Ki Hajar Dewantara
|Ki Hajar Dewantara|
|Ki Hajar Dewantara in 1949|
|1st Minister of National Education of the Republic of Indonesia|
September 2, 1945 – November 14, 1945
|Preceded by||Office created|
|Succeeded by||Todung Sutan Gunung Mulia|
|Born||Raden Mas Soewardi Soeryaningrat
May 2, 1889
Yogyakarta, period of Dutch East Indies
|Died||April 28, 1959
Raden Mas Soewardi Soerjaningrat (EYD: Suwardi Suryaningrat; from 1972 Ki Hadjar Dewantara, EYD: Ki Hajar Dewantara, which some write Ki Hajar Dewantoro to reflect its Javanese language sounds; Yogyakarta, May 2, 1889 – Yogyakarta, April 26, 1959, hereinafter abbreviated as Soewardi or KHD) was a leading activist in the Indonesian independence movement, columnist, politician, and pioneer of education for native Indonesians in Dutch colonial times. He founded the College Student Park, an institution that provides an educational opportunity for indigenous commoners which otherwise was limited to the aristocracy and the Dutch colonials.
His birth date is now celebrated in Indonesia as National Education Day. Part of the motto creation, tut wuri handayani, a slogan for the ministry of education. A navy training ship bears his name, KRI Ki Hajar Dewantara. His portrait immortalizes him in the paper money 20,000 rupiah denomination in 1998.
Youth and early career
Bapak Soewardi comes from a family environment Yogyakarta Palace. He graduated from basic education in ELS[disambiguation needed] (Primary Schools Europe / Netherlands). Could then continue to STOVIA (Bumiputera medical school), but it was not until the end because of illness. Later he worked as a writer and journalist in a newspaper, among others, Sediotomo, Midden Java, De Expres, Oetoesan Indies, Kaoem Moeda, Tjahaja Timoer and Poesara. At the time, he was considered a reliable writer. His writings communicative and sharp with anti-colonial spirit.
Besides tenacious as a young reporter, he was also active in social and political organization. Since the establishment of Sampoerna Oetomo (BO) in 1908, he was active in the propaganda section to socialize and arouse public awareness of Indonesia (especially Java) at the time about the importance of unity in the nation. BO first congress in Yogyakarta are also organized by him.
Young Soewardi also a member of the organization Insulinde, a multi-ethnic organization that dominated Indo are fighting for self-rule in the Dutch East Indies, the influence of Ernest Douwes Dekker (DD). When then DD establish Indische Partij, Soewardi invited anyway.
If I was a Dutchman
During the Dutch East Indies government sought to solicit donations from citizens, including indigenous people, for Dutch independence celebrations from France in 1913. There was critical reaction from nationalists, including Soewardi. It was written "Een maar ook voor Allen Allen voor Een" or "One for All, All for One, but also". But the most famous KHD column is "If I'm A Dutch" (original title: "Als ik een Nederlander was"), be in newspaper De Expres leadership DD, 13 July 1913. Contents of this article feels spicy once among the office of the Netherlands Indies.[clarification needed] Collection of writings, among others, as follows.
If I'm a Netherlands, I will not maintain independence parties in the state that we took self-independence. Consistent with the way the mind was not only unfair, but also inappropriate to ask the Inlander provide funds for the festival. idea for the festival for maintenance alone is insulting them, and now we also scour pockets. Ayo keep only the physical and spiritual humiliation! Had I a Dutchman, a particular case feelings offend friends and countrymen, is the fact that the required Inlander follow bankrolled an activity that does not have the slightest importance for him.
Some Dutch office impeach this piece made by Soewardi own original style because different language from earlier writings. Even if it's true that writing, they assume a role in heat-DD manasi Soewardi to write with such style.[clarification needed]
Consequences of this writing it is captured on the consent of Governor-General Idenburg and will be separated into Bangka Island (own request).[clarification needed] However, both his colleagues, DD and Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo, protest and eventually the three of them isolated to the Netherlands (1913). The third figure is known as the "Iron Triangle". Soewardi that time 24 years old.
In exile in the Netherlands, is active in the organization Soewardi students from Indonesia, Indische Vereeniging (Indian Association).
This is where he later pioneered the ideals of the natives advancing science education by learning to obtain the certificate Europeesche, a prestigious education diploma which later became the foundation in establishing educational institutions he founded. In this study Soewardi fascinated by the ideas of Western education figures, such as Froebel and Montessori, as well as movement education India, Santiniketan, family Tagore. Influences underlying these in developing their own educational system.
Soewardi back to Indonesia in September 1919. Instant later he joined his brother in the school building. This teaching experience then use to develop the concept for school teaching he founded on 3 July 1922: Nationaal Onderwijs Instituut Ampel Ampel or the National College. When he attained the age of 40 years according to the count dismantlement Java, he changed his name to Ki Hadjar Synthesizer. It no longer uses the earl in front of his name. It is intended that it be freely close to the people, both physical and soul.
Signaling that he wore in the education system is now very well known among Indonesian education. On the whole, the watchword of the Java language reads sung tulodo ngarso ing, ing madyo Karso Mangun, tut wuri handayani. ("In front of an example, in the middle of giving spirit, giving impetus behind"). This slogan is still used in the education of the people of Indonesia, first in schools Teaching Tamansiswa.
Devotion at the time of Indonesian independence
In the first cabinet of the Republic of Indonesia, KHD was appointed Indonesian Minister of Teaching (he referred to his post as Minister of Education and Culture). In 1957 he received an honorary doctorate (doctor honoris causa, Dr. hc) from Indonesia's oldest university, Gadjah Mada University. For his accomplishments in pioneering public education, he was declared Father of National Education of Indonesia and his day National Education Day (Presidential Decree no. 305 of 1959, dated 28 November 1959).
He died in Yogyakarta on 26 April 1959 and was buried in Yosemite Wijaya Brata.
Then, after rejection of the registration of the legal entity Indische Partij, he helped form the Bumipoetra Committee in November 1913. The Committee as well as a rival of the Committee of One Hundred Years of Independence Celebration Nation Netherlands[clarification needed]. The Boemipoetra Committee the criticized Dutch government's intention to celebrate the hundredth anniversary of the independence of the Netherlands from France and to ask the people of the colony of Indonesia for money to finance the festivities.
As a result of the essay, the Dutch colonial government through the Governor General Idenburg sentenced Dewantara to prison without trial, be sentenced interning (legal exhaust) is a sentence by pointing to a dwelling may be for someone to reside[clarification needed]. He was sentenced to imprisonment on Bangka Island.
Douwes Dekker and Cipto Mangoenkoesoemo compatriots felt unfairly treated. They also published the defending Soewardi pitched[clarification needed]. But the Dutch believed that writing and inciting the people to revolt against the colonial government was illegal. As a result they were sentenced to be interned. Douwes Dekker was exiled to Kupang and Cipto Mangoenkoesoemo was exiled to the island of Banda.
But Dekker and Mangoenkoesoemo wanted to be banished to the Netherlands because they felt that there they would learn to do many things from the remote areas[clarification needed]. Eventually they were allowed into the Netherlands in August 1913 as part of the execution of the sentence.
The university[clarification needed] strongly emphasizes the sense of national education to students so that they love the nation and homeland and fight for independence.
Not a few hurdles faced in fostering Student Park. Dutch colonial government issued Ordinance seeks his way with Wild School on October 1, 1932. But with persistence to fight for their rights, so the ordinance was later revoked.
In the midst of seriousness devote attention in education in Tamansiswa, he also remained diligent in writing. But his theme switching of political nuances and cultural education to national paradigm. His writing hundreds of pieces. Through the writings that he successfully laid the foundations of national education for Indonesia.
Meanwhile, in the days of Japanese occupation, the activities in the field of politics and education continues. Time the Japanese government established the People Power Center (the Son) in 1943, Ki Hajar sat as one of the leaders in addition to Ir. Sukarno, Drs. Muhammad Hatta and K.H. Mas Mansur.
Then by the successor universities Student Park, established Dewantara Kirti Griya Museum in Yogyakarta, to preserve the values of Ki Hajar Dewantara fighting spirit. In this museum there are objects or works of the founder of Ki Hajar Tamansiswa and their work in national life. Museum collections in the form of papers or concepts and important treatises and correspondence of data lifetime Ki Hajar as a journalist, educator, humanist, and as an artist has been recorded on microfilm and laminated for the help the National Archives.
This nation needs to inherit the fruit of his thinking about the purpose of education is to promote the nation as a whole without distinction of religion, ethnicity, tribe, culture, customs, habits, economic status, social status, and so on, and should be based on the values of human freedom.
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|New title||Minister of Education
Todung Sutan Gunung Mulia
- Decree of the President of the Republic of Indonesia No. 305 of 1959, dated 28 November 1959.