Adygea

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Republic of Adygea
Республика Адыгея (Russian)
Адыгэ Республик (Adyghe)
—  Republic  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of the Republic of Adygea[1]
Coordinates: 44°39′N 40°00′E / 44.650°N 40.000°E / 44.650; 40.000Coordinates: 44°39′N 40°00′E / 44.650°N 40.000°E / 44.650; 40.000
Political status
Country  Russia
Federal district Southern[2]
Economic region North Caucasus[3]
Established July 3, 1991[4]
Republic Day October 5[5]
Capital Maykop[6]
Government (as of November 2013)
 - Head[8] Aslan Tkhakushinov[7]
 - Legislature State Council (Khase)[8]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[9]
 - Total 7,600 km2 (2,900 sq mi)
Area rank 80th
Population (2010 Census)[10]
 - Total 439,996
 - Rank 74th
 - Density[11] 57.89 /km2 (149.9 /sq mi)
 - Urban 50.9%
 - Rural 49.1%
Population (January 2013 est.)
 - Total 444,403[12]
Time zone(s) MSK (UTC+04:00)[13]
ISO 3166-2 RU-AD
License plates 01
Official languages Russian;[14] Adyghe[15]
Official website

The Republic of Adygea (/ɑːdɨˈɡ.ə/;[16] Russian: Респу́блика Адыге́я, tr. Respublika Adygeya; IPA: [ɐdɨˈɡʲejə]; Adyghe: Адыгэ Республик, Adıge Respublik) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), with its territory enclaved within Krasnodar Krai. Its area is 7,600 square kilometers (2,900 sq mi) with a population of 439,996 (2010 Census).[10] Maykop is its capital city.

Geography[edit]

Adygea lies in southern Eastern Europe, in the foothills of the Western Caucasus in the Caucasus Mountains System, with plains in the northern areas and mountains in the southern area. Forests cover almost 40% of its territory.

  • Area — 7,600 km2 (2,900 sq mi).
  • Borders — the Republic of Adygea is entirely surrounded by Krasnodar Krai.
  • Highest pointChugush Mountain 3,238 m (10,623 ft).

Rivers[edit]

The 870-kilometer (540 mi) long Kuban River is one of the major navigable rivers in the Caucasus region. It forms part of the northern border between the Republic of Adygea and Krasnodar Krai.
Other rivers include:

Lakes[edit]

Lago-Naki area in Adygea

The republic has no large lakes. However, the several large reservoirs include:

Mountains[edit]

The republic's major mountains and peaks range in height from 2,000–3,238 metres (6,562–10,623 ft), and include:

Natural resources[edit]

The republic is rich in oil and natural gas. Other natural resources include gold, silver, tungsten, and iron.

Climate[edit]

  • Average January temperature: −0.5 °C (31.1 °F)
  • Average July temperature: +23 °C (73 °F)
  • Average annual precipitation: 70 centimeters (28 in)

History[edit]

Map of Adygea

Cherkess (Adyghe) Autonomous Oblast was established within the Russian SFSR on July 27, 1922, on the territories of Kuban-Black Sea Oblast, primarily settled by the Adyghe people.[18] At that time, Krasnodar was the administrative center. It was renamed Adyghe (Cherkess) Autonomous Oblast on August 24, 1922, soon after its creation. In the first two years of its existence the autonomous oblast was a part of the Russian SFSR, but on October 17, 1924, it was transferred to the jurisdiction of the newly created North Caucasus Krai within the RSFSR.[19]

It was renamed Adyghe Autonomous Oblast (AO) in July 1928. On January 10, 1934, the autonomous oblast became part of new Azov-Black Sea Krai, which was removed from North Caucasus Krai. Maykop was made the administrative center of the autonomous oblast in 1936. Adyghe AO became part of Krasnodar Krai when it was established on September 13, 1937.

On July 3, 1991, the oblast was elevated to the status of a republic under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation.[4] The first President of the republic was Aslan Aliyevich Dzharimov, elected in January 1992.

From 2002 to 2007, Hazret Sovmen was President. He, and most of the rest of the political elite in Adygea, are Adyghes. As a reaction to that, an organization calling itself the Union of Slavs was established, claiming that ethnic Russians are discriminated against in Adygea. They advocate the merger of Adygea with Krasnodar Krai, but have so far have had little support for that proposition from the Russian government.[citation needed]

Relations between Adygs and ethnic Russians in Adyghe are currently good. Russians make up two-thirds the population within Adygea[20][20] and the current Head, Aslan Tkhakushinov is an ethnic Adyghe and was elected largely on the support of Russian votes.[21]

Divisions[edit]

Administrative divisions of the Republic of Adygea

The Republic of Adygea is administratively divided into seven districts (raions), two cities/towns, and (at a lower administrative level) five urban-type settlements. Municipally, the republic is divided into two urban okrugs, five urban settlements, and 46 rural settlements.

Name Local Name Area in
km2
Population
Census[22]2010
Population
Estimate[23]
1 Jan 2013
Takhtamukaysky District Тахтамукайский м.р. 440.0 69,662 72,239
Teuchezhsky District Теучежский м.р. 700.0 20,643 20,887
Adygeysk Town Городской округ
Адыгейск
14,659 14,901
Krasnogvardeysky District Красногвардейский м.р. 725.5 30,868 31,005
Shovgenovsky District Шовгеновский м.р. 521.4 16,997 16,859
Koshekhablsky District Кошехабльский м.р. 606.7 30,422 30,317
Giaginsky District Гиагинский м.р. 790.0 31,766 31,390
Maykop City Городской округ
Майкоп
58.6 166,540 167,559
Maykopsky District Майкопский м.р. 3,667.4 58,439 59,246
Adygea Republic Республика Адыгея 7,600.0 439,996 444,403
  • Note "м.р." above is an abbreviation for "муниципальный район" (Municipal District)

Demographics[edit]

Vital statistics[edit]

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service

[26]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1970 386 5,681 3,307 2,374 14.7 8.6 6.2
1975 396 5,900 3,907 1,993 14.9 9.9 5.0
1980 409 6,610 4,828 1,782 16.2 11.8 4.4
1985 423 6,966 5,283 1,683 16.5 12.5 4.0
1990 436 6,171 5,375 796 14.2 12.3 1.8 2,06
1991 439 5,912 5,905 7 13.5 13.5 0.0 1,96
1992 444 5,306 5,969 - 663 12.0 13.5 -1.5 1,73
1993 447 4,774 6,662 -1 888 10.7 14.9 -4.2 1,54
1994 449 4,907 6,519 -1 612 10.9 14.5 -3.6 1,59
1995 450 4,798 6,475 -1 677 10.7 14.4 -3.7 1,55
1996 450 4,625 6,382 -1 757 10.3 14.2 -3.9 1,49
1997 450 4,430 6,302 -1 872 9.8 14.0 -4.2 1,42
1998 451 4,340 6,245 -1 905 9.6 13.9 -4.2 1,38
1999 450 3,879 6,215 -2 336 8.6 13.8 -5.2 1,22
2000 448 4,071 6,710 -2 639 9.1 15.0 -5.9 1,27
2001 447 4,212 6,566 -2 354 9.4 14.7 -5.3 1,31
2002 447 4,540 6,715 -2 175 10.2 15.0 -4.9 1,39
2003 446 4,634 6,929 -2 295 10.4 15.6 -5.2 1,40
2004 444 4,648 6,645 -1 997 10.5 15.0 -4.5 1,37
2005 443 4,550 6,726 -2 176 10.3 15.2 -4.9 1,32
2006 441 4,606 6,686 -2 080 10.4 15.2 -4.7 1,33
2007 440 5,210 6,454 -1 244 11.8 14.7 -2.8 1,50
2008 440 5,601 6,558 - 957 12.7 14.9 -2.2 1,60
2009 439 5,513 6,219 - 706 12.5 14.2 -1.6 1,66
2010 439 5,721 6,065 - 476 13.0 14.1 -1.1 1,70
2011 441 5,511 6,197 - 554 12.5 13.8 -1.3 1,66
2012 443 5,656 5,907 - 251 12.8 13.4 -0.6 1,71
2013 445 5,637 5,843 - 206 12.7 13.2 -0.5 1,71(e)

Ethnic groups[edit]

According to the 2010 Census,[10] ethnic Russians make up 63.6% of the republic's total population, while the ethnic Adyghe are 25.8%. Other groups include Armenians (3.7%), Ukrainians (1.4%), Kurds (1.1%), Tatars (0.6%).

Ethnic
group
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census1
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Adyghs (including Circassians) 50,821 44.8% 55,048 22.8% 65,908 23.2% 81,478 21.1% 86,388 21.4% 95,439 22.1% 108,115 24.2% 109,699 25,8%
Russians 29,102 25.6% 171,960 71.1% 200,492 70.4% 276,537 71.7% 285,626 70.6% 293,640 68.0% 288,280 64.5% 270,714 63.6%
Armenians 738 0.7% 2,348 1.0% 3,013 1.1% 5,217 1.4% 6,359 1.6% 10,460 2.4% 15,268 3.4% 15,561 3.7%
Ukrainians 26,405 23.3% 6,130 2.5% 7,988 2.8% 11,214 2.9% 12,078 3.0% 13,755 3.2% 9,091 2.0% 5,856 1.4%
Others 6,415 5.7% 6,313 2.6% 7,289 2.6% 11,198 2.9% 13,939 3.4% 18,752 4.3% 26,355 5.9% 14,093 3.3%
1 14,610 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[27]

Religions[edit]





Circle frame.svg

Religion in Adygea (2012)[28][29]

  Russian Orthodox (35.4%)
  Muslim (13%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (3%)
  Other Orthodox (1%)
  Spiritual but not religious (30%)
  Atheist and non-religious (9%)
  Other and undeclared (8.6%)

According to a 2012 official survey[28] 35.4% of the population of Adygea adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 13% to Islam, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox Churches. In addition, 30% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 9% is atheist and 8.6% follows other religions or did not answer to the question.[28]

Politics[edit]

Head of the Republic of Adygea, Aslan Tkhakushinov, in 2010

The chief executive of the government of Adygea is the Head (called "President" until May 2011), who is appointed for a five-year term. Proficiency in the Adyghe language is a prerequisite for the candidate.[30]

The current Head, Aslan Tkhakushinov (since January 13, 2007), succeeded Hazret Sovmen, appointed by Vladimir Putin, although he received only 2% of the vote in 2002.[31] There is also a directly elected State Council (Khase or Xase—not to be confused with the Adyghe Khase, a union of Adyghe who supported Sovmen for a second term), which comprises the Council of Representatives and the Council of the Republic. Both councils are elected every five years and have 27 deputies each.

The republic sends three representatives to the parliament of the Russian Federation; one to the State Duma and the other two to the Federation Council.

The Constitution of the Republic of Adygea was adopted on May 14, 1995.

Economy[edit]

Even though it is now one of the poorest parts of Russia, the republic has abundant forests and rich soil. The region is famous for producing grain, sunflowers, tea, tobacco, and other produce. Hog and sheep breeding are also developed.

Food, timber, woodworking, pulp and paper, heavy engineering, and metal-working are the most developed industries.

Transportation[edit]

There is a small airport in Maykop (ICAO airport code URKM). Several rail lines pass through the republic.

Culture[edit]

The Adyghe language (Adyghabze) is a member of the Northwest Caucasian group of Caucasian languages. Along with Russian, Adyghe is the official language of the republic.

There are 8 state and 23 public museums in the republic. The largest museum is the National Museum of the Republic of Adygea in Maykop.

Education[edit]

Adyghe State University and Maykop State Technological University, both in the capital Maykop, are the two major higher education facilities in Adygea.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Law #90
  2. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. ^ a b Official website of the Republic of Adygea. Основные сведения (Russian)
  5. ^ Law #168-1
  6. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Adygea, Article 62
  7. ^ Official website of the Republic of Adygea. Aslan Kitovich Tkhakushinov
  8. ^ a b Constitution, Article 7.4.
  9. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  10. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  11. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  12. ^ Republic of Adygea Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность постоянного населения по МО и населенным пунктам Республики Адыгея по состоянию на 1 января 2013 года с учетом МТП PDF (166 KB) (Russian)
  13. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  14. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  15. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Adygea, Article 5
  16. ^ "Adygeya at merriam-webster.com". m-w.com. Retrieved 2009-09-23. 
  17. ^ Baryshnikova, Gennady; John F. Hoffeckerb; Robin L. Burgess (May 1996). "Palaeontology and Zooarchaeology of Mezmaiskaya Cave (Northwestern Caucasus, Russia)". Abstract (Journal of Archaeological Science Volume 23, Issue 3, 1996): 313–335. doi:10.1006/jasc.1996.0030. "Over 6000 large mammal and numerous small vertebrate remains have been recovered from preliminary excavations at Mezmaiskaya Cave" 
  18. ^ Azarenkova et al., p. 154
  19. ^ {{cite web|url=http://www.carnegie.ru/ru/pubs/books/volume/218103adygeya.pdf%7Ctitle="Политический альманах России 1997. Том 2. Социально-политические портреты регионов" (Political Almanac of Russia 1997. Vol. 2. Social and Political Portraits of the Regions), online edition|accessdate=2007-04-17|author=под ред. М. Макфола и Н. Петрова|year=1998|publisher=Московский Центр Карнеги|language=Russian |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070630091806/http://www.carnegie.ru/ru/pubs/books/volume/218103adygeya.pdf |archivedate = 2007-06-30}|language=Russian}
  20. ^ a b "ВПН-2010" (in Russian). Gks.ru. Retrieved 2014-02-22. 
  21. ^ Arutiunov, S.A. "Ethnicity in the Caucasus: Ethnic Relations and Quasi-Ethnic Conflicts". Circassian World. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  22. ^ State Committee of the Russian Federation on Statistics.
  23. ^ State Committee of the Russian Federation on Statistics.
  24. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  25. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики" (in Russian). Gks.ru. 2010-05-08. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  27. ^ http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  28. ^ a b c "Главная страница проекта «Арена» : Некоммерческая Исследовательская Служба "Среда"" (in Russian). Sreda.org. Retrieved 2014-02-22. 
  29. ^ http://c2.kommersant.ru/ISSUES.PHOTO/OGONIOK/2012/034/ogcyhjk2.jpgTemplate:Icon=RU
  30. ^ Казенин, Константин (2009). "Тихие" конфликты на Северном Кавказе (in Russian). Moscow: Regnum. p. 17. ISBN 978-5-91150-030-6. 
  31. ^ Tsvetkov, Oleg. "Transitions Online: Friends in High Places". CZ: Tol. Retrieved 2010-08-20. 

Sources[edit]

  • Государственный Совет – Хасэ Республики Адыгея. Закон №90 от 7 июня 2007 г. «О государственных символах Республики Адыгея (текст в ред. от 7 июня 2007 г.)», в ред. Закона №91 от 28 апреля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Законы Республики Адыгея». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Советская Адыгея", №112–113, 14 июня 2007 г. (State Council of the Republic of Adygea. Law #90 of June 7, 2007 On the Symbols of State of the Republic of Adygea (text of rev. of June 7, 2007), as amended by the Law #91 of April 28, 2012 On Amending Various Laws of the Republic of Adygea. Effective as of the day of official publication.).
  • Закон №168-1 от 14 февраля 1995 г. «О праздичных днях и памятных датах», в ред. Закона №231 от 1 августа 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 3 Закона Республики Адыгея "О праздичных днях и памятных датах"». Вступил в силу 14 февраля 1995 г. Опубликован: "Ведомости ЗС (Хасэ) - Парламента РА", №15, 14 февраля 1995 г.. (Law #168-1 of February 14, 1995 On Holidays and Memorial Dates, as amended by the Law #231 of August 1, 2013 On Amending Article 3 of the Law of the Republic of Adygea "On Holidays and Memorial Dates". Effective as of February 14, 1995.).
  • Государственный Совет — Хасэ Республики Адыгея. 10 марта 1995 г. «Конституция Республики Адыгея (текст в ред. от 3 мая 2007 г.)», в ред. Конституционного закона №281 от 20 марта 2014 г. «О поправках к Конституции Республики Адыгея». Опубликован: "Ведомости ЗС (Хасэ) — Парламента РА", №16, 6–10 марта 1995 г. (State Council of the Republic of Adygea. March 10, 1995 Constitution of the Republic of Adygea (text of rev. of May 3, 2007), as amended by the Constitutional Law #281 of March 20, 2014 On Amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Adygea. ).
  • Президент Республики Адыгея. Распоряжение №46-рп от 2 апреля 2007 г. «Об организации официального Интернет-сайта исполнительных органов государственной власти Республики Адыгея». (President of the Republic of Adygea. Directive #46-rp of April 2, 2007 On Creation of the Official Website of the Executive Organs of State Power of the Republic of Adygea. ).
  • Азаренкова, А. С.; Бондарь, И. Ю.; Вертышева, Н. С. (1986) [1986]. Основные административно-территориальные преобразования на Кубани (1793–1985 гг.) (in Russian). Краснодарское книжное издательство. p. 394. 

External links[edit]