Ainu language

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Hokkaido Ainu
アイヌ・イタㇰ Ainu-itak
A multilingual exit sign.
Multilingual sign in Japanese, Ainu, English, Korean, and Chinese. The Ainu text, in katakana, is second down from the top on the right side of the sign. It reads イヤイライケㇾ (iyairaiker), meaning "thank you".
Pronunciation[ˈainu iˈtak]
Native toJapan
Ethnicity25,000 (1986) to ca. 200,000 (no date) Ainu people[1]
Native speakers
5+ (2018)[2]
  • Hokkaido Ainu
Language codes
ISO 639-2ain
ISO 639-3ain
ELPAinu (Japan)
Ainu is classified as Critically Endangered by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
An Ainu speaker, recorded in Japan

Ainu (アイヌ・イタㇰ, Ainu-itak), or more precisely Hokkaido Ainu, is a language spoken by a few elderly members of the Ainu people on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. It is a member of the Ainu language family, itself considered a language family isolate with no academic consensus of origin. It is classified as Critically Endangered by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger.

Until the 20th century, the Ainu languages – Hokkaido Ainu and the now-extinct Kuril Ainu and Sakhalin Ainu – were spoken throughout Hokkaido, the southern half of the island of Sakhalin and by small numbers of people in the Kuril Islands. Due to the colonization policy employed by the Japanese government, the number of Hokkaido Ainu speakers decreased through the 20th century, and it is now moribund. A very low number of elderly people still speak the language fluently, though attempts are being made to revive it.


The entrance to the carpark of the Pirka Kotan Museum.
Pirka Kotan Museum, an Ainu language and cultural center in Sapporo (Jozankei area)

According to UNESCO, Ainu is an endangered language,[4] with few native speakers amongst the country's approximately 30,000 Ainu people,[5] a number that may be higher due to a potentially low rate of self-identification as Ainu within the country's ethnic Ainu population.[6] Knowledge of the language, which has been endangered since before the 1960s, has declined steadily since; in 2011, just 304 people within Japan were reported to understand the Ainu language to some extent.[6] As of 2016, Ethnologue has listed Ainu as class 8b, "nearly extinct".[7]

A survey of the Ainu people's life was done by the Hokkaido government in 2017, and about 671 people participated in it.[8] The participants were those who were believed to be descendants of Ainu or who joined Ainu families by marriage or adoption.[8] The topic of the survey included the Ainu language, and in regard to fluency, 0.7% of participants answered that they would "be able to have a conversation" in the Ainu language, 3.4% answered that they would "be able to have a conversation a little," 44.6% answered they would "not be able to have a conversation but have a little knowledge of the Ainu language," and 48.1% answered that they would "not be able to have a conversation or understand the language by listening".[8]

The survey was done in 2006 and 2013 as well, and by comparing those with the 2017 survey, notable trends were observed: the percentage of people who answered they would "be able to have a conversation in the Ainu language" declined in the age 60s group (2.3% in 2006, 1.9% in 2013, and 0.4% in 2017), but increased in the age 30s group (0% in 2006, 0% in 2013, and 2.3% in 2017).[8] However, there was little change overall (0.7% in 2006, 0.9% in 2013, and 0.7% in 2017).[8]

Official recognition[edit]

The Japanese government made a decision to recognize Ainu as an indigenous language in June 2008.[4] The Japanese government approved and passed a bill officially recognising the indigeneity of the Ainu people in 2019.[9][10]

On 12 July 2020, the Japanese government opened the National Ainu Museum in Shiraoi, Hokkaido.[11] It forms one of three institutions named Upopoy (which means 'singing in a large group' in the Ainu language) alongside the National Ainu Park and a memorial site on high ground on the east side of Lake Poroto (ポロト湖) where Ainu services are held. Its director, Masahiro Nomoto, says that "One of our main objectives is to preserve and revive the language, as this is one of the most threatened elements of Ainu culture".[12]

Announcements on some bus routes in Hokkaido can since be heard in Ainu, efforts are being undertaken to archive Ainu speech recordings by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, and there is a popular educational YouTube channel which teaches conversational Ainu.[13]

While these measures have been praised for taking steps to protect the Ainu language and culture, the museum and related government efforts have been criticised for failing to acknowledge the history of Japanese discrimination against the Ainu people, and for the government's refusal to apologise for past misdeeds against the Ainu.[10][14]


Ainu syllables are (C)V(C); they have an obligatory vowel, and an optional syllable onset and coda consisting of one consonant. There are few consonant clusters.


There are five vowels in Ainu:

  Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a


Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p t k
Affricate t͡s
Fricative s h
Flap ɾ
Semivowel j w

Obstruents /p t ts~tʃ k/ may be voiced [b d dz~dʒ ɡ] between vowels and after nasals. /t͡s/ can be heard as [t͡ʃ] in free variation among speakers. Both /ti/ and /tsi/ are realized as [t͡ʃi], and /s/ becomes [ʃ] before /i/ and at the end of syllables. /h/ is heard as [ɸ] when occuring before /u/. /n/ is heard as [ŋ] when before /k/, as well as in final position. A glottal stop [ʔ] is often inserted at the beginning of words, before an accented vowel, but is non-phonemic.

The Ainu language also has a pitch accent system. Generally, words containing affixes have a high pitch on a syllable in the stem. This will typically fall on the first syllable if that is long (has a final consonant or a diphthong), and will otherwise fall on the second syllable, though there are exceptions to this generalization.

Typology and grammar[edit]

Typologically, Ainu is similar in word order (and some aspects of phonology) to Japanese.

Ainu has a canonical word order of subject, object, verb,[15] and uses postpositions rather than prepositions. Nouns can cluster to modify one another; the head comes at the end. Verbs, which are inherently either transitive or intransitive, accept various derivational affixes. Ainu does not have grammatical gender. Plurals are indicated by a suffix.[15]

Classical Ainu, the language of the yukar, is polysynthetic, with incorporation of nouns and adverbs; this is greatly reduced in the modern colloquial language.

Applicatives may be used in Ainu to place nouns in dative, instrumental, comitative, locative, allative, or ablative roles. Besides freestanding nouns, these roles may be assigned to incorporated nouns, and such use of applicatives is in fact mandatory for incorporating oblique nouns. Like incorporation, applicatives have grown less common in the modern language.

Ainu has a closed class of plural verbs, and some of these are suppletive.

Ainu has a system of verbal affixes (shown below) which mark agreement for person and case. The specific cases that are marked differ by person, with nominative–accusative marking for the first person singular, tripartite marking for the first person plural and indefinite (or 'fourth') person, and direct or 'neutral' marking for the second singular and plural, and third persons (i.e. the affixes do not differ by case).[16][17]

Saru Ainu agreement affixes[16]
Intransitive Subj. Transitive Subj. (Agent) Object
1SG ku-
1PL -as
2SG e-
2PL eci-
3 Ø-
4 -an







'I spoke.'[18]








You (SG) spoke.'[18]








'He spoke.'[18]

Sentence types[edit]

Intransitive sentences[edit]








クアニ クイタㇰ。

Kuani ku-itak.

I 1SG-speak

'I spoke.'[18]








アィヌ エㇰ。

Aynu ek.

person come

'A person came.'[18]
















ポン ツ゚レシ カ イサㇺ。

Pon turesi ka isam.

small sister too die

'The small sister too died.'[18]

Transitive and ditransitive sentences[edit]











'I kill you.'[18]

















金田一 殿 ニㇱパ クヌカㇻ。

Kindaichi tono nispa ku-nukar.

Kindaichi chief sir 1SG-see

'I met Mr. Kindaichi.'[18]











カムィ ウンマ ラィケ。

Kamuy umma rayke.

bear horse kill

'A bear killed a horse.'[18]


Gospel of John in Latin-script Ainu.

The Ainu language is written in a modified version of the Japanese katakana syllabary, although it is possible for Japanese loan words and names to be written in kanji (for example, "mobile phone" can be written ケイタイデンワ or 携帯電話). There is also a Latin-based alphabet in use. The Ainu Times publishes in both. In the Latin orthography, /ts/ is spelled c and /j/ is spelled y; the glottal stop, [ʔ], which only occurs initially before accented vowels, is not written. Other phonemes use the same character as the IPA transcription given above. An equals sign (=) is used to mark morpheme boundaries, such as after a prefix. Its pitch accent is denoted by acute accent in Latin script (e.g., á). This is usually not denoted in katakana.

Rev. John Batchelor was an English missionary who lived among the Ainu, studied them and published many works on the Ainu language.[19][20] Batchelor wrote extensively, both works about the Ainu language and works in Ainu itself. He was the first to write in Ainu and use a writing system for it.[21] Batchelor's translations of various books of the Bible were published from 1887, and his New Testament translation was published in Yokohama in 1897 by a joint committee of the British and Foreign Bible Society, the American Bible Society, and the National Bible Society of Scotland. Other books written in Ainu include dictionaries, a grammar, and books on Ainu culture and language.

Special katakana for the Ainu language[edit]

A Unicode standard exists for a set of extended katakana (Katakana Phonetic Extensions) for transliterating the Ainu language and other languages written with katakana.[22] These characters are used to write final consonants and sounds that cannot be expressed using conventional katakana. The extended katakana are based on regular katakana and either are smaller in size or have a handakuten. As few fonts yet support these extensions, workarounds exist for many of the characters, such as using a smaller font with the regular katakana ku to produce to represent the separate small katakana glyph ku used as in アイヌイタㇰ (Ainu itak).

This is a list of special katakana used in transcribing the Ainu language. Most of the characters are of the extended set of katakana, though a few have been used historically in Japanese,[citation needed] and thus are part of the main set of katakana. A number of previously proposed characters have not been added to Unicode as they can be represented as a sequence of two existing codepoints.

Character Unicode Name Ainu usage Pronunciation
31F0 Katakana Letter Small Ku Final k /k/
31F1 Katakana Letter Small Shi Final s [ɕ] /s/ or /ɕ/
31F2 Katakana Letter Small Su Final s, used to emphasize its pronunciation as [s] rather than [ɕ]. [s] and [ʃ] are allophones in Ainu. /s/
31F3 Katakana Letter Small To Final t /t/
31F4 Katakana Letter Small Nu Final n /n/
31F5 Katakana Letter Small Ha Final h [x], succeeding the vowel a. (e.g. アㇵ ah) Sakhalin Ainu only. /h/ or /x/
31F6 Katakana Letter Small Hi Final h [ç], succeeding the vowel i. (e.g. イㇶ ih) Sakhalin Ainu only. /h/ or /ç/
31F7 Katakana Letter Small Fu Final h [x], succeeding the vowel u. (e.g. ウㇷ uh) Sakhalin Ainu only. /h/ or /x/
31F8 Katakana Letter Small He Final h [x], succeeding the vowel e. (e.g. エㇸ eh) Sakhalin Ainu only. /h/ or /x/
31F9 Katakana Letter Small Ho Final h [x], succeeding the vowel o. (e.g. オㇹ oh) Sakhalin Ainu only. /h/ or /x/
31FA Katakana Letter Small Mu Final m /m/ Voiced bilabial nasal
31FB Katakana Letter Small Ra Final r [ɾ], succeeding the vowel a. (e.g. アㇻ ar) /ɾ/ Voiced alveolar tap
31FC Katakana Letter Small Ri Final r [ɾ], succeeding the vowel i. (e.g. イㇼ ir) /ɾ/ Voiced alveolar tap
31FD Katakana Letter Small Ru Final r [ɾ], succeeding the vowel u. (e.g. ウㇽ ur) /ɾ/ Voiced alveolar tap
31FE Katakana Letter Small Re Final r [ɾ], succeeding the vowel e. (e.g. エㇾ er) /ɾ/ Voiced alveolar tap
31FF Katakana Letter Small Ro Final r [ɾ], succeeding the vowel o. (e.g. オㇿ or) /ɾ/ Voiced alveolar tap
Characters represented using combining characters
ㇷ゚ 31F7 + 309A Katakana Letter Small Pu Final p /p/
セ゚ 30BB + 309A Katakana Letter Se With Semi-Voiced Sound Mark ce [tse] /ts/ + /e/
ツ゚ 30C4 + 309A Katakana Letter Tu With Semi-Voiced Sound Mark tu. ツ゚ and ト゚ are interchangeable. /t/ + /u/
ト゚ 30C8 + 309A Katakana Letter To With Semi-Voiced Sound Mark /t/ + /u/

Basic syllables[edit]

a ア
i イ
u ウ
e エ
o オ
[k][note 1]
ka カ
ki キ
ku ク
ke ケ
ko コ
-k ㇰ
[s] ~ [ʃ]
sa シャ / サ[note 2]
[sa] ~ [ʃa]
si シ
su シュ / ス[note 2]
[su̜] ~ [ʃu̜]
se シェ / セ[note 2]
[se] ~ [ʃe]
so ショ / ソ[note 2]
[so] ~ [ʃo]
-s ㇱ / ㇲ[note 2]
[t][note 1]
ta タ
ci チ
tu ト゚ / ツ゚[note 2]
te テ
to ト
-t ㇳ / ッ[note 3]
[ts] ~ [][note 1]
ca チャ
[tsa] ~ [tʃa]
ci チ
cu ツ / チュ[note 2]
[tsu̜] ~ [tʃu̜]
ce セ゚ / チェ[note 2]
[tse] ~ [tʃe]
co チョ
[tso] ~ [tʃo]
na ナ
ni ニ
nu ヌ
ne ネ
no ノ
-n ㇴ / ン[note 4]
[-n, -m-, -ŋ-][note 5]
h[note 6]
ha ハ
hi ヒ
hu フ
he ヘ
ho ホ
-h[note 6]
-ah ㇵ
-ih ㇶ
-uh ㇷ
-eh ㇸ
-oh ㇹ
[p][note 1]
pa パ
pi ピ
pu プ
pe ペ
po ポ
-p ㇷ゚
ma マ
mi ミ
mu ム
me メ
mo モ
-m ㇺ
ya ヤ
yu ユ
ye イェ
yo ヨ
ra ラ
ri リ
ru ル
re レ
ro ロ
-ar ㇻ
-ir ㇼ
-ur ㇽ
-er ㇾ
-or ㇿ
-r ㇽ
wa ワ
wi ウィ / ヰ[note 2]
we ウェ / ヱ[note 2]
wo ウォ / ヲ[note 2]
  1. ^ a b c d k, t, c, p are sometimes voiced [ɡ], [d], [dz] ~ [], [b], respectively. It does not change the meaning of a word, but it sounds more rough/masculine. When they are voiced, they may be written as g, d, j, dz, b, ガ, ダ, ヂャ, ヅァ, バ, etc.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Either may be used according to actual pronunciations, or to writer's preferred styles.
  3. ^ ッ is final t at the end of a word (e.g. pet = ペッ = ペㇳ). In the middle of a polysyllabic word, it is a final consonant preceding the initial with a same value (e.g. orta /otta/ = オッタ; オㇿタ is not preferred).[clarification needed]
  4. ^ At the end of a word, n can be written either ㇴ or ン. In the middle of a polysyllabic word, it is ン. (e.g. tan-mosir = タンモシㇼ = タㇴ+モシㇼ, but not タㇴモシㇼ.)
  5. ^ [m] before [p], [ŋ] before [k], [n] elsewhere. Unlike Japanese, it does not become other sounds such as nasal vowels.
  6. ^ a b Initial h [h] and final h [x] are different phonemes. Final h exists in Sakhalin Ainu only.


Final [ɪ] is spelled y in Latin, small ィ in katakana. Final [ʊ] is spelled w in Latin, small ゥ in katakana. Large イ and ウ are used if there is a morpheme boundary with イ and ウ at the morpheme head. [ae] is spelled ae, アエ or アェ.

Example with initial k:

[kaɪ] [ku̜ɪ] [keɪ] [koɪ] [kaʊ] [kiʊ] [keʊ] [koʊ]
kay kuy key koy kaw kiw kew kow
カィ クィ ケィ コィ カゥ キゥ ケゥ コゥ
[ka.ɪ] [ku̜.ɪ] [ke.ɪ] [ko.ɪ] [ka.u̜] [ki.u̜] [ke.u̜] [ko.u̜]
ka=i ku=i ke=i ko=i ka=u ki=u ke=u ko=u
カイ クイ ケイ コイ カウ キウ ケウ コウ

Since the above rule is used systematically, some katakana combinations have different sounds from conventional Japanese.

ウィ クィ コウ スィ ティ トゥ フィ
Ainu [u̜ɪ] [ku̜ɪ] [ko.u̜] [su̜ɪ] [teɪ] [toʊ] [ɸu̜ɪ]
Japanese [wi] [kwi] [koː] [si] [ti] [tu͍] [ɸi]

Oral literature[edit]

The Ainu have a rich oral tradition of hero-sagas called yukar, which retain a number of grammatical and lexical archaisms. Yukar were memorized and told at get-togethers and ceremonies that often lasted hours or even days. The Ainu also have another form of narrative often used called Uepeker, which was used in the same contexts.

A native written form of the Ainu language has never existed; therefore, the Ainu people traditionally relied on memorization and oral communication to pass down their literature to the next generation.[23] Ainu literature includes nonfiction, such as their history and "hunting adventures," and fiction such as stories about spiritual avatars, magic,[24] myths, and heroes.[23]

Research on oral literature[edit]

The oral literature of the Ainu languages has been studied mainly by Japanese and European researchers;[25] thus, Ainu literature has been transcribed using writing systems such as Japanese katakana (commonly used for foreign-language text) and the Latin alphabet, and documented in the languages of the researchers themselves.[26] One prominent researcher of the Ainu languages is Bronisław Piłsudski, a Polish anthropologist who lived in Sakhalin from 1886 to 1905,[25] and who published "Materials for the Study of the Ainu Language and Folklore" in 1912.[27] In addition, Piłsudski made audio recordings from 1902 to 1903, which is believed to be the first attempt to do so in the history of Ainu oral literature study.[25] Japanese linguist Kyosuke Kindaichi is also famous for his work on the oral literature of the Ainu languages,[25] and for his publication Ainu monogatari: tsuketari Ainugo taii oyobi goi (あいぬ物語: つけたりあいぬご たいい およびご) in 1913.[28]

Recent history[edit]

Many of the speakers of Ainu lost the language with the advent of Japanese colonization, which formally began with the establishment of the Hokkaido Colonization Office in 1869. Japanese officials viewed the assimilation of Ainu a critical component of the Hokkaido colonization project, and developed policies designed to discourage or eliminate the use of the Ainu language, cultural practices, and traditional lifeways.[29][30][31] The assimilation included the exploitation of Ainu land, the commodification of their culture, and the placing of Ainu children in schools where they learned only Japanese.[29][30][31]

More recently, the Japanese government has acknowledged the Ainu people as an indigenous population. As of 1997 they were given indigenous rights under the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) to their culture, heritage, and language.[29][30][32]

The Ainu Cultural Promotion Act in 1997 appointed the Foundation for Research and Promotion of Ainu Culture (FRPAC).[32] This foundation is tasked with language education, where they promote Ainu language learning through training instructors, advanced language classes and creation and development of language materials.[32]


In general, Ainu people are hard to find because they tend to hide their identity as Ainu, especially in the young generation. Two thirds of Ainu youth do not know that they are Ainu.[33] In addition, because Ainu students were strongly discouraged from speaking their language at school,[34] it has been challenging for the Ainu language to be revitalized.

Despite this, there is an active movement to revitalize the language, mainly in Hokkaido but also elsewhere such as Kanto.[4] Ainu oral literature has been documented both in hopes of safeguarding it for future generations, as well as using it as a teaching tool for language learners.[35] Beginning in 1987, the Ainu Association of Hokkaido with approximately 500 members[4] began hosting 14 Ainu language classes, Ainu language instructors training courses and Family Ainu Learning Initiative[33] and have released instructional materials on the language, including a textbook.[35] Also, Yamato linguists teach Ainu and train students to become Ainu instructors in university.[33] In spite of these efforts, as of 2011 the Ainu language was not yet taught as a subject in any secondary school in Japan.[4]

Due to the Ainu Cultural Promotion Act of 1997, Ainu dictionaries transformed and became tools for improving communication and preserving records of the Ainu language in order to revitalize the language and promote the culture.[36] This act had aims to promote, disseminate, and advocate on behalf of Ainu cultural traditions.[37] The main issue with this act however, was that not a single Ainu person was included in the "Expert" meetings prior to the law's passage, and as a result of this there was no mention of language education and how it should be carried out.[37] The focus at this point was on Ainu culture revitalization rather than Ainu language revitalization.

As of 2011, there has been an increasing number of second-language learners, especially in Hokkaido, in large part due to the pioneering efforts of the late Ainu folklorist, activist and former Diet member Shigeru Kayano, himself a native speaker, who first opened an Ainu language school in 1987 funded by Ainu Kyokai.[38] The Ainu Association of Hokkaido is the main supporter of Ainu culture in Hokkaido.[4] Ainu language classes have been conducted in some areas in Japan and small numbers of young people are learning Ainu. Efforts have also been made to produce web-accessible materials for conversational Ainu because most documentation of the Ainu language focused on the recording of folktales.[39] The Ainu language has been in media as well; the first Ainu radio program was called FM Pipaushi,[40] which has run since 2001 along with 15-minute radio Ainu language lessons funded by FRPAC,[41] and newspaper The Ainu Times has been established since 1997.[38] In 2016, a radio course was broadcast by the STVradio Broadcasting to introduce Ainu language. The course put extensive efforts in promoting the language, creating 4 text books in each season throughout the year.[42]

In addition, the Ainu language has been seen in public domains such as the outlet shopping complex's name, Rera, which means 'wind', in the Minami Chitose area and the name Pewre, meaning 'young', at a shopping centre in the Chitose area. There is also a basketball team in Sapporo founded under the name Rera Kamuy Hokkaido, after rera kamuy 'god of the wind' (its current name is Levanga Hokkaido).[4] The well-known Japanese fashion magazine's name Non-no means 'flower' in Ainu.

Another Ainu language revitalization program is Urespa, a university program to educate high-level persons on the language of the Ainu. The effort is a collaborative and cooperative program for individuals wishing to learn about Ainu languages.[43] This includes performances which focus on the Ainu and their language, instead of using the dominant Japanese language.[43]

Another form of Ainu language revitalization is an annual national competition, which is Ainu language-themed. People of many differing demographics are often encouraged to take part in the contest. Since 2017, the popularity of the contest has increased.[44]

The Ainu language has also been featured in the manga and anime Golden Kamuy.

On 15 February 2019, Japan approved a bill to recognize the Ainu language for the first time[45][46] and enacted the law on April 19, 2019.[47]

Outside of Japan, there have also been efforts to revive the Ainu culture and language in other countries, including Australia[48] and Russia.[49]

In 2019, researchers working together from both the Society for Academic Research of Ainu (SARC), representatives from Hokkaido University, and with the assistance of linguists spanning multiple universities and countries assisted in the creation of AI Pirika, an AI created with the goal of assisting with speech recognition and serving as a conversation partner.[50]

Sample text[edit]

Below is a sample text from a traditional Ainu folktale, in Ainu, Japanese and English.[51]

Ainu original Latin transliteration Japanese translation English translation
シネアン ト タ ベテトㇰ ウン シノタㇱ クス パイェアㇱ アワ, ベテトㇰタ シネ ポンルㇷ゚ネクㇿ ネスコ ウライ カㇿ クス ウライキㇰ ネアㇷ゚ コサニㇰケ ウカン プナㇱ・プナㇱ。 Sinean to ta petetok un sinotas kusu payeas awa, petetokta sine ponrupnekur nesko urai kar kusu uraikik neap kosanikkeukan punas-punas. ある日に(川の)水源の方へ(私が)遊ぶに(私が)出かけたら(思いがけなく)(川の)水源に一人の小男が胡桃(くるみ)の木の梁(やな)をたてるため(胡桃の木の)杭を打っていた。 (それに下げた)腰を幾度も上げて立っている。(腰を曲げ曲げしている。) One day, as I went out to play at the spring, there was a little man at the spring hitting stakes made of walnut wood, in order to erect (some) wooden beams. His hip bent (and he bent down) and he straightened out (as he worked, going up and down over and over).


  1. ^ Poisson, Barbara Aoki (2002). The Ainu of Japan. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications. ISBN 9780822541769.
  2. ^ "在留外国人統計(旧登録外国人統計) 在留外国人統計 月次 2018年12月 | ファイル | 統計データを探す" [Statistics of Foreign Residents (Formerly Registered Statistics of Foreign Residents) Statistics of Foreign Residents Monthly December 2018 | File | Find stats].
  3. ^ "Hokkaido Ainu in Japan | UNESCO WAL".
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Martin, Kylie (2011). "Aynu itak: On the Road to Ainu Language Revitalization" (PDF). Media and Communication Studies メディア·コミュニケーション研究/Media and Communication Studies. 60: 57–93. hdl:2115/47031. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-04-21. Retrieved 2022-02-06.
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