Pakubuwono X

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Portrait of Pakubuwono X, wearing the uniform of a KNIL major-general
Pakubuwono X of Surakarta poses with the Governor General of Dutch East Indies Andries Cornelis Dirk de Graeff (center) in 1928.
Pakubuwono X (in black military uniform) with King Chulalongkorn of Siam (center) during the latter's state visit to the Dutch East Indies in 1896

Pakubuwono X (also transliterated Pakubuwana X, sometimes abbreviated 'PBX[1]) (29 November 1866 – 20 February 1939) was the tenth Susuhunan (ruler of Surakarta). His reign corresponded with the political changes happening in the Dutch East Indies at the time, in particular the growth of local indigenous political organizations such as Budi Utomo and Sarekat Islam of which he and the royal family were patrons. Pakubuwono X was known to have many concubines, but his main consort was GKR Hemas, the daughter of Sultan Hamengkubuwono VII of Yogyakarta. He was also known major contributor to improvements at the Royal Graveyard of Imogiri, where he himself is buried. His correct title in Javanese etiquette standards contains honorific appellations, some of which each successive ruler inherits. He reigned from 1893 to 1939 and is the longest ruling Susuhanan of Surakarta to date.[2]

Name sequence[edit]

Names in Javanese royalty are adjusted with status changes.

  • 1866-1884: Raden Mas Gusti Sayyid ud-din Malik ul-Kusna
  • 1884-1890: Lieutenant-Colonel Raden Mas Gusti Sayyid ud-din Malik ul-Kusna
  • 1890-1893: Colonel Raden Mas Gusti Sayyid ud-din Malik ul-Kusna
  • 1893-1923: Major-General His Highness Sampeyan Dalam ingkang Sinuhun ingkang Minula saha ingkang Wijaksana Kanjeng Susuhanan Prabhu Sri Pakubuwono X Senapati ing Alaga Ngah 'Abdu'l-Rahman Saiyid ud-din Panatagama, Susuhanan of Surakarta
  • 1923-1932: Lieutenant-General His Highness Sampeyan Dalam ingkang Sinuhun ingkang Minula saha ingkang Wijaksana Kanjeng Susuhanan Prabhu Sri Pakubuwono X Senapati ing Alaga Ngah 'Abdu'l-Rahman Saiyid ud-din Panatagama, Susuhanan of Surakarta
  • 1932-1939: Lieutenant-General His Princely Highness Sampeyan Dalam ingkang Sinuhun ingkang Minula saha ingkang Wijaksana Kanjeng Susuhanan Prabhu Sri Pakubuwono X Senapati ing Alaga Ngah 'Abdu'l-Rahman Saiyid ud-din Panatagama, Susuhanan of Surakarta

[2]

Honours[edit]

[2]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

Miksic, John (general ed.), et al. (2006) Karaton Surakarta. A look into the court of Surakarta Hadiningrat, central Java (First published: 'By the will of His Serene Highness Paku Buwono XII'. Surakarta: Yayasan Pawiyatan Kabudayan Karaton Surakarta, 2004) Marshall Cavendish Editions Singapore ISBN 981-261-226-2

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Pakubuwono IX
Susuhunan of Surakarta
1893–1939
Succeeded by
Pakubuwono XI