2018 Armenian revolution

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2018 Armenian Velvet Revolution
April 22 yerevan republic square protest.jpg
Date31 March – 8 May 2018 (2018-03-31 – 2018-05-08)[1]
(1 month, 1 week and 1 day)
Caused by
  • Originally: Resignation of Serzh Sargsyan as PM[8]
  • Later added: Snap elections to the National Assembly[9]
  • Later added: Removal of the Republican Party from power[10][11]
  • Later added: Appointment of Pashiniyan as interim prime minister until snap elections are held[12]
MethodsDemonstrations, sit-ins, student protest, civil disobedience, online activism, boycotts of business, general strike
Resulted inProtester victory
  • Resignation of Serzh Sargsyan
  • Republican Party decided to not put forward candidate in votes for new Prime Minister on 1 and 8 May[13]
  • Election of Nikol Pashinyan as the Prime Minister[14]
Parties to the civil conflict
Lead figures

Civil Contract Armenia flag.svg Nikol Pashinyan MP (detained from 22 to 23 April)[23]

Serzh Sargsyan (ex-president, resigned Prime Minister)
Karen Karapetyan (ex-prime Minister, acting Prime minister)

  • 250,000 (1 May)[24]
  • 200,000 (23 April)[25]
  • 150,000 (2 May)[26]
  • 115,000 (22 April)[27]
  • 10,000 (27 April)[28]
Glendale, California
Casualties and losses
40 injured including Nikol Pashinyan[30]
6 policemen injured (on 16 April)[30]

The 2018 Armenian Revolution, most commonly known in Armenia as #MerzhirSerzhin (Armenian: ՄերժիրՍերժին, meaning "#RejectSerzh"), was a series of anti-government protests in Armenia from April to May 2018 staged by various political and civil groups led by a member of the Armenian parliament — Nikol Pashinyan (head of the Civil Contract party). Protests and marches took place initially in response to Serzh Sargsyan's third consecutive term as the most powerful figure in the government of Armenia and later against the Republican Party-controlled government in general. Pashinyan declared it a Velvet Revolution (Armenian: Թավշյա հեղափոխություն).[31]

On April 22, Pashinyan was arrested and held in solitary confinement overnight, then released on April 23, the same day that Sargsyan resigned, saying "I was wrong, while Nikol Pashinyan was right".[32][33] The event is referred to by some as a peaceful revolution akin to revolutions in other post-Soviet states.[34][35][36] By the evening of April 25, the Republican Party’s coalition partner ARF-Dashnaktsutyun had withdrawn from the coalition.[11]

By April 28, all of the opposition parties in Armenia's parliament had announced they would support Pashinyan's candidacy.[37] A vote was scheduled in the National Assembly for May 1; for Pashinyan to be elected Prime Minister, which required 53 votes, he would have had to win the votes of at least six members of the Republican Party.[38] Pashinyan was the only candidate who was put forward for the vote.[39] However, the Republican Party unanimously voted against Pashinyan – 102 MPs were present, out of which 56 voted against his candidacy and 45 voted for it.[40][41] One week later, on May 8, the second vote took place. Pashinyan was elected Prime Minister with 59 votes.[14][42]

Preceding situation[edit]

In 2012–2017 reported levels of trust in national government (25%) and confidence in judicial system (29%) in Armenia were below of all its neighbouring countries.[43]

Nomination of Sargsyan for the post of Prime Minister[edit]

Demonstrations and protests began in March 2018, when members of the Republican Party did not exclude the option of nominating Serzh Sargsyan for the prime minister's post.[44][45][46][47] This meant a continuation of Sargsyan's rule (as either Prime Minister or President) since March 2007. He had amended the constitution in 2015 to remove term limits which would have prevented him doing this.[48]

Protesters had vowed to block the party's headquarters on April 14, where leaders were going to gather to formally nominate Serzh Sargsyan for prime minister. The Republican Party held its meeting outside of capital Yerevan and unanimously voted to formally nominate Serzh Sargsyan for the office of prime minister.[49] The coalition partner Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaksutyun (ARF-D) supported the ruling Republican Party’s decision, as did most of the opposition Prosperous Armenia Party caucus.[50][51]


Protests on 14 April 2018

On March 31, Nikol Pashinyan began his Im Qayl (my step) protest walk, starting in the city of Gyumri, and walking through cities and towns such as Vanadzor, Dilijan, Hrazdan, and Abovyan, before finally reaching Yerevan on April 13 and holding a small rally.[52]

About 100 protesters stayed overnight on France Square after the first day of protests, and an equal number did the same on Saturday night, some sleeping in tents, others gathered around fires. As of Sunday morning, the Armenian police had made no effort to disrupt the demonstrations.[49]

On Monday April 16, the "Take a Step, Reject Serzh" campaign began actions of civil disobedience. On April 17, the day that the prime minister's election was scheduled, the protesters intended to block entrances to the building of the National Assembly in order to prevent the vote from taking place.[53][54] Lines of riot police stopped them from advancing further towards the National Assembly building.[55]

After the election of the former president Serzh Sargsyan as the new prime minister, the protests continued to grow, despite hundreds of people being detained by police.[56][57] The prime minister in response asked the government to take back the presidential mansion which it had given him a few weeks earlier.[58] The crowds reached 50,000[59] on the night of April 21, with countless sporadic street closures in the capital, which also began to spread across the country.[60]

As the crowds grew, the new prime minister called repeatedly for talks with the leader of the protest movement, Nikol Pashinyan, but Pashinyan said he was only willing to discuss the terms of the Prime Minister's resignation.[61] After Pashinyan's rally was visited by the Armenian President on the evening of April 21 for a brief chat with Pashinyan,[62] Pashinyan agreed to meet the prime minister at 10 am on April 22, saying he believed the topic would be Serzh Sargsyan's resignation.[63]

Protesters calling on students and teachers to join the demonstrations

April 22[edit]

The meeting, which lasted for a mere three minutes,[64] failed to achieve anything, with Sargsyan walking out of it and accusing the opposition of "blackmail" when Pashinyan stated he had only agreed to discuss terms of the Prime Minister's resignation and nothing else.[65] During the meeting, Sargsyan asked Pashinyan not to speak on behalf of the people and not to issue ultimatums to the government, given the low level of support for his political alliance (less than 10 percent of the vote in the past parliamentary elections). He also warned that Pashinyan had not "learned the lessons of March 1", a reference to the protestors killed by police while contesting the validity of the election results of Sargsyan's election 10 years earlier, amounting to an open threat of violence against the protesters gathering daily in around the nation.[66]

Immediately after the meeting, Pashinyan led a group of supporters from the site of the meeting by Republic Square on a long march down Tigran Mets and Artsakh streets to the Erebuni district, where they were met by riot police and stun grenades as Pashinyan was detained followed by mass detentions of protestors, including opposition lawmakers Sasun Mikayelyan and Ararat Mirzoyan.[67][68] Protests continue throughout the city. By the evening 232 protestors had been detained or arrested,[69] and, according to Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, tens of thousands[70] gathered in Republic Square to continue to demand the resignation of PM Serzh Sargsyan. The police issued a statement saying that Pashinyan, Mikaelyan and Mirzoyan had been detained for 72 hours; however criminal charges could only be brought against them if the Republican-controlled National Assembly stripped them of their parliamentary immunity.[71]

April 23[edit]

Protests resumed on April 23, with media outlets reporting that former and current members of the Armenian armed forces, including participants of the 2016 April War, have joined in the rallies for the first time.[72][73][74][75] This information was later confirmed by the Ministry of Defence.[76]

Pashinyan was released at 3pm, and went directly to Republic Square where he spoke briefly, saying he would return at 6:30pm. By 4:30pm, Prime Minister Serzh Sargsyan had posted a message on the official website of the prime minister announcing his resignation.[77] Former Prime Minister Karen Karapetyan succeeded Sargsyan as acting Prime Minister.[78]

April 24[edit]

April 24 is marked as the national day of remembrance of the Armenian genocide. The protesters gathered in masses and walked to Tsitsernakaberd, Armenia's national Genocide Memorial. No protest was held on that day.

April 25[edit]

Pashinyan called for renewed protests on 25 April after talks with the Republican Party were cancelled due to Karapetyan’s refusal to accept preconditions laid down by Pashinyan.[11] Earlier Pashinyan stated that the Republican Party had no right to hold power in Armenia, and that a "people's candidate" should be appointed prime minister prior to holding snap elections.[79][80] He added that the protest movement should nominate this transitional prime minister, a position that was rejected by the current government as it would violate the law.[80] Protesters took to the streets to block the road to Yerevan’s international airport and the road leading to the border with Georgia.[81] Meanwhile, the Prosperous Armenia Party and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation both declared their support for Pashinyan's movement, with the latter pulling out of the ruling coalition.[82] Pashinyan vowed to continue the protests until he was appointed prime minister.[12]

April 26[edit]

Tens of thousands continued to protest on 26 April, though Pashinyan asked protestors to stop blocking streets.[83] The ruling HHK party announced it was ready to meet with Pashinyan without any preconditions, while Pashinyan offered to negotiate with them while insisting he must become Prime Minister.[84]

April 27[edit]

Pashinyan called on his supporters to suspend their rallies in Yerevan for 2 days while he held rallies in Gyumri on 27 April and Vanadzor on 28 April.[85] In the morning he met with Armenia's largely ceremonial President, leaders of the governing party's former coalition partner the ARF, as well as Parliament's second largest faction BHK.[85] In an interview on the same day, the president hailed the "New Armenia" that has come about due to the protests, and the chance for "a real democratic state".[86] Meanwhile the ruling HHK party announced that they do not see any regime change occurring in Armenia.[87]

April 28[edit]

On 28 April, Pashinyan held rallies in Vanadzor and Ijevan, while the second and third largest parties in Parliament – BHK and ARF – announced they would support his candidacy for PM,[88] and the ruling HHK party announced they would not block Pashinyan's candidacy,[89] and that they would not put forward their own candidate.[90]

May 1[edit]

Parliament held elections for a new Prime Minister, with the opposition leader Pashinyan the only nominee, as over 100,000 people watched the 9 hour session being broadcast live at Republic Square. However the majority party blocked his nomination by voting against him with one exception. After the election, prominent Armenian singers such as Iveta Mukuchyan and Sona Shahgeldyan performed for the crowd and made inspiring speeches. Pashinyan walked to Republic Square and told the crowd to go on strike the next day, and block all transportation from 8:15 in the morning until 5 in the evening, then gather for another rally at 7pm in Republic Square.

May 2[edit]

The nation ground to a halt as countless streets and highways were peacefully blocked throughout the nation, and many workers and businesses went on strike. The main airport access road was cut off, with some workers striking, and even land crossings were blocked. 150,000 people gathered in another evening rally in Republic Square to listen to Pashinyan speak, and were told that he had been informed that due to the strike, the ruling party had decided to support his candidacy in the next round of voting on May 8.[91] Protests were suspended in the meantime.

May 8[edit]

On May 8 Parliament again had a vote on a new Prime Minister, and again Nikol Pashinyan was the only candidate. This time the majority Republican party gave Pashinyan enough votes to win with a 59–42 margin.[92] All the votes against Pashinyan still came from the Republican party.


On April 4 Edmon Marukyan, leader of the Bright Armenia party, which cooperates with the Civil Contract party lead by Nikol Pashinyan in the Way Out Alliance published an article in Aravot newspaper, in which he stated his preference for formal means of counteracting the ruling coalition rather than civil disobedience actions.[93]

Leader of the Free Democrats party and former MP Khachatur Kokobelyan attended protests and expressed his support for the actions.[18]

Many cultural figures had already declared solidarity with the opposition movement. In particular, well-known musician Serj Tankian of System of a Down addressed the activists declaring his solidarity and support, stressing the impermissibility of one-party rule in Armenia.[94] Some organizations of the diaspora, in particular the Congress of Armenians of Europe, also expressed support for the opposition.[95]

International reactions[edit]

  •  European Union: On April 24 the head of the EU Delegation to Armenia hailed the success in the civic disobedience campaign in the country, promising a more intensive process towards the ratification of Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement.[96]
  •  Georgia: Mikheil Saakashvili, former president of Georgia, released a video on April 23 congratulating the Armenian people on Sargsyan's resignation. He stated: "Today you have every right to be proud of yourself, to be proud of the fact that you are Armenians, the proud people who could prove to the whole world that they have dignity, that they want to live in normal human conditions, free from corruption. Armenia has a great future; today I was convinced of it again. I support you, we will always be with you. Well done!"[97] He also claimed that the movement is a "rebellion against Russia".[98]
  •  Russia: Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova praised the peaceful transition, adding that "Armenia, Russia is always with you!"[99] A statement on the Foreign Ministry official web page reads: "We hope that the situation will develop exclusively in the legal and constitutional field, and all political forces will show responsibility and readiness for a constructive dialogue. We are convinced that the prompt return of life in the country to normal and the restoration of public accord meet the fundamental interests of the fraternal Armenia."[100]
  •  United States: On April 23 US Ambassador Richard Mills praised the Armenian police and anti-government protesters led by Nikol Pashinyan for avoiding bloodshed during their standoff that led to the resignation of Prime Minister Serzh Sargsyan. A statement by the US State Department expressed hope that his successor will be chosen in a transparent and constitutional manner. The statement also called on Armenia’s leading political groups to “avoid an escalation of the situation and any violent actions.”[101] Protests were held by Armenians in various communities of the United States, with 5,000 protesters gathering in solidarity with those protesting in Armenia on April 22[102] and additional protests being held on other days, including May 8.[103]


During the 2020 Belarusian protests, the Armenian revolution was brought up as a model for Belarus for its lack of anti-Russian or pro-Western geopolitical orientation by commentators such as Carl Bildt,[104][105] Anders Åslund,[106] Ian Bremmer,[107] Yaroslav Trofimov,[108] Ben Judah,[109] and others. Belarusian journalist Franak Viačorka criticized this notion.[110] Armenia's Foreign Minister Zohrab Mnatsakanyan also rejected the comparisons. "Armenia followed its own path and it’s not quite correct to draw parallels based on that. True, there might be some common parameters, but on the whole these are different situations," he said.[111]

Armenian Velvet Revolution in Art[edit]

The Armenian velvet revolution almost immediately found its response in modern Armenian art. One of the first artists who touched on the topic was the artist Anna Soghomonyan with her painting "The Armenian Velvet Revolution". This is a multi-figure composition in a fabulous style inherent in the author, which includes people of different types who participated in the events of spring 2018.[112] According to the author, this painting is very symbolic not only because it was created during a very emotional period and represents a concentrated reflection of these emotions, but also because it was sold on the day of the defeat of the Armenians in the Second Artsakh War,[113] which, in fact, may symbolize the failure of the hopes of the national awakening of 2018.

In July 2018, in the exhibition hall "Albert and Tove Boyajyan" of the State Academy of Fine Arts of Armenia, art historian Meri Ghazaryan organized a photo exhibition entitled "Velvet Revolution: Between Picture and Reality", which presented the works of young photographers who caught the fresh breath of the revolution, known and unknown pages of spring events, impressive episodes and faces.[114]

In October 2018, art critic Vardan Jaloyan and a group of artists organized an exhibition of contemporary art "Revolutionary Sensorium" at the History Museum of Armenia, where the key events of the revolution were presented to museum visitors in a combination of photographs and video installations.[115]

On May 9, 2019, within the framework of the 59th Venice Biennale of Art, the Armenian pavilion was opened, where the project "Revolutionary Sensorium" was presented under the curatorship of art critic Susanna Gulamiryan. The participants of the project were a group of artists "Artlab Yerevan" (Hovhannes Margaryan, Vardan Jaloyan, Artur Petrosyan, Gagik Charchyan) and artist Narine Arakelyan.[116]

In November 2018, the literary website "Groghutsav", founded by writers Arpi Voskanyan and Hambartsum Hambartsumyan, was relaunched. Since 2011, Groghutsav has rallied writers involved in the opposition, political struggle and not disdaining to bring political and social problems to literature on one platform, but in July 2017, due to lack of financial resources, it ceased its activities. The restarted project has a number of subprojects, one of which is called the "Revolutionary Program". This program is carried out by publishing works that focus on the velvet revolution in Armenia in 2018 with its results and consequences.[117]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]


  1. ^ "Armenia contemplates the unlikely: a nonviolent revolution on the cusp of victory". Los Angeles Times. 7 May 2018.
  2. ^ "Thousands of SoCal Armenians protest election results in their homeland". KABC-TV. 23 April 2018.
  3. ^ "В Москве у армянской церкви прошла акция в поддержку протестов в Ереване. Митингующих задержали". meduza (in Russian). 22 April 2018.
  4. ^ Ghukasyan, Seda (18 April 2018). "Yerevan: "Reject Serzh" Rally Kicks-Off in Republic Square; March To Baghramyan Avenue". Hetq. He claimed that protesters had removed a photo of Serzh Sargsyan hanging in the Armenian Consulate in Marseille and publicly burnt it.
  5. ^ International, Radio Canada (23 April 2018). "Canada 'applauds' courage of Armenian protesters". rcinet.ca.
  6. ^ International (20 April 2018). "Yerevan's 'Velvet Revolution' Rally: Pashinyan Calls Sargsyan a "Political Corpse"". rcinet.ca.
  7. ^ "Armenia: Negotiations Fail, Opposition Leaders Detained, Protesters Increase in Numbers". Armenian Weekly. 22 April 2018.
  8. ^ "Armenian PM Sarkisian Resigns After Protest Leader Pashinian Released". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  9. ^ "Thousands Celebrate As Armenia's Longtime Ruler Sarkisian Steps Down". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
  10. ^ "Пашинян потребовал "единогласной капитуляции" правящей партии Армении". РБК.
  11. ^ a b c "Pashinian Claims Armenian Ruling Party Defections, Warns PM". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
  12. ^ a b "Пашинян пообещал не прекращать протесты до назначения премьером Армении". РБК.
  13. ^ "Armenia's Pashinian Optimistic As Yerevan Protests Continue". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
  14. ^ a b Roth, Andrew (8 May 2018). "'He's not a populist, he's popular': Nikol Pashinyan becomes Armenian PM". the Guardian. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  15. ^ "Opposition MP Nikol Pashinyan discharged from hospital, joins protesters".
  16. ^ "Himnadir.am". Archived from the original on 24 March 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  17. ^ "Huge Crowds Keep Up Pressure On Armenian PM". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  18. ^ a b "Khachatur Kokobelyan and Party Members Join Nikol Pashinyan's Fight – Aravot newspaper".
  19. ^ "Unarmed soldiers join anti-government protests in Armenia". Reuters. 23 April 2018.
  20. ^ "Pashinyan to Negotiate with Authorities 'on Behalf of People' (Live Thread)". epress.am. 21 April 2018. Samvel Aleksanyan, a local oligarch close to Serzh Sargsyan, is personally fighting demonstrators in Malatia district. In a video published on Facebook, Aleksanyan is seen kicking a protester who is then forcibly put into a car.
  21. ^ Atanesian, Grigor (16 April 2018). "Thousands of protesters shut down Armenia's capital, dozens injured in clashes". eurasianet.
  22. ^ "Nikol Pashinyan Called on Oligarchs Not to Involve Their Bodyguards". lragir.am. 16 April 2018.
  23. ^ "PanARMENIAN.Net – Mobile". panarmenian.net. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  24. ^ "Armenia's revolution continues, as its opposition leader nears power". The Economist. 3 May 2018.
  25. ^ Weiss, Clara (25 April 2018). "Armenian prime minister resigns after mass protests". World Socialist Web Site.
  26. ^ Ferris-Rotman, Amie (2 May 2018). "Armenia's pro-democracy leader tells his jubilant followers they can ease up". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  27. ^ Kucera, Joshua (22 April 2018). "Armenian opposition leader arrested, but protesters rally". eurasianet.
  28. ^ "Armenian Ruling Party Won't Nominate PM Candidate; Pashinian Rallies Support". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
  29. ^ about, Melissa MacBride, bio (23 April 2018). "SoCal Armenians protest election results in their homeland". ABC7 Los Angeles. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  30. ^ a b "Հոսպիտալացվել է 46 քաղաքացի, այդ թվում՝ 6 ոստիկան" (in Armenian). Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  31. ^ ""Velvet Revolution" Takes Armenia into the Unknown". Crisis Group. 26 April 2018.
  32. ^ "Премьер-министр Армении Саргсян подал в отставку". РБК. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  33. ^ Hairenik (23 April 2018). "Breaking: Serge Sarkisian Resigns as Prime Minister". The Armenian Weekly. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  34. ^ "Armenia's Peaceful Revolution Is a Lesson for Putin". Bloomberg.com. 23 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  35. ^ "Armenian Revolution: Russian influence to remain amid power shift". Archived from the original on 10 July 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  36. ^ "A 'Color Revolution' In Armenia? Mass Protests Echo Previous Post-Soviet Upheavals". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  37. ^ "Кандидатуру Пашиняна решили поддержать три партии из парламента Армении". РБК.
  38. ^ "Armenian Opposition Leader Pashinyan Nominated As PM Candidate". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  39. ^ Armenian Protest Leader Pashinian Only Candidate For Premier, rferl.org; accessed 30 April 2018.
  40. ^ "Парламент проголосовал против Пашиняна на выборах премьера Армении". РБК. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  41. ^ "PanARMENIAN.Net – Mobile". panarmenian.net. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  42. ^ "Revolution sweeps Armenian opposition leader into power". Reuters. 8 May 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018 – via www.reuters.com.
  44. ^ ""Հնարավոր է Սերժ Սարգսյանը դառնա վարչապետ". Շարմազանով". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան (in Armenian). Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  45. ^ "Armenia Parliament ex-speaker: I'm sure Serzh Sargsyan will be PM". news.am. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  46. ^ "Ես կհամոզեմ Սերժ Սարգսյանին. գեներալ (տեսանյութ)". 1in.am. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  47. ^ ""Պատրաստ եմ վարչապետի պաշտոնում առաջադրել Սերժ Սարգսյանի թեկնածությունը". Արմեն Աշոտյան". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան (in Armenian). Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  48. ^ Who needs parliamentary republic in Armenia? Vestnik Kavkaza, 5 October 2015
  49. ^ a b "Sargsyan officially nominated for office amid continuing protests". Archived from the original on 22 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  50. ^ "ARF-D backs decision to nominate Serzh Sargsyan for prime minister". tert.am. Archived from the original on 11 September 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  51. ^ "Serzh Sargsyan elected prime minister of Armenia among clashes in Yerevan". EurAsia Daily. 17 April 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  52. ^ https://www.panorama.am/am/news/2018/03/31/Փաշինյան-քայլարշավ/1927396[bare URL]
  53. ^ "Armenia crisis: Protesters bring cities to standstill after vote". BBC. 2 May 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  54. ^ "Arminfo: Armenian opposition continues protests against Serzh Sargsyan's  premiership". Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  55. ^ "More Streets In Yerevan Blocked By Hundreds Opposition Protesters". aravot-en.am. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  56. ^ "Armenian Police Struggle To Contain Continuing Protests". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան (in Armenian). Archived from the original on 21 June 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  57. ^ "More People Detained In Anti-Sarkisian Protests". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան (in Armenian). Archived from the original on 21 June 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  58. ^ "Sarkisian Gives Up Ownership Of Official Residence". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան (in Armenian). Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  59. ^ "Armenia protests: 70 arrested, including 2 suspected bombers". Washington Post. Associated Press. 21 April 2018. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  60. ^ "Armenia: Protesters Shut Down Noyemberyan-Bagratashen Highway – Hetq – News, Articles, Investigations". Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  61. ^ "Armenian PM Wants Urgent Talks With Protest Leader". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան (in Armenian). Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  62. ^ "Armenian President Visits Main Protest Site (UPDATED)". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան (in Armenian). Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  63. ^ "Serzh Sarkisian, Pashinian Agree To Meet". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան (in Armenian). Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  64. ^ "Премьер-министр Армении встретился с лидером протестов. Их переговоры продлились три минуты". Meduza (in Russian). Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  65. ^ "Tens Of Thousands Fill Yerevan Square As Protest Leader Pashinian Detained". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  66. ^ Agencies (22 April 2018). "Armenian opposition leader detained amid political unrest". the Guardian. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  67. ^ "Власти Армении пошли на силовую акцию против шествия оппозиции в Ереване". РБК. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  68. ^ "Tens Of Thousands Fill Yerevan Square As Protest Leader Pashinian Detained". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  69. ^ "Число задержанных полицией активистов в Ереване возросло до 232 человек". РБК. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  70. ^ "Huge Crowds Keep Up Pressure On Armenian PM". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան (in Armenian). Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  71. ^ "Yerevan Bracing For Fresh Protests After Detention Of Leader". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  72. ^ "Live Stream: Fresh Protests In Armenia". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  73. ^ "Group of soldiers joins anti-government protests in Armenia". Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  74. ^ "Armenian soldiers join anti-government protests in Yerevan". DailySabah. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  75. ^ "К протестам в Ереване присоединились военные". РБК. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  76. ^ LLC, ZOOM GRAPHICS. "ՀՀ ՊԱՇՏՊԱՆՈՒԹՅԱՆ ՆԱԽԱՐԱՐՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ | Հայտարարություն". mil.am. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  77. ^ "Վարչապետ Սերժ Սարգսյանի հայտարարությունը – Մամլո հաղորդագրություններ – Լրատվություն – Հայաստանի Հանրապետության վարչապետ". primeminister.am (in Armenian). Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  78. ^ "Armenian PM resigns after protests". BBC News. 23 April 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  79. ^ Fieke Snijder and, Mahir Zeynalov (26 April 2018). "Alexander Iskandaryan: Early to Say if Armenia Will Change for Better". The Globe Post. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  80. ^ a b "Оппозиция вновь вышла на улицы Еревана. Переговоры Пашиняна с премьером сорваны". Meduza (in Russian). Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  81. ^ https://www.rbc.ru/rbcfreenews/5ae046e89a79471c04280ebe Протестующие в Ереване перекрыли дорогу в аэропорт Звартноц
  82. ^ "Dashnaktsutyun Quits Armenian Government". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան (in Armenian). Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  83. ^ "Armenian Parliament to Choose New PM on May 1".
  84. ^ "Armenian Protest Leader Offers Talks with Government".
  85. ^ a b "Acting PM Refuses to Meet 'Intransigent' Pashinian".
  86. ^ "President Hails 'New Armenia'".
  87. ^ "Ruling Party Figure Sees No 'Regime Change' in Armenia".
  88. ^ "Tsarukian, Dashnaks Signal Support for Pashinian".
  89. ^ "Armenian Parliament Majority 'Won't Block' Opposition Candidate for PM".
  90. ^ "Armenian Ruling Party Vows No Candidate for PM (UPDATED)".
  91. ^ The Washington Post
  92. ^ "Pashinian Elected Armenian PM (UPDATED)". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  93. ^ "Dilemma of quick defeat and long-term but inevitable victory".
  94. ^ "Serj Tankian on Yerevan protests: Civil disobedience works like a charm when enough people participate". news.am. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  95. ^ "Arminfo: In Yerevan, the initiative Take a step, turn down Serzhu began the  action of civil disobedience". Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  96. ^ "EU envoy pledges to step up ratification of CEPA". tert.am. Archived from the original on 9 January 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  97. ^ "Saakashvili: Armenia has a great future". news.am.
  98. ^ Georgia, Civil. "Civil.Ge – Georgia: Mixed Reactions over Armenia Protests". civil.ge.
  99. ^ "'I Was Wrong': Armenian Leader Quits Amid Protests". New York Times. 23 April 2018.
  100. ^ "Russian foreign ministry emphasizes restoration of public accord in Armenia". arka.am. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  101. ^ "U.S. Envoy Hails 'Spirit Of Democracy' In Armenia". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան (in Armenian). Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  102. ^ MacBride, Melissa (23 April 2018). "SoCal Armenians protest election results in their homeland". ABC7 Los Angeles. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  103. ^ bio, veronica miracle bio,veronica miracle, veronica abc7 (8 May 2018). "Armenians gather in Glendale to rally for upcoming election". ABC7 Los Angeles. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  104. ^ Bildt, Carl (18 August 2020). "The Armenian Model for Belarus". Project Syndicate. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  105. ^ Bildt, Carl (19 August 2020). "The Armenian model for Belarus". ecfr.eu. European Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  106. ^ Åslund, Anders (16 August 2020). "Why Vladimir Putin is unlikely to invade Belarus". atlanticcouncil.org. Atlantic Council. Archived from the original on 16 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020. Rather than looking to Russia's policy toward Ukraine in 2014, I think we should turn to its policy on Armenia since 2018. This was the most recent post-Soviet color revolution. Initially, Putin's position seemed to be hesitant, but now he appears to be quite happy with Armenia's very popular democratic Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan. Armenia has stayed in the Eurasian Economic Union and in Moscow's Collective Security Treaty Organization along with Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. In addition, large Russian state companies completely dominate the Armenian economy.
  107. ^ Bremmer, Ian (18 August 2020). "Russia didn't intervene when the Armenians threw out their leader two years ago. [...] Same factors in Belarus today". Twitter. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  108. ^ Trofimov, Yaroslav (14 August 2020). "It is also entirely possible that there is a solution in Belarus that satisfies Russia and the EU (including France.) Cf. Armenia 2018". Twitter. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  109. ^ Haddad, Benjamin; Judah, Ben (7 August 2020). "Europe Must Stand Up for Belarus". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020. Toward Moscow, the grouping should be clear that it favors the same approach the West took toward the Armenia revolution in spring 2018: It supports democracy, but will not seek to expand either NATO or EU membership toward Belarus.
  110. ^ Viačorka, Franak (19 August 2020). "What Honorable Carl Bildt is offering here— absolutely dangerous and preserving Russian domination over BY. This would lead to entire russification of elites, export of corruption from Russia and unification of political systems (with pocket opposition and Russian parties)". Twitter. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020. What Honorable Carl Bildt is offering here— absolutely dangerous and preserving Russian domination over BY. This would lead to entire russification of elites, export of corruption from Russia and unification of political systems (with pocket opposition and Russian parties)
  111. ^ "Yerevan Rejects Parallels Between Belarus Protests, Armenian Revolution". azatutyun.am. RFE/RL. 1 September 2020.
  112. ^ ""Бархатная революция" в искусстве: картины Анны Согомонян". Армянский музей Москвы и культуры наций. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  113. ^ "Anna Soghomonyan on LinkedIn: #Armenia | 36 comments". www.linkedin.com. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  114. ^ Daily, AZG. "ՀԵՂԱՓՈԽՈՒԹՅԱՆ ԱՐՎԵՍՏԸ". AZG Daily. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  115. ^ "Թավշյա հեղափոխությունն արվեստի գործերում". www.1lurer.am (in Armenian). Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  116. ^ "Թավշյա հեղափոխությունը՝ Վենետիկի արվեստի բիենալեում". Mystep. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  117. ^ ""Գրողուցավի" մասին -". Retrieved 2 December 2021.