Korean drama

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MBC Dramia, a filming site where historical dramas for Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation are produced

Korean drama (Hangul한국드라마; RRhanguk drama) or K-drama refers to televised dramas (Hangul드라마; RRdeurama) in the Korean language, made in South Korea.

Korean dramas are extremely popular worldwide[citation needed], partially due to the spread of the Korean Wave, with streaming services that offer multiple language subtitles. Some of the most famous dramas have been broadcast via traditional television channels; for example, Dae Jang Geum (2003) was sold to 91 countries.

Format[edit]

South Korea started to broadcast television series in the 1960s. In the 1990s traditional historical series transformed into present miniseries format, creating the notion of fusion sageuks.

Korean dramas are usually helmed by one director and written by one screenwriter, thus having a distinct directing style and language, unlike American television series, where often several directors and writers work together.[1] Series set in contemporary times usually run for one season, for 12−24 episodes of 60 minutes each. Historical series may be longer, with 50 to 200 episodes, but they also run for only one season.

The broadcast time for dramas is 22:00 to 23:00, with episodes on two consecutive nights: Mondays and Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays, and weekends. Different dramas appear on each of the nationwide networks, Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS), Korean Broadcasting System (KBS), Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) and on the cable channels, Joongang Tongyang Broadcasting Company (jTBC), Channel A, tvN, and Orion Cinema Network (OCN).

The 19:00 to 20:00 evening time slot is usually for daily dramas that run from Monday through Friday. Dramas in these slots are in the telenovela format, rarely running over 200 episodes. Unlike the American soap operas, these daily dramas are not also scheduled during the day-time. Instead, the day-time schedule often includes reruns of the flagship dramas. The night-time dailies can achieve very high ratings. For example, the evening series Temptation of Wife peaked at 40.6%, according to TNS Korea.[2]

Korean dramas are usually shot within a very tight schedule, often a few hours before actual broadcast. Screenplays are flexible and may change anytime during production, depending on viewers' feedback, putting actors in a difficult position. Production companies often face financial issues.

Sageuk[edit]

Sageuk refers to any Korean television or film drama that is either based on historical figures, incorporates historical events, or uses a historical backdrop. While technically the word sageuk literally translates to "historical drama," the term is typically reserved for dramas taking place during Korean history.[3] Popular subjects of sageuks have traditionally included famous battles, royalty, famous military leaders and political intrigues.

Since the mid-2000s sageuks have achieved major success outside of Korea[citation needed]. Sageuks including Dae Jang Geum (aka Jewel in the Palace), Yi San, and Jumong enjoyed strong ratings and high satisfaction ratings in countries such Vietnam, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Fiji and Iran. Jumong, which aired on IRIB (Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting) in 2008 had 85% viewership.[4]

Contemporary[edit]

Often centered on a love story, series set in contemporary times put family ties and relationships in the focus. Characters are mostly idealised, with Korean male protagonists described as handsome, intelligent, emotional and in search of "one true love". This has also been a contributing factor to the popularity of Korean dramas among women, as the image of Korean men became different from that of other Asian men.[1][5][6][7]

History[edit]

Actress Lee Young-ae played the titular Dae Jang Geum in the series of the same name.

Radio broadcasting, including the broadcasting of radio dramas in Korea, began in 1927 under Japanese rule, with most programming in Japanese and around 30% in Korean.[8] After the Korean War, radio dramas such as Cheongsilhongsil (1954) reflected the country's mood.[9]

Television broadcasting began in 1956 with the launch of an experimental station, HLKZ-TV, which was shut down a few years later due to a fire. The first national television channel was Korean Broadcasting System (KBS), which started up in 1961.[10] The first Korean television film was a 15-minute piece titled The Gate of Heaven (천국의 문, Cheongugui mun), on HLKZ-TV.[11]

The first television series was aired by KBS in 1962. Their commercial competitor, Tongyang Broadcasting (TBC), had a more aggressive program policy and aired controversial dramas as well.[12] The first historical TV series aired was Gukto manri (국토만리), directed by Kim Jae-hyeong (김재형), depicting the Goryeo era.[13][14] In the 1960s, television sets were of limited availability, thus dramas could not reach a larger audience.[15]

In the 1970s, television sets started to spread among the general population, and dramas switched from portraying dramatic historical figures to introducing national heroes like Lee Sun-shin or Sejong the Great.[15] Contemporary series dealt with personal sufferings, such as Kim Soo-hyun's influential Stepmother (새엄마, Saeeomma), aired by Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) in 1972 and 1973.[16] As technology and funding was limited, Korean channels could not make series in resource-heavy genres like action and science fiction; American and other foreign series were imported instead.[17]

The 1980s saw a turn in Korean television, as color TV became available. Modern dramas tried to evoke nostalgia from urban dwellers by depicting rural life. Kim Soo-hyun's first real commercial success, Love and Ambition (사랑과 야망, Saranggwa yamang), aired on MBC in 1987 is regarded as a milestone of Korean television,[18] having recorded a 78% viewership. "Streets became quiet at around the airing time of the drama as 'practically everyone in the country' was at home in front of the TV", according to The Korea Times.[9] The most outstanding classical historical series of the era is considered to be 500 Years of Joseon (조선왕조500년, Joseonwangjo 500 nyeon), a serial that ran for eight years, consisting of 11 separate series. The serial was produced by Lee Byung-hoon, who later directed one of the biggest international successes of Korean drama, Dae Jang Geum.[13][15][18]

The 1990s brought another important milestone for Korean television. As technology developed, new opportunities arose, and the beginning of the decade marked the launch of a new commercial channel; Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS), which facilitated and re-initiated a race for catching viewers' attention.[19] The first real commercial success among Korean television series was Eyes of Dawn (여명의 눈동자, Yeomyeongui nundongja), aired in 1991 by MBC, starring Chae Shi-ra and Choi Jae-sung. The series led the viewers through turbulent times from the Japanese rule to the Korean War.[19] New channel SBS also produced successful series, one of them being Sandglass in 1995. Sandglass was a "trendy drama", which the Korean Culture and Information Service considers an important milestone, having changed the way Korean dramas are made by introducing a new format.[19] In this decade, the new miniseries format became widespread, with 12 to 24 episodes.[20] This era marked the start of export for Korean dramas, setting off the Korean Wave.

The beginning years of the 2000s gave birth to a new genre, called "fusion sageuk", essentially changing the ways to produce historical series, with successful pieces such as Hur Jun, Damo and Dae Jang Geum.[13]

Production[edit]

Song Joong-ki, of Descendants of the Sun is considered a top star.

Korean series were originally produced in house by the television channels themselves, but have been outsourced to independent production companies since the 2000s. In 2012, as much as 75% of all K-dramas were produced this way. Competition is fierce among these companies; out of 156 registered firms, only 34 produced dramas were actually aired in 2012.[21] The budget of the production is shared between the producing company and the broadcaster, with the broadcasting channel covering around 50% of expenses usually. If top stars and famous scriptwriters are employed, they may cover even more. The rest of the budget has to be brought in by the production company with the help of sponsors. In the case of product placements, income is shared by the producer and the channel. The channel keeps 100% of the advertisement income during airtime; this could amount to 300-400 million. A typical Korean drama may cost as much as ₩250 million per episode, and historical dramas cost more than that. For example, Gu Family Book cost ₩500 million per episode.[21] Producer Kim Jong-hak spent as much as ₩10 billion on Faith, which was considered a commercial failure, resulting in the inability of Kim to pay crew salaries and other overheads. Kim, who had produced successful dramas such as Eyes of Dawn and Sandglass, committed suicide after he was accused of embezzlement.[22][23]

In Korea, much of the budget is spent on the appearance fees of top stars. In some cases, the actors may take up as much as 55-65% of the whole budget, while it is 20–30% in Japan and roughly 10% in the United States.[21] Everything else, including salaries of lesser-known actors, extras, and technical staff, location rent and other expenses, have to be covered from the remaining amount. Often, production companies overrun their budgets and cannot pay salaries. In 2012, actors held a demonstration in front of the headquarters of KBS, expressing their concerns. Actors are usually paid after the last episode is aired at the end of the month. In series made by smaller production companies for cable channels, there have been cases where the companies went bankrupt and could not pay their actors and crew, while the channel denied all responsibility, claiming all liability was with the bankrupt production firm.[24] The biggest stars may earn as much as ₩100 million per episode.[25] Bae Yong-joon, the star of Winter Sonata reportedly received ₩250 million per episode for The Legend in 2007.[21]

Shooting[edit]

Kim Soo-hyun in costume for the sageuk Moon Embracing the Sun, Soo-hyun is one of the most popular Korean actors.[26][27]

As producing a series involves high expenses, production companies seek to shoot the episodes in the shortest time possible. In contrast to practices elsewhere, the first four episodes of Korean series are usually shot in advance, but the rest are shot continuously as the series is being aired. Scripts are not finished in advance, and may change according to viewer feedback and viewership ratings. These changes may occur a few hours before daily shooting, and the crew might receive only a few ready pages. The production usually works with three camera crews, who work in a rotating manner to speed up filming. Because of unregulated script changes and tight shooting schedules, actors are almost continuously on standby, and have no time to leave the set or sleep properly. The Korean media have a separate word to describe irregular, short sleeps that actors resort to, in often uncomfortable positions, or within the set: jjok-jam (쪽잠), or "side-sleeping". Dramas usually air two episodes a week, one after the other, with the following episodes having to be shot within the intervening five days. Some Korean actors have admitted to receiving IV therapy during filming, due to extreme schedules and exhaustion.[24][25][28]

Production teams originally sent two tapes to the channels; a primary copy and a backup copy. However, due to the tight filming schedules, a 70-minute episode might arrive at the broadcasting station on seven separate tapes in ten-minute installments. It happens that while the episode is being broadcast, the crew would be still shooting the last minutes or cutting the rest of the episode. During the airing of the nineteenth episode of Man from the Equator, screens countrywide went black for 10 minutes. Actor Kwon Sang-woo was openly complaining that he was still shooting Queen of Ambition 30 minutes before the last episode began airing.[24] In South Korea, some production teams still do planning and scheduling manually, instead of using dedicated software.[29]

From late 2015 onwards due to the popularity of Korean dramas abroad, especially the success of My Love from the Star in China, producers have increasingly been pitching and pre-selling the overseas broadcast and streaming rights of their dramas. This has given production teams the budget to move away form the live shoot basis to one in which the drama is completed before broadcast. In 2016, dramas such as Descendants of the Sun, Uncontrollably Fond, Moon Lovers: Scarlet Heart Ryeo and Hwarang: The Poet Warrior Youth were all pre-produced before airing.[30]

The larger broadcasting companies have their own dedicated shooting locations for historical dramas, with extensive and elaborate sets. MBC's series are shot at MBC Dramia in Gyeonggi,[31] while KBS dramas utilise the Mungyeongsaejae Studio (문경새재 KBS촬영장) in North Gyeongsang[32] and their studio in Suwon.[33]

Crew[edit]

Actors[edit]

The leading actors of Korean dramas have become popular outside of South Korea, due to the Korean Wave.

In the 2000s, it became customary to cast popular K-pop idols in dramas. Their critical reception is mixed, however, some of them became successful as actors.[34][35]

Scriptwriters and directors[edit]

Scriptwriters and directors of Korean dramas are often as well known as actors are. An overwhelming majority of scriptwriters (90% according to the Beijing Metro Reader) are women, who not only write love stories but action series as well.[36] Compared to Korean cinema, television is more appealing for scriptwriters as contract conditions are better, acknowledgment is greater, and the salary is higher.

Famous scriptwriters tend to have a say in their field.[37] The most well-known scriptwriters include the Hong sisters, who wrote popular series such as My Girl, You're Beautiful and My Girlfriend Is a Nine-Tailed Fox; Kim Eun-sook, the screenwriter of Lovers in Paris, Secret Garden, The Heirs, Descendants of the Sun and Guardian: The Lonely and Great God; Lee Kyung-hee, famous for I'm Sorry, I Love You and The Innocent Man; male writer Choi Wan-kyu of Midas and Triangle; Noh Hee-kyung, the author of That Winter, the Wind Blows; and It's Okay, That's Love; and Park Ji-eun, who wrote My Husband Got a Family and My Love From the Star.[38]

Acknowledged TV directors include Lee Byung-hoon, who directed Dae Jang Geum and Yi San;[13] Kim Jong-hak, the director of Eyes of Dawn, and Sandglass;[39] and Pyo Min-soo, the director of Full House and Iris II.[40]

While scriptwriters are mostly women, directors are usually men.[41] Some female directors rose to prominence, such as Lee Na-jeong (이나정), who directed The Innocent Man,[42] and Lee Yun-jeong (이윤정), whose most famous works are The 1st Shop of Coffee Prince and Heart to Heart. The latter director is also the first female television producer employed by Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC).[43]

Music[edit]

Balladeer Baek Ji-young has been named "OST Queen" after providing the songs for several hit dramas such as Secret Garden (2010) and Love in the Moonlight (2016)

Music plays an important role in Korean dramas. Original soundtracks, abbreviated OST, are explicitly made for each series, and in contrast to American series, fans have a need to buy the soundtrack album of dramas. This trend started in the 1990s, when producers swapped purely instrumental soundtracks for songs performed by popular K-pop singers. Tom Larsen, director of YA Entertainment, a distributor of Korean TV series, thinks that Korean soundtracks are polished enough musically to be considered standalone hits.[44]

During the 2000s, it became customary for lead actors to participate in original soundtracks, also partially due to the employment of K-pop stars as actors. Actor Lee Min-ho, and leader of boy band SS501, Kim Hyun-joong both recorded songs for Boys Over Flowers, while the actors of You're Beautiful formed a fictional band and held concerts, where they perform the soundtracks live.[45][46][47]

OST songs of popular K-dramas can also become hits on regular music charts, with good sales of both physical and digital albums. The chart performance of the OST songs usually co-relate to the popularity of the drama. Songs from the OST of Secret Garden for example, had high digital sales and high rankings on music charts.[48] My Destiny, performed by Lyn for My Love from the Star, led music charts in Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, and other Asian countries.[49] It also won the Best OST award at the 2014 Baeksang Arts Awards.[50] The soundtrack album of You're Beautiful sold 57,000 physical copies.[51] Performers of OST songs for action series Iris held two concerts in Japan in front of an audience of 60,000 people.[52]

OST composers usually look for singers who have previously had success in the genre. Songs are written to reflect the mood of the series and their structure. Sometimes performers give their own songs for a series. For example, Baek Ji-young thought her song That Man, originally written for her own album, would fit Secret Garden. There are popular OST singers who are often employed, like Baek Ji-young, Lyn Seung-cheol, and Lee Seung-cheol.[53] Sometimes, foreign singers are invited to perform songs for Korean OST. For instance, Swedish artist Lasse Lindh sang several songs for series like Angel Eyes, Soul Mate, I Need Romance, and Guardian: The Lonely and Great God.

Rating system[edit]

The television rating system is regulated by the Korea Communications Commission, and was implemented in 2000. According to the system, programs, including Korean dramas, are rated according to the following principles (ratings irrelevant to dramas are omitted):[54]

  • Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System(12).svg: programs that may be inappropriate for children under 12, such as mild violence, themes or language.
  • Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System(15).svg: programs that may be inappropriate for children under 15. Most dramas and talk shows are rated this way. These programs may include moderate or strong adult themes, language, sexual inference, and violence.
  • Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System(19).svg: programs intended for adults only. These programs might include adult themes, sexual situations, frequent use of strong language and disturbing scenes of violence.

Reception[edit]

According to a researcher at the University of Vienna, popularity of Korean dramas have their foundation in Confucian values they transmit, which Asian viewers can easily identify with. Respect for elders, filial piety, family-orientedness, and the display of perceived "Asian moral values" play an important role in Korean series.[55] YA Entertainment, the American distributor of Korean dramas, believes that part of the attractiveness of these series come from the quality of camera work, scenic locations, and spectacular costumes, which make the "final product is very stylish and attractive, with arguably some of the highest TV production values in the world."[56] Korean series follow their own formula, are innovative and don't conform to Western television productions.[56] Stephan Lee from Entertainment Weekly called Korean dramas "fascinating and weirdly comforting".[57]

Exports of Korean series yielded US$37.5 million in 2003, which was three times higher than the amount reached in 1999.[58] According to data from Korea Creative Content Agency, in 2013 K-dramas constituted 82% of the culture content export of South Korea, with an income of $167 million, which is four times more than a decade before.[29]

A driving force behind the rising popularity is the intense involvement of fans. Because of the live-shooting production of K-dramas, Korean-speaking fans have the opportunity to participate in their creation[59] —a unique phenomenon in the mass media world. They can influence the content of later shows in the series through complaints and suggestions, which are frequently adopted by the production teams.[60]

The global community of non-Korean-speaking fans, on the other hand, is more involved in the consumption aspects: Fans share their opinions through tweets and comments on newsgroups (for example, the Soompi discussion forum) as well as reviews and recaps on websites and blogs. However, the impact of their social media activity goes beyond the fan community. It spreads the word about the K-drama genre to social connections like acquaintances, friends and family (e.g. Facebook friends or followers on Twitter) and thereby generally raises its popularity. But it also has an effect on the creation of new dramas. It influences the popularity of certain dramas, leading to higher demand for those videos from streaming sites and additional income for broadcasters. When a substantial profit results, it raises not only the prestige of people involved in the production[61] but also provides feedback for production teams and indirectly influences future productions.

International reception[edit]

Asia[edit]

Won Bin gained wide popularity in 2000 after starring in the television drama Autumn in My Heart and has since gained critical acclaim for his performances in the films Taegukgi, Mother and The Man from Nowhere.[62][63][64][65]

Korean dramas have gained popularity in Bangladesh in recent years.[66] Their rising popularity in the country has led to the Korea Foundation for International Culture Exchange (KOFICE), an organisation which aims to distribute Korean dramas for free to countries, cooperating with broadcasters to distribute Korean dramas for free in the country.[67]

In the Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan, Korean dramas and entertainment have gained popularity particularly amongst youth. Prior to interest in Korean entertainment, Bollywood had largely been the most popular form of entertainment in the country. When the Bhutanese film industry launched in the mid-1990s, Bollywood was the only form of influence on the industry. However, in recent years Korean entertainment has made significant inroads in the country and influence the entertainment industry alongside Bollywood. Korean entertainment has managed to influence fashion, and many video shops now sell Korean dramas and movies alongside Bollywood films. The interest in Korean entertainment has also led to controversy with older generations voicing their concern that Korean entertainment will deteriorate Bhutanese culture and traditions.[68][69]

In recent times Korean dramas have experienced growing popularity in Brunei. The growing impact of Korean culture in Brunei led to the hosting of the ninth Korea Forum in the country at Universiti Brunei Darussalam in 2010. Korean television dramas, movies, music and clothing have had a great impact on the people of Brunei.[70]

The first Korean drama to be broadcast in Cambodia was Winter Sonata; it was, however, Full House that launched the interest in Korean dramas and entertainment in the country. Following the success of Full House, more Korean dramas have been dubbed into the Khmer language. Korean dramas have become popular particularly amongst youth in Cambodia.[71]

In China, South Korean programs on Chinese government TV networks accounted for more than all other foreign programs combined in 2006.[72] Hong Kong has its own channel for airing Korean dramas, TVB J2, but ATV also airs Korean series in prime-time slots.[73] My Love from the Star received enthusiastic feedback from China. It was viewed 40 billion times on numerous Chinese video sites.[74] The drama also spurred interest about Korea, shown by China's increased consumption of Korean products such as Chi Maek (chicken and beer) and Korean cosmetics.[75] Due to the success of Korean dramas in China, some dramas have been compiled to create feature-length films by combining all episodes into one film. The prodigious popularity of Korean dramas in the country has, on some occasions, been caught in the crossfire over diplomatic issues between China and South Korea. Most notable being the THAAD deployment in South Korea which resulted in the blocking of Korean dramas on streaming services across the country in late February 2017.[76] Following the block, Chinese TV shows showcasing Chinese culture and other similar content replaced Korean content on TV networks' prime time schedules in the country.[77]

Korean dramas have become popular in India, particularly in Northeast India in states such as Manipur, Assam, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Mizoram and Nagaland as well as parts of East India and more recently in Tamil Nadu.[78] Hindi films and TV serials were banned in Manipur in 2000. As a result, local television stations began broadcasting subtitled Korean dramas instead. Many young people in northeast India, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu mimic the hairstyles and clothes of Korean actors and Korean fashion has become very popular in the region.[79][80][81] As a part of cultural exchange, Indian Public Broadcaster telecasted Emperor of the Sea and Dae Jang Geum.[82] Korean dramas have aired in the Tamil language in Tamil Nadu on Puthuyugam TV.[83]

In Indonesia, Korean dramas have gained popularity and the popular Korean dramas Winter Sonata and Endless Love were aired on Surya Citra Media in 2002. Some Korean dramas have also been remade into Indonesian versions such as Demi Cinta in 2005 which was a remake of the popular drama Autumn in My Heart and Cinta Sejati, a remake of Stairway to Heaven. RCTI and Indosiar are examples of Indonesian television networks that air Korean dramas.[84][85]

The first Korean drama to gain widespread popularity in Japan was Winter Sonata, which was broadcast on the NHK satellite channel NHK BS2 in 2003. The program was aired twice in the same year due to high demand from viewers.[7] NHK also hosted a classical concert featuring Winter Sonata's tunes performed by Korean musicians.[7] Korean dramas boost tourism between Korea and Japan,[7] and is considered a possible way of improving strained relationships between the two countries, as series have become increasingly popular with Japanese viewers.[86][87] Conversely, the series Iris had several pivotal scenes shot in Akita, Japan, which led to an increase of Korean tourists in that part of Japan.[88][89][90]

Actor Lee Jong-suk in 2016, star of Pinocchio, W, and While You Were Sleeping

The popularity of Korean dramas and pop culture in Laos has led to many Laotian tourists travelling to South Korea. Korean pop culture has gained popularity in Laos through the Thai TV channels broadcasting Korean dramas and K-pop bands in the country.[91]

In Malaysia, Winter Sonata began airing on TV3 in 2003, which started an interest in Korean pop culture in the country. Dae Jang Geum and Autumn In My Heart were also aired in Malaysia. The popularity of Korean dramas have resulted in a positive reception of Korean expatriates in Malaysia.[92]

Korean dramas have become popular in the Maldives especially amongst youth and are broadcast on numerous television networks in the country.[citation needed]

In Mongolia, Korean dramas have become popular and are broadcast at prime time. Dae Jang Geum achieved success in the country and was broadcast five times due to this. Autumn in My Heart, Winter Sonata and Stairway to Heaven were other popular dramas. Popularity in Korean dramas has resulted in interest in the learning of the Korean language as well as Mongolians travelling to South Korea. It has also led to increased mutually cooperative relations between Mongolia and South Korea.[93]

In Myanmar, the K-drama Autumn in My Heart was broadcast in the country in 2001, which led to interest in Korean entertainment. When Dae Jang Geum was on air, the drama sparked an interest in Korean cuisine in the country.[94] The rising popularity of Korean dramas and music in Myanmar has led to the Korea Foundation for International Culture Exchange (KOFICE) distributing Korean dramas in the country for free.[95]

Interest for Korean dramas in the Nepal began when Winter Sonata aired on Kantipur Television Network in the mid-2000s. This led to the popularity of other K-dramas such as Boys Over Flowers, Autumn In My Heart, You Are Beautiful and Full House to name a few. Popularity of Korean media products has also led to interest of learning the Korean language and has resulted in the emergence of Korean language tutorials that air on ABC Television in the country. Korean dramas have become popular among Nepali youth and markets are often frequented by teenagers looking to buy the latest dramas. The hairstyles and fashion of Korean actors have influenced the fashion sense of Nepali youth. Fascinated by the lifestyle and food of Korea, restaurants serving Korean cuisine have also been established in the country.[96][97]

Watching films or TV dramas from South Korea is a serious offence in North Korea, punishable by execution,[98] but people still manage to acquire them on CDs and DVDs.[99]

Hyeri and Park Bo-gum, stars of Reply 1988 (tvN, 2016) which recorded a peak nationwide audience share of 18.8% making it the highest rated drama in Korean cable television history[100][101]

In the Philippines, Autumn in My Heart ignited the interest in Korean dramas when it was aired on GMA Network in 2003. Korean drama frenzy came to its peak point when Lovers In Paris was aired in ABS-CBN in 2004. GMA Network, ABS-CBN and TV5 regularly air Korean dramas dubbed in the Filipino language.[102] Korean dramas are popular both inside the country and with Filipinos abroad.

In Singapore, Prime 12 (now known as Suria) originally aired the Korean drama Sandglass on a weekly basis in 1996 and aired Asphalt Man in 1997. Since 2001, they are shown on Chinese language channel MediaCorp Channel U daily.[103] The launch of KBS World, ONE TV ASIA, Oh!K, Channel M and streaming app, Viu in Singapore allows viewers to watch Korean dramas with a variety of subtitles in a matter of hours after the original South Korean telecast.[104]

In Sri Lanka, the Independent Television Network aired Full House in 2009 and it proved popular. Dae Jang Geum aired on Rupavahini in 2012 and was dubbed in Sinhala under the title Sujatha Diyani (සුජාත දියණී), meaning "The Pure, Valuable Daughter" and received a viewer rate of over 90%.[105] The Independent Television Network, Rupavahini, TV Derana, Sirasa TV, Swarnavahini and TV1 air Korean dramas dubbed in the Sinhalese language.[106][107] Streaming service, Iflix also streams many Korean dramas with English and Sinhalese subtitles in the country, some as early as 24 hours after their original Korean broadcast.[108] Additionally, the popularity of Korean pop culture in the country has led to an increasingly warm reception towards Korean people.[109]

In Taiwan, interest in Korean dramas began when Star in My Heart aired in 1999. Since then Korean dramas have become very popular and according to the South Korean mission 120 K-dramas had been broadcast in Taiwan in the first half of 2011.[110][111]

When Dae Jang Geum was on air in Thailand, Korean food started gaining wide popularity.[112] Due to the lop-sided nature of entertainment exports favoring South Korea, the Thai government requested increased introduction of popular Thai films to South Korean media outlets. This led to the signing of an Agreement of Cultural Cooperation between the two countries in August 2004.[113]

Korean dramas have gained popularity particularly among women and young people in Vietnam. The fashion and hairstyles presented in Korean dramas have become very popular among the youth of the country.[114]

North America[edit]

The Asian American-targeted cable TV channels AZN Television and ImaginAsian aired Korean dramas alongside content from China, Japan, India, Thailand and other parts of Asia. The dramas were aimed at the Asian American community before the channels dissolved in 2008 and 2011 respectively.[115][116]

In November 2008, Netflix [117] began offering several Korean dramas as part of its video selection. In August 2009, DramaFever began offering free subtitled video streaming service, with video advertisements, in the United States.[118][119] As of May 2010, Korean dramas began airing on a DramaFever channel on Hulu.

Singapore-based Viki streams popular Korean dramas across the world including North America, with subtitles in 70 languages.[120] Companies in Asia have also designed streaming services available online and as mobile apps targeted towards overseas Asian communities. "MobiTV" created by the Sri Lankan company, Bhasha is a streaming service and mobile app aimed at the Sri Lankan community and streams Korean dramas dubbed in the Sinhalese language alongside other content aired in Sri Lanka.[121] "Roopa", created by the same company, is another service available as a mobile app also aimed at the Sri Lankan community, it too streams Korean dramas dubbed in the Sinhalese language.[122] Chinese company PPTV is another example, a mobile app, "PPTV网络电视HD" streams Korean dramas aimed at the Chinese community alongside content that is primarily available in Mandarin, Cantonese and Korean but also increasingly in English.[123][124]

Additionally, Korean dramas are available at online DVD retailers. Some Korean dramas, however, are not available for region 1 (North America) encoding and NTSC video format. Amazon offers streaming of Winter Sonata for a fee.[125]

KBFD-DT in Honolulu, Hawaii broadcasts a majority of Korean dramas on its daily schedule, as well as offering the programs on sale at its website and on demand through its K-Life channel on Oceanic Time Warner Cable. Another Honolulu outlet, KFVE devotes three hours of its Sunday afternoon schedule to Korean dramas.

KTSF, a channel aimed at the Asian American community in San Francisco, California airs Korean dramas as part of its schedule alongside content in Mandarin, Tagalog, Hindi, Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese, Taiwanese and Cantonese.[126]

Latin America and Arab Markets[edit]

The popularity of K-drama outside of Asia in Latin America and Arab area countries around the world is made possible through satellite television and online viewership which is a testament to how proactively people want to access this media. South Korean soap operas are also making headway in these markets. In the MENA region, K-drama airs on several channels, including: MBC 4, MBC Drama, Lana TV, Programme National and A3.

Viewership ratings[edit]

Viewership ratings are provided by two companies in South Korea, AGB Nielsen Media Research and TNmS. Originally Media Service Korea was the only company providing such information, and it was later acquired by Nielsen Media Research. In 1999 TNS Media Korea also began such service, and later changed its name to TNmS. AGB collects viewership data based on 2050 households, while TNmS has 2000 households with measuring devices. Drama ratings usually vary between the two companies by 2-3%.[127]

List of highest-rated Korean dramas in public broadcast[edit]

The list was compiled from data by AGB Nielsen Media Research, based on the episode of the highest viewership since 1992, when AGB Nielsen entered the Korean market.[128]

Chae Shi-ra, the leading actress of Eyes of Dawn
# Drama Channel Highest Nationwide
AGB Nielsen Rating
Final Episode Date Ref.
1 You and I MBC 66.9% 26 April 1998 [129]
2 First Love KBS2 65.8% 20 April 1997
3 What is Love MBC 64.9% 31 May 1992
4 Sandglass SBS 64.5% 16 February 1995
5 Hur Jun MBC 63.5% 27 June 2000
6 A Sunny Place of the Young KBS2 62.7% 12 November 1995
7 Sons and Daughters MBC 61.1% 9 May 1993
8 Taejo Wang Geon KBS1 60.2% 24 February 2002
9 Eyes of Dawn MBC 58.4% 6 February 1992
10 Dae Jang Geum 57.8% 23 March 2004
11 See and See Again 57.3% 2 April 1999
12 Truth 56.5% 24 February 2000
13 Lovers in Paris SBS 56.3% 15 August 2004
14 Jealousy MBC 56.1% 21 July 1992
15 Blowing of the Wind KBS2 55.8% 29 March 1996
16 Men of the Bath House 53.4% 1 September 1996
17 Gook Hee MBC 53.1% 16 November 1999
Trap of Youth SBS 53.1% 15 April 1999
19 Tomato 52.7% 10 June 1999
20 M MBC 52.2% 30 August 1994
21 Season of the Storm 52.1% 30 December 1993
22 Jumong 51.9% 6 March 2007
23 Rustic Period SBS 51.8% 30 September 2003
24 My Mother's Sea MBC 51.6% 26 December 1993
25 Legend of Ambition KBS2 50.2% 25 October 1998
26 Ladies of the Palace SBS 49.9% 22 July 2002
27 My Son's Woman MBC 49.7% 13 April 1995
28 Tears of the Dragon KBS1 49.6% 31 May 1998
29 Star in My Heart MBC 49.3% 29 April 1997
Bread, Love and Dreams KBS2 49.3% 16 September 2010
31 My Lovely Sam Soon MBC 49.1% 21 July 2005
32 Ambition 49.0% 13 October 1994
33 The Moon of Seoul 48.7% 16 October 1994
34 The Last Match 48.6% 22 February 1994
My Too Perfect Sons KBS2 48.6% 11 October 2009
36 All About Eve MBC 48.3% 6 July 2000
37 How is Your Husband? SBS 48.2% 19 October 1993
38 Cinderella MBC 48.0% 13 July 1997
39 Miss Mermaid 47.9% 27 June 2003
40 All In SBS 47.7% 3 April 2003
41 Seoyoung, My Daughter KBS2 47.6% 3 March 2013
42 Until We Can Love 47.1% 28 February 1997
Brilliant Legacy SBS 47.1% 26 July 2009
44 My Rosy Life KBS2 47.0% 10 November 2005
45 Pilot MBC 46.2% 2 November 1993
46 Autumn in My Heart KBS2 46.1% 7 November 2000
47 Daughters of a Rich Family 45.9% 30 April 1995
48 My Husband Got a Family 45.3% 9 September 2012
49 Famous Princesses 44.4% 31 December 2006
50 What Happens to My Family? 43.3% 15 February 2015

List of highest-rated Korean dramas in cable television[edit]

Jung Eun-ji, star of the hit drama Reply 1997

The following dramas air on a cable channel/pay TV which normally has a relatively smaller audience compared to free-to-air TV/public broadcasters (KBS, SBS, MBC & EBS).

# Drama Channel Highest Nationwide
AGB Nielsen Rating[130]
Final
Episode Date
Ref.
1 Reply 1988 tvN 18.803% 16 January 2016 [131][132]
2 Guardian: The Lonely and Great God 18.680% 21 January 2017 [133]
3 Signal 12.544% 12 March 2016 [134]
4 Woman of Dignity JTBC 12.065% 19 August 2017 [135][136]
5 Reply 1994 tvN 11.509% 28 December 2013 [137]
6 Childless Comfort JTBC 10.715% 17 March 2013 [138][139]
7 Another Miss Oh tvN 9.991% 28 June 2016 [140]
8 Strong Woman Do Bong-soon JTBC 9.668% 15 April 2017 [141]
9 Misaeng tvN 8.240% 20 December 2014 [142]
10 Dear My Friends 8.087% 2 July 2016 [143]
11 Oh My Ghostess 7.337% 22 August 2015 [144]
12 Twenty Again 7.233% 17 October 2015 [145]
13 Cheese in the Trap 7.102% 1 March 2016 [146]
14 Live Up to Your Name 6.907% 1 October 2017 [147]
15 The K2 6.636% 12 November 2016 [148]
16 Stranger 6.568% 30 July 2017 [149]
17 Tunnel OCN 6.490% 21 May 2017 [150]
18 The Good Wife tvN 6.232% 27 August 2016 [151]
19 Reply 1997 6.120% 18 September 2012 [152]
20 Voice OCN 5.406% 12 March 2017 [153]
21 Secret Love Affair JTBC 5.372% 13 May 2014 [154]
22 Avengers Social Club tvN 5.249% (currently airing) [155]
23 Emergency Couple 5.083% 5 April 2014 [156]
24 Drinking Solo 5.020% 25 October 2016 [157]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  155. ^ "October 18, 2017 Nationwide Cable Ratings". Nielsen Korea. 1st (tvN) 수목드라마(부암동복수자들<본>) 5.249% 
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Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]