Y-DNA haplogroups by populations of the Caucasus

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Listed here are notable groups and ethnic groups from Caucasus by human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups based on relevant studies. The samples are taken from individuals identified with the ethnic and linguistic designations in the first two columns, the third column gives the sample size studied, and the other columns give the percentage of the particular haplogroup. (IE = Indo-European, NEC = Northeast Caucasian, NWC = Northwest Caucasian)

Population Language n E1b1b G I  J1 J2 L R1a R1b R2a T Others Reference
Abazinians NWC (Abkhaz-Ubykh) 14 0 29 0 F* 7 K 14 0 0 K K[xP]=14[1]
C*=7 (1/14)
F[xI,G,J2,K]=29
Nasidze2004[2]
Abazins NWC (Abkhaz-Ubykh) 88 4.5 40.9 I2*=1.1
I2a=2.3
J1*=2.3
J1e=3.4
M67=1.1
other=10.2
L2=2.3 23.9 3.4 1.1 0.0 Q=3.4 Yunusbayev 2011[3]
Abkhaz NWC (Abkhaz-Ubykh) 12 0 0 33 0 25 0 33.0 8 0 0 Nasidze2004[2]
Abkhaz NWC (Abkhaz-Ubykh) 58 1.7 P18=12.1
P303=20.7
other=24.1
0 0 J2*=5.2
J2-M67=8.6
L2=3.4 10.3 12.1 NT 1.7 - Balanovsky 2011[4]
Adygei (Kabardin) NWC (Adigei) 59 0 28.8 10.2 F 11.9 K 1.7 1.7 0 K F[xG,I,J2,K]=23.7
K[xP]=15.3
P[xR1,R2]=6.8
Nasidze2004[2]
Adygei (Kabardin) NWC (Adygei) 140 2.1 43.6 I1=1.4
I2*=0.7
I2a=2.1
J1e=2.8
J1*=6.4
M67=5.7
J2a*=9.3
J2b=0.7
L3=0.7 15.0 3.6 0.0 0.7 C=2.1, H=0.7
N1c=1.4, Q=0.7
Yunusbayev 2011[3]
Adygei/
"Circassians"[5]
NWC (Adygei) - 0.0[6] 31.3[7] I*=1.4
I2a=2.9[8]
- - - - - - - various
Adygei/
("Adygea")
NWC (Adygei) 154 0.6 47.4 I2*=1.3
I2a=3.2
J1e=1.3
J1*=1.9
M67=3.2
J2a*=5.8
J2b=1.9
L2=1.9
L1=0.6
14.3 7.1 0.0 0.0 C=2.6
N=0.6
Yunusbayev 2011[3]
Adygei(Shapsugs) NWC (Adygei) 106 - 81.1 - - - - - - - - - Dibirova2009[7]
Adygei (Shapsugs) NWC (Adygei) 100 1.0 P303=86.0
other=1.0
0 0 6.0 L*=2.0 4.0 0 NT 0 - Balanovsky 2011[4]
Adygei
("Cherkess")[9]
NWC (Adygei) 142 1.4 P16=9.2
P303=29.6
other=1.4
I*=0.7 J1e=0.7
J1*=4.9
J2-M67=7.7
J2b=0.7
other=13.4
L1=0.7 19.7 4.9 NT 0.7 N1*=1.4
N1c1=2.1
Q=0.7
Balanovsky2011[4]
Adygei
("Cherkess")
NWC (Adygei) 126 0.8 45.2 I1=0.8
I2b=0.8
J1e=4.0
J1*=0.8
M67=13.5
other=11.1
0.0 15.1 1.6 0.8 0.0 C=0.8, K*=1.6
N1c1=2.4, Q=0.8
Yunusbayev 2011[3]
Andis NEC (Avar-Andic, Andic) 49 2.0 6.1 I1=2.0
I2a=24.5
J1*=36.7 M67=14.3
other=4.1
0.0 2.0 6.1 0.0 2.0 Yunusbaev 2006[3][10]
Armenians IE (Armenian) 89 3.4 29.2 - 5.6 24.7 - 3.4 Rosser2000[11]
Armenians IE (Armenian) 47 4.3 F* 4.3 F* 21.3 4.3 8.5 36.2 0 6.4 F[xI,J2,K]=12.8
N=2
Wells2001[12]
Armenians IE (Armenian) 100 6.0 11.0 5.0 F 24.0 K 6.0 19.0 2.0 4.0[1] F[xI,G,J2,K]=18.0
K[xT,P]=3.0[1]
P[xR1a,R1b,R2]=2.0
Nasidze2004[2]
Armenians IE (Armenian) 734 5.4 - 5.3 32.4 - 1.6 Weale2001[13]
Armenians
(Ararat Valley)
IE (Armenian) 110 5.5 P16=0
G2a*=9.1
G1=1.8
I2=2.7 J1e=6.4
J1*=8.2
M67=12.7
J2a*=10.0
J2b=0.9
0.9 0.9 37.3 0.0 3.6 0.0 Herrara2012
Avars NEC (Avar-Andic, Avar) 42 7.1 0.0 0.0 66.7 4.8 9.5 2.4 2.4 2.4 4.8 Yunusbaev 2006[10]
Avars NEC (Avar-Andic, Avar) 115 0.0 P18=.9
P303=9.6
I*=.9
I2a=.9
J1e=.9
J1*=58.3
M67=.9
other=5.2
L2=2.6 1.7 14.8 .9 0.0 N=1.7 Balanovsky 2011[4]
Avars
(West)[14]
NEC (Avar-Andic) 20 0 G[xG1,G2a,
G2b]
=5
0 J1*=60
J1e=20
10 0 0 5 - - - Caciagli 2009[15]
Azeris
(Azerbaijan)
Altaic (Turkic)[16] 72 5.6 18.1 2.8 F 30.6 6.9[1] 6.9 11.1 2.8 4.2[1] F[xG,I,J2,K]=11 Nasidze2004[2]
Azerbaijanis Altaic (Turkic)[16] v 4.1[6] 15.2[17] 23.9[17] - various
Bagvalins NEC (Avar-Andic, Andic) 28 0.0 0.0 I2b1=7.1 21.4 0.0 0.0 3.6 67.9 0.0 0.0 Yunusbaev 2006[10]
Balkars Altaic (Turkic)[18] 38 2.6 28.9 I2*=2.6 0 M67=5.3
J2b=2.6
other=15.8
L2=5.3 13.2 13.2 7.9 0.0 H=2.6 Battaglia2008[19]
Chamalins NEC (Avar-Andic, Andic) 27 0.0 18.5 0.0 66.7 3.7 3.7 7.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 Yunusbaev 2006[10]
Chechens
(East Chechnya)
NEC (Nakh) 19 0 5 0 F 26 5 5 0 16 5[1] F[xG,I,J2,K]=32 Nasidze2004[2]
Akki Chechens[20] NEC (Nakh) 20 0 5 0 60 25 10 0 0 NT 0 - Caciagli 2009[15]
Chechens Total[21] NEC (Nakh) 330 0.0 P18=3.0
P303=2.4
I2=.3 J1*=20.9 M67=55.2
J2b=.3
other=1.2
L3=7.0 3.9 1.8 3.3 0.0 - Balanovsky 2011[4]
Chechens (Achxoi-Martan, Chechnya) NEC (Nakh) 118 0 P303=0.8 I2=0.8 J1*=24.6 M67=56.8
other=0.8
L3=6.8 2.5 3.4 3.4 0 - Balanovsky 2011[4]
Chechens
(Malgobek, Ingushetia)
NEC (Nakh) 112 0 P18=3.6
P303=5.4
0 21.4 M67=50.9
J2b=0.9
other=1.8
L3=0.9 8.0 0.9 6.3 0 - Balanovsky 2011[4]
Chechens
(mainly Akkis, in Dagestan)
NEC (Nakh) 100 0 P18=6.0
P303=1.0
0 16.0 M67=58.0
other=1.0
L3=14.0 1.0 1.0 0 0 N=2.0 Balanovsky 2011[4]
Dargins NEC (Dargin) 68 0 2.9 0 91.2 2.9 0.0 0.0 2.9 0.0 0.0 Yunusbaev 2006[10]
Dargins NEC (Dargin) 26 4 4 58 see F 4 0 0 4 0 0 F[xG,I,J2,K]=27 Nasidze2004[2]
Dargins (Dargwa) NEC (Dargin) 101 0 P303=1.0
other=1
0 J1*=69.3
J1e=1
M67=1.0 0 21.8 2.0 0 0 O3=3 Balanovsky 2011[4]
Dargins (Kaitaks) NEC (Dargin) 33 0 0 0 J1*=84.8 3.3 0 3.3 6.7 3.3 0 - Balanovsky 2011[4]
Dargins (Kubachis) NEC (Dargin) 65 0 0 I2a=1.5 J1*=98.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Balanovsky 2011[4]
Georgians SC (Karto-Zan) 63 2.0 30.1 0.0 J=36.5 1.6 7.9 14.3 6.3 1.6 Semino2000[22]
Georgians SC (Karto-Zan) 66 3.0 31.8 I1*=1.5 4.5 M67=18.2
other=13.6
L3=1.6 10.6 9.1 4.5 1.6 - Battaglia2008[19]
Georgians SC (Karto-Zan) 77 2.6 31.2 3.9 F 20.8 2.6[1] 10.4 10.4 1.3 2.6[1] K[xP]=2.6
P[xR1,R2]=2.6
F[xG,I,J2,K]=14.3
Nasidze 2004[23]
Svans SC (Svan) 25 0 F* 0 F* 0 0 8 0 0 0 F[xG,I,J2,K]=92% Wells 2001[12]
Georgians (Kazbegis) SC (Karto-Zan)[24] 25 0 F 4 F 72 0 4 8 0 0 F[xG,I,J2,K]=12 Wells 2001[12]
Ingush NEC (Nakh) 143 0 P18=1.4 0.7 2.8 M67=87.4
other=1.4
L3=2.8 3.5 0 NT 0 - Balanovsky, Dibirova et al. 2011[4]
Ingush NEC (Nakh) 22 0 5.0 5 - 32 5 0 0 0 0 F[xG,I,J2,K]=27
P[xR1,R2]=4.5(1/22)
Nasidze2004[2]
Kumyks Altaic (Turkic)[18] 76 2.6 11.8 0.0 21.1 25.0 0.0 13.2 19.7 3.9 1.3 J*=1.3
O=1.3
Yunusbaev 2006[10]
Laks NEC (Lak) 21 9.5 4.8 14.3 42.9 14.3 0.0 9.5 4.8 0.0 0.0 Caciagli 2009<[15]
Lezgins (Azerbaijan) NEC (Lezgic) 12 17 F* 0 F* 0 - 8 17 0 - F[xI,J2,K]=58 Wells 2001[12]
Lezgins (Dagestan) NEC (Lezgic) 25 0 36 0 F* 0 NT 0 4 0 K* F[xI,G,J2,K]=32
K[xR]=28
Nasidze 2003[2]
Lezgins NEC (Lezgic) 31 6.5 9.7 9.7 58.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.1 0.0 0.0 Yunusbaev 2006[10]
Lezgins (Axtynskiy District) NEC (Lezgic) 81 1.2 13.5
(P18=1.2%)
0 44.4 J1* 2.5 1.2 L2 3.7 29.6 0 2.5 1.2 N1c1 Balanovsky, Dibirova et al. 2011[4]
Nogai Altaic (Turkic) 77 0 0 0 2.6 10.4 0 9.1 0  ? 0 C=10.4
N=16.3
Yunusbaev 2006[10]
Ossetes IE (Iranian, NE) 47 6.4 J=34.0 2.1 42.6 Rosser2000[11]
North Ossetians IE (Iranian, NE) 129 0 57.4 10.1 F* 14.0 -- 0.8 0.8 1.6 K* F[xI,G,J2,K]=3.9
K[xP]=9.3
P[xR1,R2]=2.3
Nasidze 2004[25]
North Ossetians (Iron) IE (Iranian, NE) 230 0.4 P16=73.0
P303=1.3
0 1.3 M67=11.3
other=7.0
L2=0.9 0.4 3.0 NT 0 N=0.4
Q=0.9
Balanovsky 2011[4]
North Ossetians (Digor) IE (Iranian, NE) 127 0.8 P16=55.9
P303=4.7
0 3.9 M67=5.5
other=6.3
L1=0.8 0.8 16.5 NT 0.8 Q=3.9 Balanovsky 2011[4]
Russians (Adygea IE (Slavic, East) 78 24.4 - - Rootsi2004[8]
Rutuls NEC (Lezgic) 24 0.0 37.5 0.0 F 4.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 F[xG,I,J2,K]=58 Nasidze2004[2]
Tabassarans NEC (Lezgic) 43 0.0 0.0 0.0 48.8 2.3 0.0 2.3 39.5 0.0 0.0 C=7.0 Yunusbaev2006[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Nasidze et al. "Haplotypes from the Caucasus, Turkey and Iran for nine Y-STR loci"," 'Elsevier Ireland Ltd (2003)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Nasidze et al., (2004)Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus
  3. ^ a b c d e Yunusbayev et al, 2011.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Oleg Balanovsky et al., "Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region," Molecular Biology and Evolution 2011
  5. ^ despite the fact that Shapsugs were also technically "Circassian", Dibirova labels this population "Circassians". In Rootsi, they are called "Adygei", or some variation of the word.
  6. ^ a b Cruciani, F; La Fratta, R; Santolamazza, P; Sellitto, D; Pascone, R; Moral, P; Watson, E; Guida, V et al. (2004). "Phylogeographic analysis of haplogroup E3b (E-M215) y chromosomes reveals multiple migratory events within and out of Africa". American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (5): 1014–22. doi:10.1086/386294. PMC 1181964. PMID 15042509. 
  7. ^ a b Dibirova 2009.
  8. ^ a b Rootsi, Siiri et al 2004, Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe
  9. ^ These are labeled "Circassians" (at least in the English version), but the sample was taken from the Karacheyo-Cherkess Republic, so they are labeled "Cherkess" here.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Yunusbayev, Bayazit et al 2006, Genetic Structure of Dagestan Populations: A Study of 11 Alu Insertion Polymorphisms
  11. ^ a b Rosser, ZH; Zerjal, T; Hurles, ME; Adojaan, M; Alavantic, D; Amorim, A; Amos, W; Armenteros, M et al. (2000). "Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language". American Journal of Human Genetics 67 (6): 1526–43. doi:10.1086/316890. PMC 1287948. PMID 11078479. 
  12. ^ a b c d Wells, Spencer et al 2001, The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity
  13. ^ Weale, ME; Yepiskoposyan, L; Jager, RF; Hovhannisyan, N; Khudoyan, A; Burbage-Hall, O; Bradman, N; Thomas, MG (2001). "Armenian Y chromosome haplotypes reveal strong regional structure within a single ethno-national group". Human Genetics 109 (6): 659–74. doi:10.1007/s00439-001-0627-9. PMID 11810279. 
  14. ^ This is significant, as in Western Avaria, where the population was sampled, there are large number of non-Avars- Andic and Dido peoples- who are in fact ethnically misclassified as Avars by the Dagestani census.
  15. ^ a b c Laura Caciagli, Kazima Bulayeva, Oleg Bulayev, et al, "The key role of patrilineal inheritance in shaping the genetic variation of Dagestan highlanders" Journal of Human Genetics (2009) |url=http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v54/n12/full/jhg200994a.html
  16. ^ a b Azeris speak an Oghuz Turkic language, but they are thought to be descended from either Lezgic-speaking Caucasian peoples, Iranian-speaking peoples, or both. See Origin of the Azeris for more information.
  17. ^ a b Di Giacomo F, Luca F, Popa LO, et al. (October 2004). "Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe". Hum. Genet. 115 (5): 357–71. doi:10.1007/s00439-004-1168-9. PMID 15322918. 
  18. ^ a b These groups speak Turkic languages, but are theorized by many to be descended from non-Turkic peoples (variously Circassian-like peoples, Nakh peoples or Scythians/Sarmatians) who were linguistically Turkified
  19. ^ a b Battaglia, Vincenza; Fornarino, Simona; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Myres, Natalie M; King, Roy J; Rootsi, Siiri et al. (24 December 2008). "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (6): 820–30. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249. PMC 2947100. PMID 19107149. 
  20. ^ Dagestani Chechens; Caciagli's study may not be authoritative for this population because she took it from a highly multiethnic region of Dagestan, with Laks, Chechens, Kumyks and Avars all mixed together at high densities, possibly accounting for the high J1 value.
  21. ^ Made by combining the Malgobek, Achkoi-Martan and Khasavyurt Chechen populations
  22. ^ Ornella Semino et al 2000, The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective.
  23. ^ Nasidze et al."Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus"," 'Annals of Human Genetics (2004)
  24. ^ Although the Kazbegi Georgians speak Georgian, and have most likely done so for centuries, it is theorized by some that their (possible) ancestors, the Tzanars, who inhabited the region in Medieval and Ancient times, were a Nakh-speaking people, like Chechens and Ingush, possibly accounting for their large frequencies of J2
  25. ^ Nasidze, Quinque et al.Genetic Evidence Concerning the Origins of South and North Ossetians.2004

External links[edit]