Ó Catháin (English: O'Cahan, O'Kane) are a Gaelic Irish sept from the Uí Néill kindred of Cenél nEógain. They originated in the Laggan area of County Donegal, and from there moved eastwards in the twelfth century, ousting the Uí Conchobair from Keenaght and retaining their lordship of Keenaght and Coleraine until the seventeenth century (what is today County Londonderry).
They are descended from Eógan, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages. In the late Middle Ages, they were the primary sept under the Ó Néill clann of Ulster, holding the privilege of inaugurating the Chief of the Ó Néill by tossing a shoe over the new Chief's head in acceptance of his rule.
The surname has been anglicised O'Cahan, Cahan, McCaughan, O'Kane, Kane, O'Keane, O'Kean, O'Keene, Keen, Keene, Kain, O'Kaine, and similar variations thereof.
The Ó Catháin kindred of Ciannachta first appear on record in 1138. A thirteenth-century chief of the family was Cú Maighe na nGall Ó Catháin. A heavily restored effigy at Dungiven Priory is sometimes associated with Cú Maighe, although it appears to date to the last quarter of the fifteenth century, and seems to be that of a later member of the kindred.
Ruaidri Dáll Ó Catháin, an Irish harpist of the 17th century most famous as the composer of Tabhair dom do lámh, may have penned the popular Irish tune the "Derry Air", in order to lament the destruction of Ó Catháin power. Consequently, it may have been originally called "Ó Catháin's Lament". The music is best known as the tune of the song "Danny Boy".
The Ó Catháin's long battle with the English crown ended in the early 17th century. With that defeat, its lands were contributed to the Derry plantation, during the Plantation of Ulster, as the County Coleraine, and now form the bulk of today's County Londonderry. After the Flight of the Earls in 1607, Domhnall Ballagh Ó Catháin, Chief of the Ó Catháin (and at one time knighted by the English Crown), was captured and sent to the Tower of London, where he died in 1626. There has been no Chief since.
- Edmund Kean, actor (1787-1833)
- Charles Kean, his son (1811-80)
- Jim Kane, Former DUP Leader (born 1952)
There are two other septs sharing the same name, though a different origin, these are;
Ó Catháin Uí Fiachrach
The Uí Céin of County Waterford) have anglicised their name as "Kean(e)".
- Ó Catháin Festival wepages
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