Wage Rudolf Supratman
Wage Rudolf Supratman (Wage Roedolf Soepratman in the old orthography or commonly known as W. R. Supratman) (Purworejo, 9 March 1903 – Surabaya, 17 August 1938) was an Indonesian songwriter who wrote both the lyrics and melody of the national anthem of Indonesia - "Indonesia Raya."
Supratman was born Wage on 9 March 1903 in Somongari, Purworejo. Several months later, his father Sergeant Djoemeno Senen Sastrosoehardjo, KNIL army added Supratman to his name and explained that Supratman born in Meester Cornelis, Batavia. Rudolf was added to his name while he went along with his sister, Rukiyem Supratiyah van Eldik to Makassar, so his rights were equal to Dutch, and he was allowed to attend Europese Lagere School.
At the age of 6, he entered Budi Utomo elementary school in Cimahi. After his father retired, he was taken by Rukiyem and sent to ELS in 1914, but he was dropped out because the fact that he is not European descent was revealed. He continued his studies to Malay school. After returning home, he learned to play guitar and violin. His brother-in-law, van Eldik, gave him a violin as seventeenth birthday present in 1920. After graduating from Malay school in 1917, he attended Dutch language courses and graduated in 1919. He continued to Normaal School and became an auxiliary teacher in Makassar after he graduated.
In 1920, he and van Eldik founded a jazz-styled band, called Black & White. He played as a violinist. They performed at weddings and birthday parties in Makassar.
Since July 1933, he began to feel ill. In November 1933, he resigned as Sin Po journalist and settled in Cimahi, then Palembang, finally in Surabaya. On 17 August 1938, he died at 01.00 a.m. and his remains were buried in Kenjeran, Surabaya. On 13 March 1956, his bones was moved to Tambak Segaran Wetan cemetery.
He composed both music and lyrics for the song "Indonesia Raya", which later became Indonesia's National Anthem. It was introduced at the Second Indonesian Youth Congress on 28 October 1928. It was quickly adopted by Sukarno's PNI. The text was revised in November 1944, and the melody arranged to its present musical form in 1958.
- Sularto & Yunarti 2010, p. 171
- Sularto & Yunarti 2010, p. 173
- Hutabarat 2001, p. 3
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- Hutabarat 2001, pp. 4–5
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- Sularto & Yunarti 2010, p. 176
- The Muslim world: a historical survey. Modern times: Volume 4 - Page 307 H. Scheel, Gerhard Jaschke, H. Braun - 1981 "The party's emblem and the symbol of the future Free Indonesia were a red and white flag with a figure of a bull's head, and the hymn sung at its gatherings was Indonesia Raya ("Great Indonesia"), composed by Wage Rudolf Supratman "
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- Hutabarat, Anthony C. (2001). Wage Rudolf Soepratman: Meluruskan Sejarah dan Riwayat Hidup Pencipta Lagu Kebangsaan Republik Indonesia "Indonesia Raya" dan Pahlawan Nasional. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia. ISBN 978-979-687-037-0.
- Sularto, St.; Yunarti, D. Rini (2010). Konflik di Balik Proklamasi: BPUPKI, PPKI, dan Kemerdekaan. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kompas. ISBN 978-979-709-509-3.