically endangered African wild ass.
One of the last populations of lion and elephant in western Africa and one of the last populations of the Kordofan giraffe; also leopard, kob antelope, warthog, roan, red-fronted gazelle and korrigum
Typical dry savannah animals of northern Kenya like gerenuk, warthog, Grant's gazelle, Kirk's dik-dik, Grevy's zebra, Beisa oryx and reticulated giraffe; in addition lion, cheetah, leopard, African elephant, buffalo, hippopotamus, impala, and waterbuck
One of the largest reserves in Africa and home to large populations of elephants, hippos, African wild dogs, Cape buffaloes and Nyassaland wildebeest
Typical fauna of the Cape including Cape mountain zebra, black wildebeest, blesbuck, red hartebeest, gemsbock; in addition also Cape buffalo, cheetah and black rhino (in Addo also african elephant, lion and spotted hyena
Last refuge for the Western giant eland, also West African lion, leopard, African buffalo, hippo
Large herds of white-eared kob and tiang
Large rainforest south of the Kongo River, home to bonobos, leopards and a few African forest elephants
African forest elephant, Central chimpanzee, Western lowland gorilla, leopard, bongo; Lopé NP has one of the largest populations of the mandrill
One of the last populations of the Pygmy Hippo, also African forest elephant, Western chimpanzee, leopard, giant forest hog, red river hog, bongo
Last refuge for the Walia ibex; also Ethiopian wolf and gelada
Rocky savannah with fossa, ring-tailed lemur, Verreaux's sifaka, red-fronted lemur
Rainforest with red ruffed lemur and aye-aye

Northern Eurasia[edit]

Name Protected area Notable mammal species Reserves Map Image
Northwest-Gobi (Mongolia) Mongolin steppes, deserts and mountains with wolf, argali, Siberian ibex,

snow leopard, Mongolian gazelle (Gurvansaikhan), goitered gazelle, Asian wild ass, wild Bactrian camel (Great Gobi A), Gobi bear (Great Gobi A), Przewalski horse (Great Gobi B), wild boar (Gurvansaikhan) and one of the two last populations of the Mongolian saiga antelope in Sharga Nature Reserve

Altaileopard is located in China
Altaileopard
Khongoryn Els sand dunes.jpg
Changtang (Tibet, China) Large reserves with Tibetan steppe with snow leopard, wolf, wild yak, kiang, argali, chiru. In Sanjiangyuan also white-lipped deer
Altaileopard is located in China
Altaileopard
Yarmothang1.jpg
Sikhote-Alin (Far East, Russia) Ussuri Taiga with Siberian tiger, Isubra deer, Ussuri wild boar, sika deer, moose, Siberian roe deer, musk deer, Asian black bear, brown bear
Altaileopard is located in China
Altaileopard
Rock in Sikhote-Alin.jpg
Western Caucasus and Central Caucasus (Russia) West Caucasian tur, East Caucasian tur, wisent, wolf, maral, chamois, roe deer, wild boar, brown bear, Eurasian lynx, leopard
Altaileopard is located in Europe
Altaileopard
Gornye tury.jpg
Vashlovani (Armenia/Gerogia) Persian leopard, wolf, brown bear, wild goat, Armenian mouflon, wild boar, goitered gazelle (extinct)
Altaileopard is located in Iran
Altaileopard
Vashlovani National Park in Georgia.jpg
Golden Mountains of Altai (Russland / Mongolei / China / Kasachstan) * (includes Altai and Katun zapovedniks) snow leopard, wolf, lynx, brown bear, Altai argali, Siberian ibex, Altai maral, Elk, Siberian roe deer, Siberian musk deer, raindeer
Altaileopard is located in Russia
Altaileopard
Chuya River Altay.JPG
Everest Region (Nepal, China) snow leopard, wolf, Himalayan tahr, serow, goral, bharal, Tibetan argali)
Altaileopard is located in China
Altaileopard
Everest nubtse.jpg
Hemis and Dachigam (Jammu and Kashmir, India) Hemis: Large population of snow leopards, also Tibetan argali, Ladakh urial, blue sheep and Siberian ibex; Dachigam: Last stronghold of the Kashmir stag
Altaileopard is located in China
Altaileopard
Mikmar.jpg
Altyn Emel-Almaty Region (Kazaksthan) Asian wild ass, argali, goitered gazelle, snow leopard, wolf, Siberian ibex
Altaileopard is located in Kazakhstan
Altaileopard
Altynemel dune.jpg
Reserves of Kamchatka (Russia) Stunning landscape with vulcanoes, boreal forest and mountain tundra: Kamchatka snow sheep, brown bear, wolf, caribou, moose
Altaileopard is located in Russia
Altaileopard
Valley of the Geysers.jpg
Persian leopard, wolf, wild boar, maral, roe deer, urial, wild goat, goitered gazelle; in Touran also Asiatic cheetah, Persian onager
Giant panda, takin, leopard
Saiga antelope, wolf
One of the last populations of the European bison
One of the last populations of the Spanish lynx. In addition Iberian red deer, European fallow deer, wild boar, mouflon, Spanish ibex
Largest herds of wild animals in Europe: heck cattle, konik, red deer
Reintroduced Przewalski horses; also wolf, argali, Siberian ibex, Siberian wapiti, wild boar, roe deer
Important reserves for Marco Polo sheep and snow leopard, also Flare-horned markhor, Asiatic ibex, blue sheep, Ladakh urial, wolf, brown bear
Important refuge for kulan, urial, wild goat, wild boar, striped hyena, Persian leopard
  • Ili Delta (Kazakhstan): Planned National Park by joining the Nature Reserves Karoiskiy Zakaznik (509.00ha), Pribalhashaskiy Zakaznik (503.00 ha) and Kukanskkiy Zakaznik (49.100 ha)
wolf, goitered gazelle, wild boar, roe deer, in the desert a few saiga antelopes; planned reintroduction of the Tiger, Bukhara deer and wild ass
Bukhara deer, urial; One of the occurences of the extinct Caspian tiger and possible reintroduction site for closely related Siberian tiger
Several thousand sqkm mountain wilderness with one of the largest population of the wild reindeer in Europe, also musk ox, moose, brown bear, volverine, wolf

North America (except South)[edit]

Name Protected area Notable mammal species Reserves Map Image
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Alaska, USA) Large herds of migrating caribou; also dall sheep, musk ox, moose, wolf, grizzly
Altaileopard is located in Alaska
Altaileopard
Alaska ANWR Canning River.jpg
Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA) One of the largest herds of American bison and almost all larger mammals of Northern America: wolf (reintroduced), puma, grizzly, American black bear, moose, pronghorn, elk, mule deer, mountain goat, bighorn sheep
Altaileopard is located in USA
Altaileopard
Bull Bison in Mud Volcano Area.JPG
Grand Canyon and Bryce Canyon (Arizona/Utah, USA) Great landscape with puma, American black bear, desert bighorn sheep, wapiti, mule deer, feral donkeys
Altaileopard is located in USA
Altaileopard
Grand Canyon NP-Arizona-USA.jpg
Sonora & Coronado Forest (including proposed Madrean Sky Islands; Arizona / New Mexico, USA) Semi desert and mountain forests with puma, jaguar (very few), American black bear, collared peccary, pronghorn, mule deer, white-tailed deer, wapiti; Mexican wolf further north in Apache Sitgreaves
Altaileopard is located in USA
Altaileopard
Saguaronationalparl17102008.jpg
Musk ox, Peary caribou, Arctic wolf
Great landscape with grizzly, wolf, volverine, dalls sheep, caribou, moose
Very large brown bears, wolf, volverine, caribou, moose
One of the largest populations of the dall sheep; also wolf, American black bear, grizzly, sitka black-tailed deer, moose, caribou, mountain goat, and introduced bison
wolf, grizzly, American black bear, Canadian lynx, volverine, moose, bighorn sheep, wapiti
Largest population of the American wood bison; also wolves, moose
grasland and badlands with bison, bighorn sheep, mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn at Theodore Roosevelt National Park also mustang as a proxy for extinct pleistocene horses and wapiti
Puma, American Black Bear, and Mule Deer in stunning landscape with Giant Sequoias
puma, bobcat, American black bear, mule deer, white-tailed deer, collared peccary
puma, white-tailed deer, Mississippi alligator

South- and Middle-America[edit]

Name Protected area large species Reserves Map Image
Manu National Park (Peru)  km² Large Reserve with diverse habitatas from lowland rainforest to Andean wet puna: jaguar, puma, ocelot, giant otter, giant anteater, southern tamandua, giant armadillo, nine-banded armadillo, brown-throated sloth, Hoffmann's two-toed sloth, Brazilian tapir, capybara, pacarana, lowland paca, collared peccary, white-lipped peccary, South American red brocket, South American brown brocket, marsh deer, Goeldi's marmoset, pygmy marmoset, shock-headed capuchin, tufted capuchin, Brown-mantled tamarin, emperor tamarin, moustached tamarin, black-capped squirrel monkey, black-headed night monkey, brown titi, Rio Tapajós saki, Bolivian red howler, Peruvian spider monkey, and gray woolly monkey. Confined to the mountainous areas above ca. 2000 m: Peruvian white-tailed deer, dwarf brocket, culpeo, mountain paca, and spectacled bear.
Altaileopard is located in South America
Altaileopard
Manu riverbank.jpg
Protected areas of the Pantanal (Brazil, Paraguay) Large swamp-savannah wilderness with giant anteater, marsh deer, Brazilian tapir, jaguar, puma, maned wolf, bush dog, capybara

Pantanal Matogrossense National Park

Altaileopard is located in South America
Altaileopard
Jaguar in Pantanal Brazil 1.jpg
Torres del Paine (Chile/Argentinia) 6880 km² Typical Patagonian fauna with puma, guanaco, and Chilean huemul
Altaileopard is located in South America
Altaileopard
Cuernos del Paine from Lake Pehoé.jpg
Good population of Baird´s tapir and one of the final strongholds of the Jaguar in Central America; also ocelot, puma Central American squirrel monkey, white-faced capuchin, mantled howler, Geoffroy's spider monkey, two-toed and three-toed sloth, collared peccary, Northern tamandua and silky anteater.
Large populations of capybaras and many other wildlife in a wet savanna landscape.
One of the mst important strongholds of the mountain tapir; also spectacled bears, pumas and Andean foxes, giant otters, jaguars, ozelots, margays, Brazilian tapirs, white-tailed deer, little red brocket deer and Northern pudus
Gran Chaco with Chacoan peccary, a large population of jaguar, puma, Brazilian tapir and one of the northernmost populations of the guanaco
Cerrado savannah with giant anteater, maned wolf, giant armadillo, pampas deer, greater rhea, puma, ozelot, Brazilian tapir, collared peccary, white-lipped peccary, marsh deer, red brocket, gray brocket, black howler monkey, capybara and a small population of jaguars
Important area for the vicugna and other animals of the Altiplano

Contribution[edit]

Saiga antelope, Lion, Leopard, Tiger, Panthera leo fossilis, Pelorovis, Cave lion, American lion, Kanha National Park, Euceratherium, Homotherium, Smilodon, Boar, Red deer, Percrocutidae, Proailurus, Pseudaelurus, Paramachairodus, Felidae, Mouflon, Tibetan red deer ...

Links[edit]

Important Literature[edit]

  • Ronald M. Nowak: Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999 ISBN 0-8018-5789-9
  • Malcolm C. Mc Kenna, Susan K. Bell: Classification of Mammals: Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press; Auflage: New Ed (15. Februar 2000). ISBN: 978-0231110136
  • David Macdonald: Die große Enzyklopädie der Säugetiere. Deutsche Ausgabe: Könemann in der Tandem Verlag GmbH, 2004 ISBN 3-8331-1006-6
  • Paul S. Martin: Quaternary Extinctions. The University of Arizona Press, 1984. ISBN 0-8165-1100-4
  • A. Turner: The big cats and their fossil relatives. Columbia University Press, 1997.ISBN 0-231-10229-1
  • A. H. Müller: Lehrbuch der Paläozoologie, Band III Vertebraten, Teil 3 Mammalia, 2. Auflage. Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1989. ISBN 3-334-00223-3
  • M. Barton: Wildes Amerika Zeugen der Eiszeit. Egmont Verlag, 2003. ISBN 3-8025-1558-7
  • E. Thenius: Grundzüge der Faunen- und Verbreitungsgeschichte der Säugetiere, 2.Auflage, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1980
  • Jean Dorst und Pierre Dandelot: Säugetiere Afrikas, Paul Parey Verlag, 1970. ISBN 3-490-01018-3
  • K K Gurung & Raj Singh: Field Guide to the Mammals of the Indian Subcontinent, Academic Press, San Diego, ISBN 0-12-309350-3
  • V. G. Heptner: Mammals of the Sowjetunion Vol. I Ungulates. Leiden, New York, 1989 ISBN 9004088741
  • Jordi Augusti: Mammoths, Sabertooths and Hominids 65 Million Years of Mammalian Evolution in Europe, Columbia University Press, 2002. ISBN 2001042251
  • Claus Hilschmann: Fauna Band 8 Die Neotropische Region, Novaria-Verlag, 1971. ISBN 3-87991-048-0
  • Vratislav Mazak: Der Tiger. Nachdruck der 3. Auflage von 1983. Westarp Wissenschaften Hohenwarsleben, 2004 ISBN 3 894327596
  • Alan Turner & Mauricio Anton: Evolving Eden. An Illustrated Guide to the Evolution of the African Large-Mammal Fauna. Columbia University Press, New York, 2004. ISBN 0-231-11944-5