Voiceless palatal fricative
|Voiceless palatal fricative|
The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ç⟩. The symbol ç is the letter c with a cedilla, as used to spell French and Portuguese words such as façade and ação. However, the sound represented by the letter ç in French, Portuguese and English orthography is not a voiceless palatal fricative but /s/, the voiceless alveolar fricative.
Palatal fricatives are relatively rare phonemes, and only 5% of the world's languages have /ç/ as a phoneme. The sound occurs, however, as an allophone of /x/ in German, or, in other languages, of /h/ in the vicinity of front vowels.
There is also a voiceless post-palatal fricative (also called pre-velar, fronted velar etc.) in some languages.
Features of the voiceless palatal fricative:
- Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Azerbaijani||Some dialects||çörək||[tʃœˈɾæç]||'bread'||Allophone of /c/|
|Danish||Standard||pjaske||[ˈpçæsɡ̊ə]||'splash'||May be alveolo-palatal [ɕ] instead. Before /j/, aspiration in /pʰ, tˢ, kʰ/ is realized as devoicing and fortition of /j/. Note, however, that the sequence /tˢj/ is normally realized as an affricate [t͡ɕ]. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Southern||echt||[ɛx̟t̪]||'real'||Post-palatal; not all dialects. See Hard and soft G in Dutch and Dutch phonology|
|English||British||hue||[çuː] (help·info)||'hue'||Allophone of /hj/. See English phonology|
|Scouse||like||[laɪ̯ç]||'like'||Allophone of /k/; ranges from palatal to uvular, depending on the preceding vowel. See English phonology|
|Finnish||vihko||[ˈʋiçko̞]||'notebook'||Allophone of /h/. See Finnish phonology|
|German||nicht||[nɪçt] (help·info)||'not'||Allophone of /x/. See German phonology|
|Greek||ψυχή||[ps̠iˈç̄i] (help·info)||'soul'||Post-palatal. See Modern Greek phonology|
|Hungarian||kapj||[ˈkɒpç]||'get' (imperative)||Allophone of /j/ between a voiceless obstruent and a word boundary. See Hungarian phonology|
|Icelandic||hérna||[ˈçɛrtn̥a]||'here'||See Icelandic phonology|
|Irish||a Sheáin||[ə çaːnʲ]||'John' (voc.)||See Irish phonology|
|Japanese||人/hito||[çi̥to̞]||'person'||Allophone of /h/ before /i/ and /j/. See Japanese phonology|
|Korean||힘 /him||[çim]||'strength'||Allophone of /h/ word-initially before /i/ and /j/. See Korean phonology|
|Limburgish||Weert dialect||ich||[ë̞ç̄]||'I'||Post-palatal. Allophone of /x/ before and after front vowels.|
|Norwegian||kjekk||[çek]||'handsome'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Pashto||Ghilji and Wardak dialects||پښه||[pça]||'foot'|
|Portuguese||Some Brazilian speakers||risonha||[çiˈzõ̞j̃ɐ]||'giggly', 'laughterful' (f.)||Allophone of /ʁ/, particularly before [i] or [ɪ] in onset context. See Portuguese phonology|
|Romanian||Muntenian dialects||fir||[çir]||'thread'||Allophone of /f/ before /i/. Realized as [f] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology|
|Spanish||Chilean||mujer||[muˈçe̞r]||'woman'||Allophone of /x/ before front vowels. See Spanish phonology|
|Uzbek||[example needed]||Post-palatal; weakly fricated. Occurs word-initially and pre-consonantally, otherwise it is post-velar.|
- Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–68)
- Damirchizadeh (1972:96)
- Basbøll (2005:65–66)
- Grønnum (2005:148)
- Roach (2009:43)
- Wells, John C (2009-01-29), "A huge query", John Wells's phonetic blog, retrieved 2010-12-28
- Watson (2007), p. 353.
- Arvaniti (2007), p. 20.
- Siptár & Törkenczy (2007:205)
- Okada (1991:95)
- Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 108.
- Henderson (1983:595)
- Pop (1938), p. 30.
- Oftedal (1956:?)
- Palatal phenomena in Spanish phonology Page 113
- Sjoberg (1963), pp. 11.
- Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208, doi:10.1075/jgl.8.08arv
- Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
- Damirchizadeh, A (1972), Modern Azerbaijani Language: Phonetics, Orthoepy and Orthography, Maarif Publ
- Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
- Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307
- Henderson, Michael M. T. (1983), "Four Varieties of Pashto", Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 103 (3): 595–597, JSTOR 602038
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-19815-6
- Oftedal, M. (1956), The Gaelic of Leurbost, Oslo: Norsk Tidskrift for Sprogvidenskap
- Okada, Hideo (1991), "Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–97, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X
- Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
- Roach, Peter (2009), English Phonetics and Phonology: A Practical Course 1 (4th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-71740-3
- Siptár, Péter; Törkenczy, Miklós (2007), The Phonology of Hungarian, The Phonology of the World's Languages, Oxford University Press
- Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar
- Watson, Kevin (2007), "Liverpool English" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (3): 351–360, doi:10.1017/s0025100307003180