Cyberterrorism is the use of the Internet to conduct violent acts that result in or threaten the loss of life or significant bodily harm in order to achieve political gains through intimidation. It is also sometimes considered the act of Internet terrorism in terrorist activities, including acts of deliberate, large-scale disruption of computer networks, especially of personal computers attached to the Internet, by the means of tools such as computer viruses.
Cyberterrorism is a controversial term. Some authors choose a very narrow definition, relating to deployments, by known terrorist organizations, of disruption attacks against information systems for the primary purpose of creating alarm and panic. Some other authors choose a much too broad definition which tends to falsely include cybercrime when in reality, cyberterrorism and cybercrime are two very different issues and must be defined separately. Terrorism online should be considered cyberterrorism when there has been fear inflicted on a group of people, whereas cybercrime is the act of committing a felony or crime online typically without the use of fear. By these narrow and broad definitions, it is difficult to identify which instances of online terrorism are cyberterrorism or cybercrime.
Cyberterrorism can be also defined as the intentional use of computer, networks, and public internet to cause destruction and harm for personal objectives. Experienced cyberterrorists who are very skilled in terms of hacking can deal massive damage to government systems, hospital records, and national security programs, often which leaves a country in turmoil and in fear of further attacks. The objectives of such terrorists may be political or ideological since this can be seen as a form of terrorism.
There is much concern from government and media sources about potential damages that could be caused by cyberterrorism, and this has prompted efforts by government agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to put an end to cyber attacks and cyberterrorism.
There have been several major and minor instances of cyberterrorism. Al-Qaeda utilized the internet to communicate with supporters and even to recruit new members. Estonia, a Baltic country which is constantly evolving in terms of technology, became a battleground for cyberterror in April, 2007 after disputes regarding the removal of a WWII soviet statue located in Estonia's capital Tallinn.
- 1 Overview
- 2 International response
- 3 Examples
- 4 In fiction
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
There is debate over the basic definition of the scope of cyberterrorism. There is variation in qualification by motivation, targets, methods, and centrality of computer use in the act. Depending on context, cyberterrorism may overlap considerably with cybercrime, cyberwar or ordinary terrorism. Eugene Kaspersky, founder of Kaspersky Lab, now feels that "cyberterrorism" is a more accurate term than "cyberwar". He states that "with today's attacks, you are clueless about who did it or when they will strike again. It's not cyber-war, but cyberterrorism." He also equates large-scale cyber weapons, such as the Flame Virus and NetTraveler Virus which his company discovered, to biological weapons, claiming that in an interconnected world, they have the potential to be equally destructive.
If cyberterrorism is treated similarly to traditional terrorism, then it only includes attacks that threaten property or lives, and can be defined as the leveraging of a target's computers and information, particularly via the Internet, to cause physical, real-world harm or severe disruption of infrastructure.
There are some who say that cyberterrorism does not exist and is really a matter of hacking or information warfare. They disagree with labelling it terrorism because of the unlikelihood of the creation of fear, significant physical harm, or death in a population using electronic means, considering current attack and protective technologies.
If a strict definition is assumed, then there have been no or almost no identifiable incidents of cyberterrorism, although there has been much public concern.
However, there is an old saying that death or loss of property are the side products of terrorism, the main purpose of such incidents is to create terror in peoples mind. If any incident in the cyber world can create terror, it may be called cyberterrorism.
Assigning a concrete definition to cyberterrorism can be hard, due to the difficulty of defining the term terrorism itself. Multiple organizations have created their own definitions, most of which are overly broad. There is also controversy concerning overuse of the term, hyperbole in the media, and by security vendors trying to sell "solutions".
The term can also be used in a variety of different ways, but is also limited on when it can be used. An attack on an Internet business can be labeled cyberterrorism, however when it is done for economic motivations rather than ideological it is typically regarded as cybercrime. Cyberterrorism is also limited to actions by individuals, independent groups, or organizations. Any form of cyber warfare conducted by governments and states would be regulated and punishable under international law.
Cyberterrorism is defined by the Technolytics Institute as "The premeditated use of disruptive activities, or the threat thereof, against computers and/or networks, with the intention to cause harm or further social, ideological, religious, political or similar objectives. Or to intimidate any person in furtherance of such objectives." The term appears first in defense literature, surfacing in reports by the U.S. Army War College as early as 1998.
The National Conference of State Legislatures, an organization of legislators created to help policymakers with issues such as economy and homeland security defines cyberterrorism as:
[T]he use of information technology by terrorist groups and individuals to further their agenda. This can include use of information technology to organize and execute attacks against networks, computer systems and telecommunications infrastructures, or for exchanging information or making threats electronically. Examples are hacking into computer systems, introducing viruses to vulnerable networks, web site defacing, Denial-of-service attacks, or terroristic threats made via electronic communication.
NATO defines cyberterrorism as, “ a cyberattack using or exploiting computer or communication networks to cause sufficient destruction or disruption to generate fear or to intimidate a society into an ideological goal”
The National Infrastructure Protection Center defines it as, “A criminal act perpetrated by the use of computers and telecommunications capabilities resulting in violence, destruction, and/or disruption of services to create fear by causing confusion and certainty within a given population conform to a political, social, or ideological agent.”
Lastly, the FBI defines it as, “premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data which results in violence against non-combatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents”.
Across these definitions, they all share the view that cyberterrorism is politically and/or ideologically inclined. One area of debate is the difference between cyberterrorism and hacktivism. Hacktivism is,” the marriage of hacking with political activism”. Both items are politically driven, and involve using computers, however cyberterrorism is primarily used to cause harm. It becomes an issue because acts of violence on the computer can be labeled either cyberterrorism or hacktivism.
Types of cyberterror capability
The following three levels of cyberterror capability is defined by Monterey group
- Simple-Unstructured: The capability to conduct basic hacks against individual systems using tools created by someone else. The organization possesses little target analysis, command and control, or learning capability.
- Advanced-Structured: The capability to conduct more sophisticated attacks against multiple systems or networks and possibly, to modify or create basic hacking tools. The organization possesses an elementary target analysis, command and control, and learning capability.
- Complex-Coordinated: The capability for a coordinated attack capable of causing mass-disruption against integrated, heterogeneous defenses (including cryptography). Ability to create sophisticated hacking tools. Highly capable target analysis, command and control, and organization learning capability.
As the Internet becomes more pervasive in all areas of human endeavor, individuals or groups can use the anonymity afforded by cyberspace to threaten citizens, specific groups (i.e. with membership based on ethnicity or belief), communities and entire countries, without the inherent threat of capture, injury, or death to the attacker that being physically present would bring. Many groups such as Anonymous, use tools such as denial-of-service attack to attack and censor groups who oppose them, creating many concerns for freedom and respect for differences of thought.
Many believe that cyberterrorism is an extreme threat to countries' economies, and fear an attack could potentially lead to another Great Depression. Several leaders agree that cyberterrorism has the highest percentage of threat over other possible attacks on U.S. territory. Although natural disasters are considered a top threat and have proven to be devastating to people and land, there is ultimately little that can be done to prevent such events from happening. Thus, the expectation is to focus more on preventative measures that will make Internet attacks impossible for execution.
As the Internet continues to expand, and computer systems continue to be assigned increased responsibility while becoming more complex and interdependent, sabotage or terrorism via the Internet may become a more serious threat and is possibly one of the top 10 events to "end the human race." The Internet of Things promises to further merge the virtual and physical worlds, which some experts see as a powerful incentive for states to use terrorist proxies in furtherance of objectives.
Dependence on the internet is rapidly increasing on a worldwide scale, creating a platform for international cyber terror plots to be formulated and executed as a direct threat to national security. For terrorists, cyber-based attacks have distinct advantages over physical attacks. They can be conducted remotely, anonymously, and relatively cheaply, and they do not require significant investment in weapons, explosive and personnel. The effects can be widespread and profound. Incidents of cyberterrorism are likely to increase. They will be conducted through denial of service attacks, malware, and other methods that are difficult to envision today.
In an article about cyber attacks by Iran and North Korea, the New York Times observes, "The appeal of digital weapons is similar to that of nuclear capability: it is a way for an outgunned, outfinanced nation to even the playing field. 'These countries are pursuing cyberweapons the same way they are pursuing nuclear weapons,' said James A. Lewis, a computer security expert at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington. 'It’s primitive; it’s not top of the line, but it’s good enough and they are committed to getting it.'"
Public interest in cyberterrorism began in the late 1980s, when the term was coined by Barry C. Collin. As 2000 approached, the fear and uncertainty about the millennium bug heightened, as did the potential for attacks by cyber terrorists. Although the millennium bug was by no means a terrorist attack or plot against the world or the United States, it did act as a catalyst in sparking the fears of a possibly large-scale devastating cyber-attack. Commentators noted that many of the facts of such incidents seemed to change, often with exaggerated media reports.
The high-profile terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001 and the ensuing War on Terror by the US led to further media coverage of the potential threats of cyberterrorism in the years following. Mainstream media coverage often discusses the possibility of a large attack making use of computer networks to sabotage critical infrastructures with the aim of putting human lives in jeopardy or causing disruption on a national scale either directly or by disruption of the national economy.
Authors such as Winn Schwartau and John Arquilla are reported to have had considerable financial success selling books which described what were purported to be plausible scenarios of mayhem caused by cyberterrorism. Many critics claim that these books were unrealistic in their assessments of whether the attacks described (such as nuclear meltdowns and chemical plant explosions) were possible. A common thread throughout what critics perceive as cyberterror-hype is that of non-falsifiability; that is, when the predicted disasters fail to occur, it only goes to show how lucky we've been so far, rather than impugning the theory.
In 2016, for the first time ever, the Department of Justice charged Ardit Ferizi with cyberterrorisim. He is accused of allegedly hacking into a military website and stealing the names, addresses, and other personal information of government and military personnel and selling it to ISIS
As of 2016 there have been seventeen conventions and major legal instruments that specifically deal with terrorist activities and can also be applied to terrorism.
- 1963: Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft
- 1970: Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft
- 1971: Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation
- 1973: Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons
- 1979: International Convention against the Taking of Hostages
- 1980: Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
- 1988: Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation
- 1988: Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf
- 1988: Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation
- 1989: Supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation
- 1991: Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection
- 1997: International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings
- 1999: International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism
- 2005: Protocol to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation
- 2005: International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism
- 2010: Protocol Supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft
- 2010: Convention on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Relating to International Civil Aviation
As of 2016 the United Nations only has one agency that specializes in cyberterrorism, the International Telecommunications Union.
U.S. military/protections against cyberterrorism
The US Department of Defense (DoD) charged the United States Strategic Command with the duty of combating cyberterrorism. This is accomplished through the Joint Task Force-Global Network Operations, which is the operational component supporting USSTRATCOM in defense of the DoD's Global Information Grid. This is done by integrating GNO capabilities into the operations of all DoD computers, networks, and systems used by DoD combatant commands, services and agencies.
On November 2, 2006, the Secretary of the Air Force announced the creation of the Air Force's newest MAJCOM, the Air Force Cyber Command, which would be tasked to monitor and defend American interest in cyberspace. The plan was however replaced by the creation of Twenty-Fourth Air Force which became active in August 2009 and would be a component of the planned United States Cyber Command.
On December 22, 2009, the White House named its head of Computer security as Howard Schmidt to coordinate U.S Government, military and intelligence efforts to repel hackers. He left the position in May, 2012. Michael Daniel was appointed to the position of White House Coordinator of Cyber Security the same week and continues in the position during the second term of the Obama administration.
More recently, Obama signed an executive order to enable the US to impose sanctions on either individuals or entities that are suspected to be participating in cyber related acts. These acts can be threats to our national security, financial issues or foreign policy issues.
Estonia and NATO
The Baltic state of Estonia was target to a massive denial-of-service attack that ultimately rendered the country offline and shut out from services dependent on Internet connectivity in April 2007. The infrastructure of Estonia including everything from online banking and mobile phone networks to government services and access to health care information was disabled for a time. The tech-dependent state experienced severe turmoil and there was a great deal of concern over the nature and intent of the attack.
The cyber attack was a result of an Estonian-Russian dispute over the removal of a bronze statue depicting a World War II-era Soviet soldier from the center of the capital, Tallinn. In the midst of the armed conflict with Russia, Georgia likewise was subject to sustanined and coordinated attacks on its electronic infrastructure in August 2008. In both of these cases, circumstantial evidence point to coordinated Russian attacks, but attribution of the attacks is difficult; though both the countries blame Moscow for contributing to the cyber attacks, proof establishing legal culpability is lacking.
Estonia joined NATO in 2004, which prompted NATO to carefully monitor its member state's response to the attack. NATO also feared escalation and the possibility of cascading effects beyond Estonia's border to other NATO members. In 2008, directly as a result of the attacks, NATO opened a new center of excellence on cyberdefense to conduct research and training on cyber warfare in Tallinn.
The chaos resulting from the attacks in Estonia illustrated to the world the dependence countries had on information technology. This dependence then makes countries vulnerable to future cyber attacks and terrorism.
The Chinese Defense Ministry confirmed the existence of an online defense unit in May 2011. Composed of about thirty elite internet specialists, the so-called "Cyber Blue Team," or "Blue Army," is officially claimed to be engaged in cyber-defense operations, though there are fears the unit has been used to penetrate secure online systems of foreign governments.
Pakistan Government has also taken steps to curb the menace of cyber terrorism and extremist propaganda. National Counter Terrorism Authority (Nacta) is working on joint programs with different NGOs and other cyber security organizations in Pakistan to combat this problem. Surf Safe Pakistan is one such example. Now people in Pakistan can report extremist and terrorist related content online on Surf Safe Pakistan portal. Tier3 Cyber Security services Pakistan led the development of the Surf Safe Portal. The National Counter Terrorism Authority (NACTA) provides the Federal Government's leadership for the Surf Safe Campaign.
A series of powerful cyber attacks began 27 June 2017 that swamped websites of Ukrainian organizations, including banks, ministries, newspapers and electricity firms.
An operation can be done by anyone anywhere in the world, for it can be performed thousands of miles away from a target. An attack can cause serious damage to a critical infrastructure which may result in casualties. Attacking an infrastructure can be power grids, monetary systems, dams, media, and personal information.
Some attacks are conducted in furtherance of political and social objectives, as the following examples illustrate:
- In 1996, a computer hacker allegedly associated with the White Supremacist movement temporarily disabled a Massachusetts ISP and damaged part of the ISP's record keeping system. The ISP had attempted to stop the hacker from sending out worldwide racist messages under the ISP's name. The hacker signed off with the threat, "you have yet to see true electronic terrorism. This is a promise."
- In 1998, Spanish protesters bombarded the Institute for Global Communications (IGC) with thousands of bogus e-mail messages. E-mail was tied up and undeliverable to the ISP's users, and support lines were tied up with people who couldn't get their mail. The protestors also spammed IGC staff and member accounts, clogged their Web page with bogus credit card orders, and threatened to employ the same tactics against organizations using IGC services. They demanded that IGC stop hosting the Web site for the Euskal Herria Journal, a New York-based publication supporting Basque independence. Protestors said IGC supported terrorism because a section on the Web pages contained materials on the terrorist group ETA, which claimed responsibility for assassinations of Spanish political and security officials, and attacks on military installations. IGC finally relented and pulled the site because of the "mail bombings."
- In 1998, ethnic Tamil guerrillas attempted to disrupt Sri Lankan embassies by sending large volumes of e-mail. The embassies received 800 e-mails a day over a two-week period. The messages read "We are the Internet Black Tigers and we're doing this to disrupt your communications." Intelligence authorities characterized it as the first known attack by terrorists against a country's computer systems.
- During the Kosovo conflict in 1999, NATO computers were blasted with e-mail bombs and hit with denial-of-service attacks by hacktivists protesting the NATO bombings. In addition, businesses, public organizations, and academic institutes received highly politicized virus-laden e-mails from a range of Eastern European countries, according to reports. Web defacements were also common. After the Chinese Embassy was accidentally bombed in Belgrade, Chinese hacktivists posted messages such as "We won't stop attacking until the war stops!" on U.S. government Web sites.
- Since December 1997, the Electronic Disturbance Theater (EDT) has been conducting Web sit-ins against various sites in support of the Mexican Zapatistas. At a designated time, thousands of protestors point their browsers to a target site using software that floods the target with rapid and repeated download requests. EDT's software has also been used by animal rights groups against organizations said to abuse animals. Electrohippies, another group of hacktivists, conducted Web sit-ins against the WTO when they met in Seattle in late 1999. These sit-ins all require mass participation to have much effect, and thus are more suited to use by activists than by terrorists.
- In 2000, a Japanese Investigation revealed that the government was using software developed by computer companies affiliated with Aum Shinrikyo, the doomsday sect responsible for the sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway system in 1995. "The government found 100 types of software programs used by at least 10 Japanese government agencies, including the Defense Ministry, and more than 80 major Japanese companies, including Nippon Telegraph and Telephone." Following the discovery, the Japanese government suspended use of Aum-developed programs out of concern that Aum-related companies may have compromised security by breaching firewalls. gaining access to sensitive systems or information, allowing invasion by outsiders, planting viruses that could be set off later, or planting malicious code that could cripple computer systems and key data system.
- In March 2013, the New York Times reported on a pattern of cyber attacks against U.S. financial institutions believed to be instigated by Iran as well as incidents affecting South Korean financial institutions that originate with the North Korean government.
- In August 2013, media companies including the New York Times, Twitter and the Huffington Post lost control of some of their websites Tuesday after hackers supporting the Syrian government breached the Australian Internet company that manages many major site addresses. The Syrian Electronic Army, a hacker group that has previously attacked media organisations that it considers hostile to the regime of Syrian president Bashar al-Assad, claimed credit for the Twitter and Huffington Post hacks in a series of Twitter messages. Electronic records showed that NYTimes.com, the only site with an hours-long outage, redirected visitors to a server controlled by the Syrian group before it went dark.
- Pakistani Cyber Army is the name taken by a group of hackers who are known for their defacement of websites, particularly Indian, Chinese, and Israeli companies and governmental organizations, claiming to represent Pakistani nationalist and Islamic interests. The group is thought to have been active since at least 2008, and maintains an active presence on social media, especially Facebook. Its members have claimed responsibility for the hijacking of websites belonging to Acer, BSNL, India's CBI, Central Bank, and the State Government of Kerala.
Non-political acts of sabotage have caused financial and other damage. In 2000, disgruntled employee Vitek Boden caused the release of 800,000 litres of untreated sewage into waterways in Maroochy Shire, Australia.
More recently, in May 2007 Estonia was subjected to a mass cyber-attack in the wake of the removal of a Russian World War II war memorial from downtown Tallinn. The attack was a distributed denial-of-service attack in which selected sites were bombarded with traffic to force them offline; nearly all Estonian government ministry networks as well as two major Estonian bank networks were knocked offline; in addition, the political party website of Estonia's current Prime Minister Andrus Ansip featured a counterfeit letter of apology from Ansip for removing the memorial statue. Despite speculation that the attack had been coordinated by the Russian government, Estonia's defense minister admitted he had no conclusive evidence linking cyber attacks to Russian authorities. Russia called accusations of its involvement "unfounded," and neither NATO nor European Commission experts were able to find any conclusive proof of official Russian government participation. In January 2008 a man from Estonia was convicted for launching the attacks against the Estonian Reform Party website and fined.
During the Russia-Georgia War, on 5 August 2008, three days before Georgia launched its invasion of South Ossetia, the websites for OSInform News Agency and OSRadio were hacked. The OSinform website at osinform.ru kept its header and logo, but its content was replaced by a feed to the Alania TV website content. Alania TV, a Georgian government supported television station aimed at audiences in South Ossetia, denied any involvement in the hacking of the websites. Dmitry Medoyev, at the time the South Ossetian envoy to Moscow, claimed that Georgia was attempting to cover up information on events which occurred in the lead up to the war. One such cyber attack caused the Parliament of Georgia and Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs websites to be replaced by images comparing Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili to Adolf Hitler. Other attacks involved denials of service to numerous Georgian and Azerbaijani websites, such as when Russian hackers allegedly disabled the servers of the Azerbaijani Day.Az news agency.
Website defacement and denial of service
Even more recently, in October 2007, the website of Ukrainian president Viktor Yushchenko was attacked by hackers. A radical Russian nationalist youth group, the Eurasian Youth Movement, claimed responsibility.
In 1999 hackers attacked NATO computers. The computers flooded them with email and hit them with a denial of service (DoS). The hackers were protesting against the NATO bombings of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade. Businesses, public organizations and academic institutions were bombarded with highly politicized emails containing viruses from other European countries.
- The Japanese cyberpunk manga, Ghost in the Shell (as well as its popular movie and TV adaptations) centers around an anti-cyberterrorism and cybercrime unit. In its mid-21st century Japan setting such attacks are made all the more threatening by an even more widespread use of technology including cybernetic enhancements to the human body allowing people themselves to be direct targets of cyberterrorist attacks.
- Dan Brown's Digital Fortress.
- Amy Eastlake's Private Lies.
- In the movie Live Free or Die Hard, John McClane (Bruce Willis) takes on a group of cyberterrorists intent on shutting down the entire computer network of the United States.
- The movie Eagle Eye involves a super computer controlling everything electrical and networked to accomplish the goal.
- The plots of 24 Day 4 and Day 7 include plans to breach the nation's nuclear plant grid and then to seize control of the entire critical infrastructure protocol.
- The Tom Clancy created series Netforce was about a FBI/Military team dedicated to combating cyberterrorists.
- Much of the plot of Mega Man Battle Network is centered around cyberterrorism.
- In the 2009 Japanese animated film Summer Wars, an artificial intelligence cyber-terrorist attempts to take control over the world's missiles in order to "win" against the main characters that attempted to keep it from manipulating the world's electronic devices.
- In the 2012 film Skyfall, part of the James Bond franchise, main villain Raoul Silva (Javier Bardem) is an expert cyberterrorist who is responsible for various cyberterrorist incidents in the past.
- Cyberterrorism plays a role in the 2012 video game Call of Duty: Black Ops II, first when main antagonist Raul Menendez cripples the Chinese economy with a cyberattack and frames the United States for it, starting a new Cold War between the two powers. Later, another cyberattack with a computer worm leads to Menendez seizing control of the entire U.S drone fleet. Finally, one of the game's endings leads to another attack similar to the latter, this time crippling the U.S' electrical and water distribution grids. An alternate ending depicts the cyberattack failing after it is stopped by one of the game's characters pivotal to the storyline.
- The plot of the 2013 video game Watch Dogs is heavily influenced by cyber-terrorism. In which players take control of the game's protagonist, Aiden Pierce, an accused murder suspect, who hacks into a ctOS (Central Operating System), giving him complete control of Chicago's mainframe in order to hunt down his accusers.
- The video game Metal Slug 4 focuses on Marco and Fio, joined by newcomers Nadia and Trevor, to battle a terrorist organization known as Amadeus that is threatening the world with a computer virus.
- The visual novel Baldr Force has the main character Tooru Souma joining a military organization to fight cyberterrorism to avenge the death of his friend.
- The Japanese manga and live action Bloody Monday is highly influenced by hacking and cracking. The main character Takagi Fujimaru is a Super Elite hacker which use his hacking knowledge to fight against his enemies.
- In the 2016 movie Death Note: Light Up the New World society is afflicted with cyber-terrorism.
- Hower, Sara; Uradnik, Kathleen (2011). Cyberterrorism (1st ed.). Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood. pp. 140–149. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- Matusitz, Jonathan (April 2005). "Cyberterrorism:". American Foreign Policy Interests. 2: 137–147.
- Laqueur, Walter; C., Smith; Spector, Michael (2002). Cyberterrorism. Facts on File. pp. 52–53. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "India Quarterly : a Journal of International Affairs". 42–43. Indian Council of World Affairs. 1986: 122.
The difficulty of defining terrorism has led to the cliche that one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter
- Worth, Robert (June 25, 2016). "Terror on the Internet: The New Arena, The New Challenges". New York Times Book Review: 21. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- What is cyberterrorism? Even experts can't agree at the Wayback Machine (archived November 12, 2009). Harvard Law Record. Victoria Baranetsky. November 5, 2009.
- "Latest viruses could mean ‘end of world as we know it,’ says man who discovered Flame", The Times of Israel, June 6, 2012
- "Cyber espionage bug attacking Middle East, but Israel untouched — so far", The Times of Israel, June 4, 2013
- Harper, Jim. "There’s no such thing as cyber terrorism". RT. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
- Anderson, Kent (October 13, 2010). "Virtual Hostage: Cyber terrorism and politically motivated computer crime". The Prague Post. Retrieved 2010-10-14.
- Gable, Kelly A. "Cyber-Apocalypse Now: Securing the Internet against Cyberterrorism and Using Universal Jurisdiction as a Deterrent" Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 43, No. 1
- INTELLIGENCE, ARMY TRAINING AND DOCTRINE COMMAND FORTLEAVENWORTH KS DEPUTY CHIEF OF STAFF FOR (2005-08-15). "Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism, Handbook Number 1.02".
- White, Kenneth C. (1998). Cyber-terrorism: Modern mayhem. U.S. Army War College. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- Cyberterrorism[permanent dead link] National Conference of State Legislatures.
- Center of Excellence Defence Against Terrorism. Responses to Cyber Terrorism. 2008.
- Conway, Maura. (2008). ""What is Cyberterrorism and How Real is the Threat?"". Cyber Behavior (2008):.: 217–245.
- Dorothy E. Denning (May 23, 2000). "Cyberterrorism". cs.georgetown.edu. Archived from the original on March 10, 2014. Retrieved June 19, 2016.
- "Top 10 events that may end the human race". Yahoo News. Oct 27, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-01.
- Costigan, Sean (25 January 2015). "Cyber terrorism must be jointly tackled". Sunday Guardian. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- Perlroth, Nicole; Sanger, David E. (28 March 2013). "Corporate Cyberattacks, Possibly State-Backed, Now Seek to Destroy Data". The New York Times.
- , William L. Tafoya, Ph.D.,"Cyber Terror", FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (FBI.gov), November 2011
- "White House shifts Y2K focus to states, CNN (Feb. 23, 1999)". CNN. 23 February 1999. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
- http://www.washingtontimes.com, The Washington Times. "Ardit Ferizi, hacker who aided Islamic State, sentenced for helping terror group with ‘kill list’". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2017-03-01.
- Chabrow, Eric. Obama Cybersecurity Coordinator Resigns. GovInfoSecurity.com, May 17, 2012. Accessed: Feb. 11, 2014.
- White House Names New Cybersecurity Chief. BreakingGov.com May 17, 2012. Accessed: Feb. 11, 2014.
- McDonald, Ryan.White House Security Chief Warns. Baltimore Biz Journal. January 29, 2014. Access date: Feb. 11, 2014.
- "FACT SHEET: Executive Order Blocking the Property of Certain Persons Engaging in Significant Malicious Cyber-Enabled Activities". whitehouse.gov. 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2017-03-01.
- Maryann Cusimano Love. (2011). Beyond Sovereignty: Issues for a Global Agenda. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
- Yu, Eileen (27 May 2011). "China dispatches online army". ZDNet Asia. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
Geng Yansheng, spokesperson for China's Defense Ministry, was quoted to say that the PLA set up the cyberwar unit, or 'cyber blue team', to support its military training and upgrade the army's Internet security defense.
- "China Confirms Existence of Elite Cyber-Warfare Outfit the 'Blue Army'". Fox News. 26 May 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
China set up a specialized online 'Blue Army' unit that it claims will protect the People's Liberation Army from outside attacks, prompting fears that the crack team was being used to infiltrate foreign governments' systems.
- Ayers, Cynthia (September 2009). "The Worst is Yet To Come". Futurist: 49.
- Denning, Dorothy (Autumn 2000). "Cyberterrorism: The Logic Bomb versus the Truck Bomb". Global Dialogue. 2 (4). Retrieved 20 August 2014.[permanent dead link]
- Maryann Cusimano Love, Public-Private Partnerships and Global Problems: Y2K and Cybercrime. Paper Presented at the International Studies Association, Hong Kong, July 2001.
- Calvin Sims, "Japan Software Suppliers Linked to Sect," The New York Times (March 2, 2000): A6.
- "Pakistan Cyber Army (PCA) – Hacking Indian Websites, Promoting Pakistani Interests In Cyber Space And Nurturing Pakistani Hackers | The Cyber & Jihad Lab". cjlab.memri.org. Retrieved 2016-05-28.
- "Debugging the Pakistan Cyber Army: From Pakbugs to Bitterbugs – ThreatConnect | Enterprise Threat Intelligence Platform". ThreatConnect | Enterprise Threat Intelligence Platform. 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2016-05-28.
- India; Censorship; China; Japan; Apple; Reg man says '拜拜' to Honkers, ponders Asia's future role in tech world; month, Acer founder Shih to step down for second time next; themselves, Script fools n00b hackers into hacking. "Pakistan Cyber Army declares war on Chinese, Bangladeshi sites". Retrieved 2016-05-28.
- Saxena, Anupam (2011-07-28). "BSNL Website Hacked By Pakistan Cyber Army: Report". MediaNama. Retrieved 2016-05-28.
- "Hacked by 'Pakistan cyber army', CBI website still not restored". NDTV.com. Retrieved 2016-05-28.
- "'Indian websites are more vulnerable to cyber attacks from Pakistan-based hackers on major events' | Latest Tech News, Video & Photo Reviews at BGR India". www.bgr.in. Retrieved 2016-05-28.
- "Malicious Control System Cyber Security Attack Case Study–Maroochy Water Services, Australia" (PDf). csrc.nist.gov.
- "Hacker jailed for reverse sewage". The Register. October 31, 2001.
- Estonia has no evidence of Kremlin involvement in cyber attacks
- "Estonia fines man for 'cyber war'". BBC. 2008-01-25. Retrieved 2008-02-23.
- Leyden, John (2008-01-24). "Estonia fines man for DDoS attacks". The Register. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
- "S.Ossetian News Sites Hacked". Tbilisi: Civil Georgia. 5 August 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- Wentworth, Travis (12 August 2008). "You’ve Got Malice: Russian nationalists waged a cyber war against Georgia. Fighting back is virtually impossible.". Newsweek. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- Markoff, John (13 August 2008). "Before the Gunfire, Cyberattacks". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- Today.az (11 August 2008). Russian intelligence services undertook large scale attack against Day.Az server
- Russian nationalists claim responsibility for attack on Yushchenko's Web site International Herald Tribune
- "Hackers attack U.S. government Web sites in protest of Chinese embassy bombing". CNN. Retrieved 2010-04-30. (See also Chinese embassy bombing)
- Alexander, Yonah Swetman, Michael S. (2001). Cyber Terrorism and Information Warfare: Threats and Responses. Transnational Publishers Inc., U.S. ISBN 1-57105-225-9.
- Bibi van Ginkel, "The Internet as Hiding Place of Jihadi Extremists" (International Centre for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague, 2012)
- Colarik, Andrew M. (2006). Cyber Terrorism: Political and Economic Implications. Idea Group, U.S. ISBN 1-59904-022-0.
- Hansen, James V.; Benjamin Lowry, Paul; Meservy, Rayman; McDonald, Dan (2007). "Genetic programming for prevention of cyberterrorism through dynamic and evolving intrusion detection". Decision Support Systems. 43 (4): 1362–1374. SSRN . doi:10.1016/j.dss.2006.04.004.
- Verton, Dan (2003). Black Ice: The Invisible Threat of Cyber-terrorism. Osborne/McGraw-Hill, U.S. ISBN 0-07-222787-7.
- Weimann, Gabriel (2006). Terror on the Internet: The New Arena, the New Challenges. United States Institute of Peace, U.S. ISBN 1-929223-71-4.
- Blau, John (November 2004). "The battle against cyberterror". NetworkWorld. Retrieved March 20, 2005.
- Gross, Grant (Nov 2003). "Cyberterrorist attack would be more sophisticated that past worms, expert says". ComputerWorld. Retrieved March 17, 2005.
- Poulsen, Kevin (August 2004). "South Pole 'cyberterrorist' hack wasn't the first". SecurityFocus News. Retrieved March 17, 2005.
- Thevenet, Cédric (November 2005). "Cyberterrorisme, mythe ou réalité?" (PDF) (in French). terrorisme.net.
- U.S. Army Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism Handbook 1.02
- Rayamajhi, shreedeep (2009). "Research Paper -A Synopsis on Cyber Terrorism and Warfare". Scribd.
- Jacqueline Ching (2010). Cyberterrorism. Rosen Pub Group. ISBN 1-4358-8532-5.
- Rolón, Darío N., (2013) Control, vigilancia y respuesta penal en el ciberespacio, Latinamerican´s new security thinking, Clacso.
- Costigan, Sean (2012). Cyberspaces and Global Affairs. Ashgate. ISBN 978-1-4094-2754-4.
- CRS Report for Congress – Computer Attack and Cyber Terrorism – 17/10/03
- Cyber-Terrorism: Propaganda or Probability?
- How terrorists use the Internet ABC Australia interview with Professor Hsinchun Chen
- Department of Defense Cyber Crime Center
- RedShield Association- Cyber Defense
- Cyber Infrastructure Protection – Strategic Studies Institute
- Cyber-Terrorism and Freedom of Expression: Sultan Shahin Asks United Nations to Redesign Internet Governance New Age Islam
- Global response to cyberterrorism and cybercrime: A matrix for international cooperation and vulnerability assessment
- Cyber Security Task Force Takes ‘Whole Government’ Approach FBI, October 20, 2014
- BBC News – US warns of al-Qaeda cyber threat – 01/12/06
- BBC News – Cyber terrorism 'overhyped' – 14/03/03