Hasanuddin of Gowa

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Sultan Hasanuddin (Sultan Hasanuddin Tumenanga Ri Balla Pangkana; 12 January 1631 – 12 June 1670) was the 16th Ruler of The Sultanate of Gowa from 1653 to 1669. He was proclaimed as Indonesian National Hero on 6 November 1973.[1]

Early life[edit]

Sultan Hassanudin was born in Makassar, Gowa Kingdom (on what is now part of South Sulawesi) under the name I Mallombasi Muhammad Bakir Daeng Mattawang Karaeng Bonto Mangepe. He was the second prince of the 15th King of Gowa, Sultan Malikussaid.

Upon his conversion to Islam, Hassanudin changed his name to Sultan Hasanuddin Tumenanga Ri Balla Pangkana.

Succession, war and rebellion[edit]

After his accession to the throne of Gowa, Hasanuddin was faced with a turbulent situation as the Dutch colonized the East Indies. During this period, the Kingdom of Gowa was the sole large east Indonesian kingdom which not colonized by the Dutch. In 1666, under the leadership of Captain Cornelis Spellman, the Dutch East India Company sought to seize each and every east Indonesian kingdom to monopolized the spice trade, though were unable to colonize Gowa.

In order to resist Dutch encroachments, Hasanuddin tried to gather each of the kingdom’s military powers to attack the Dutch East Indies Company collectively. The wars between the Dutch and the States continued to worsen until the Dutch increased their military presence. Eventually the Kingdom of Gowa had no other choice but to agree to peace with the Dutch under the terms of the Bugaya treaty.

Following the signing of the Bugaya treaty, Gowa felt that the treaty was unfair and that they were disadvantaged by the terms of the treaty. As a result, Gowa continued to attack the Dutch. Finally, the Dutch sought military assistance from Batavia, resulting in a fierce and a bloody war between the Dutch and Gowa. The war continued until the company managed to conquer Gowa’s last stronghold, Sombaupu Fort, on 12 June 1669. Sultan Hassanudin retreated and abdicated as the King of Gowa. He died a year later, on 12 June 1670, and was buried in Katangka, Makassar.


  1. ^ PERANGINANGIN, Marlon dkk; Buku Pintar Pahlawan Nasional. Batam: Scientific Press, 2007.