||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (December 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Amdo (Tibetan: ཨ༌མདོ; Chinese: 安多; pinyin: Ānduō) is one of the three traditional regions of Tibet, the other two being Ü-Tsang and Kham; it is also the birthplace of the 14th Dalai Lama. Amdo encompasses a large area from the Machu River (Yellow River) to the Drichu river (Yangtze River).[nb 1] While historically, culturally, and ethnically a Tibetan area, Amdo was administered by a series of local rulers since the mid-18th century and the Dalai Lamas have not governed the area directly since that time. From 1917 to 1928, much of Amdo was occupied intermittently by the Hui Muslim warlords of the Ma Clique. In 1928, the Ma Clique joined the Kuomintang, and during the period from 1928 to 1949, much of Amdo was gradually assimilated into the Qinghai province (and part of Gansu province) of the Kuomintang Republic of China. By 1952, Chinese Communist forces had defeated both the Kuomintang Chinese and the local Tibetans and had assumed control of the region, solidifying their hold on the area by 1958 and formally spelling the end of the political existence of Amdo as a distinct Tibetan province.
Amdo was and is the home of many important Tibetan Buddhist monks (or lamas), scholars who had a major influence on both politics and religious development of Tibet like the 14th Dalai Lama, the 10th Panchen Lama, and the great reformer Je Tsongkhapa.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Language
- 4 History
- 5 Monasteries
- 6 Traditional pastoral economy
- 7 Local government
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Amdo consists of all of former northeastern Tibet, including the upper reaches of the Yellow River (Hwang-Ho: Chinese, Machu: Tibetan), and the great lake of Koko Nor. Its southern border is the Bayan Kara mountain range. The area is wind-swept and tree-less, with lots of grass. Animals of the region consist of the yak, and the wild ass, (equus kiang). Domesticated animals of the region consist of the yak, yak/cow hybrids, goats, sheep, and Mongolian ponies.
The Tibetan inhabitants of Amdo are referred to as Amdowa (Tibetan: ཨ་མདོ་པ།; amdo pa) as a regional distinction from the Tibetans of Kham (Khampa) and U-Tsang (Central Tibet), however, they are all considered ethnically Tibetan.
Today, ethnic Tibetans predominate in the western and southern parts of Amdo, which are now administered as various Tibetan, Tibetan-Qiang, or Mongol-Tibetan autonomous prefectures. The Han Chinese are a majority in the eastern part of Qinghai and the provincial capital Xining. While geographically small compared to the rest of Qinghai, this area has the largest population density, with the result that the Han Chinese outnumber other ethnicities in Qinghai generally. The northern part of Qinghai has a Mongol majority. For details on the demographics of various Tibetan entities in Amdo and Tibet generally, see Tibet - Major ethnic groups in Greater Tibet by region, 2000 census.
The majority of Amdo Tibetans live in the larger part of Qinghai Province, including the Mtsho byang (Tibetan: མཚོ་བྱང་།; Ch. Haibei) TAP, Mtsho lho (Tibetan: མཚོ་ལྷོ་།; Ch. Hainan) TAP, Rma lho (Tibetan: རྨ་ལྷོ་།; Ch. Huangnan) TAP, and Mgo log (Tibetan: མགོ་ལོག།; Ch. Guoluo) TAP, as well as in the Kan lho (Tibetan: ཀན་ལྷོ།; Ch. Gannan) TAP of the southwest Gansu province, and sections of the Rnga ba (Tibetan: རྔ་བ།; Ch. Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous prefecture of north-west Sichuan Province. Additionally, a great many Amdo Tibetans live within the Haidong (Tibetan: མཚོ་ཤར།; Wylie: mtsho shar) Prefecture of Qinghai which is located to the east of the Blue Lake (Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན།, Wylie: Mtsho sngon; Kokonor) and around Xining city, but they constitute only a minority (ca. 8.5%) of the total population there and so the region did not attain TAP status. The vast Haixi (Mstho nub) Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, to the west of the Blue Lake, also has a minority Tibetan population (ca. 10%), and only those Tibetans in the eastern parts of this Prefecture are Amdo inhabitants.
Mongols too have been long-term settlers in Amdo, arriving first during the time of Genghis Khan, but particularly in a series of settlement waves during the Ming period. Over the centuries, most of the Amdo Mongols have become highly Tibetanised and, superficially at least, it is now difficult to discern their original non-Tibetan ethnicity. Amdo has been famous in epic story and in history as a land where splendid horses are raised and run wild.
There are many dialects of the Tibetan language spoken in Amdo due to the traditional geographical isolation of many tribal groups, however the written Tibetan language is the same throughout Tibet.
During the 7th century through the 9th century, Tibet was extended as far north as the Tarim Basin, south until India and Nepal, east to China, and west until Kashmir. During this period, control of the Amdo province moved from Songtsän Gampo and his successors to the royal family's ministers, the Gar Clan. These ministers had their positions inherited from their parents, similar to the emperor. King Tüsong tried to wrest control of this area from the ministers, unsuccessfully.
In the 9th century, the central Tibetan kingdom broke into smaller polities; however Amdo and Kham maintained close culturally and religiously to the central Tibet. These small polities were small kingdoms or even governed as tribes and were officially under Chinese and Tibetan rule; however they held no allegiance to either. During this same time period the Buddhist monks were forced out of their temples by rampaging Chinese. These monks wandered for a period to settle in the Amdo region.
There is a historical account of an official from the 9th century sent to collect taxes to Amdo. Instead, he acquires a fief. He then tells of the 10 virtues of the land. Two of the virtues are in the grass, one for meadows near home, one for distant pastures. Two virtues in soil, one to build houses and one for good fields. Two virtues are in the water, one for drinking and one for irrigation. There are two in the stone, one for building and one for milling. The timber has two virtues, one for building and one for firewood. Other stories talk about the original inhabitants of the Amdo region. These consist of the forest-dwellers (nags-pa), the mountain-dwellers (ri-pa), the plains-dwellers (thang-pa), the grass-men (rtsa-mi), and the woodsmen (shing-mi). The grass men were famous for their horses.
Gewasel is a monk that helped resurrect Tibetan Buddhism. He was taught as a child and showed amazing enthusiasm for the religion. When he was ordained he went in search of teachings. After obtaining the Vinaya, he was set to travel to Central Tibet, but for a drought. Instead he chose to travel in solitude to Amdo. Locals had heard of him and his solitude was not to be as he was sought after. In time he established a line of refugee monks in Amdo and with the wealth that he acquired he built temples and stupas also.
The Ch'iang People came into contact with the Sumpa (Chinese:Su-pi) people, then with the Asha People (Chinese: T'u-yü-hun). Then around 1032, they formed the Minyak kingdom (Chinese: Xi Xia), which lasted into the 13th century.
The Mongols conquered eastern Amdo by 1240, and made the whole Tibetan region under Yuan rule, separated from the territory of former Song dynasty of China. A patron and priest relationship began in 1253 when a Tibetan priest, Phagspa, visited Kublai Khan he became so popular that he was made Kublai's spiritual guide and later appointed by him to the rank of priest king of Tibet and constituted ruler of (1) Tibet Proper, comprising the thirteen states of U-Tsang Province; (2) Kham, and (3) Amdo. He spent his later years at Sakya Monastery in Central Tibet, which required that he travel through Amdo regularly. On one of these trips, he encountered armed resistance in Amdo and required escorts from Mongol Princes to travel through Amdo. Tibet regained its independence from the Mongols before native Chinese overthrew the Yuan dynasty in 1368, although it avoided directly resisting the Yuan court until the latter's fall. Under the Mongol Yuan dynasty of Kublai Khan, Amdo and Kham were split into two commandaries, which, along with Ü-Tsang, were collectively referred to as the three commandaries of Tibet.
14th century through the 16th century
The following Ming Dynasty nominally largely maintained the Mongol divisions of Tibet with some sub-division. However, from the middle of the Ming era, the Chinese government lost control in Amdo, and the Mongols again seized political control.
Power struggles among various Mongol factions in Tibet and Amdo led to a period alternating between the supremacy of the Dalai Lama (nominally) and Mongol overlords. In 1642 the fifth Dalai Lama received both spiritual and temporal authority from the Mongol king, Güshi Khan. This allowed the Gelugpa Buddhist sect and the Dalai Lama to gain enough power to last til the present day. The Mongol king also gave portions of Eastern Tiber (Kham) back to the Tibetans; however Amdo remained under Mongol control.
In 1705, with the approval of the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty, Lha-bzang Khan of the Khoshud deposed the regent and sent the 6th Dalai Lama to Beijing; the 6th Dalai Lama died soon after, probably near Qinghai Lake (Koko nur) in Amdo. The Dzungar Mongols invaded Tibet during the chaos, and held the entire region until their final defeat by an expedition of the Qing imperial army in 1720.
When the Manchu Qing dynasty rose to power in the early 18th century it established Xining, a town to the north of Amdo, as the administrative base for the area. Amdo was placed within the Qinghai Province. During this period they were ruled by the Amban, who allowed near total autonomy by the monasteries and the other local leaders.
The Yongzheng Emperor seized full control of Qinghai (Amdo) in the 1720s. The boundaries of Xining Prefecture, which contains most of Amdo, with Sichuan and Tibet-proper was established following this. The boundary of Xining Prefecture and Xizang, or central Tibet, was the Dangla Mountains. This roughly corresponds with the modern boundary of Qinghai with the Tibet Autonomous Region. The boundary of Xining Prefecture with Sichuan was also set at this time, dividing the Ngaba area of the former Amdo into Sichuan. This boundary also roughly corresponds with the modern boundary of Qinghai with Sichuan. A new boundary, following the Ning-ching mountain range, was established between Sichuan and Tibet. East of these mountains, local chieftains ruled under the nominal authority of the Sichuan provincial government; Lhasa administered the area to the west. The 1720s thus saw Tibet's first major reduction in area in centuries.[nb 2] Other parts of old Amdo was administered by the Administrator of Qinghai. Kokonor Mongols from northern Xinjiang moved into Qinghai in this period.
In all these predominantly culturally Tibetan areas, the Qing Empire used a system of administration relying on local, Tibetan, rulers. A 1977 University of Chicago PhD. thesis, described the political history of the Tibetan region in Gansu (which was historically one part of Amdo) during the Qing dynasty as follows:
In the time of the Manchu dynasty, the entire region was administered by a viceroy of the Imperial Government. That portion of the country occupied by Chinese Moslems and some other, smaller, racial units was under traditional Chinese law. The Tibetans enjoyed almost complete independence and varying degrees of prestige. The Chone Prince ruled over the forty-eight "banners" of one group of Tibetans; other Tibetan rulers or chiefs held grants or commissions- some of them hundreds of years old- from the Imperial Government. At that time the ethnic frontier corresponded almost exactly with the administrative frontier.
In 1906, the 13th Dalai Lama while touring the country, was enticed by a procession of a thousand lamas, to stay at the temple at Kumbum. He spent a year resting and learning among other things Sanskrit and poetry.
In 1912, Qing Dynasty collapsed and relative independence followed with the Dalai Lama ruling Central Tibet. Eastern Tibet, including Amdo and Kham, were ruled by local and regional warlords and chiefs. The Hui Muslims administered the agricultural areas in the north and east of the region. Amdo saw numerous powerful leaders including both secular and non. The monasteries, such as Labrang, Repkong, and Taktsang Lhamo supervised the choosing of the local leaders or headmen in the areas under their control. These tribes consisted of several thousand nomads. Meanwhile, Sokwo, Ngawa, and Choni, had secular leaders appointed, with some becoming kings and even creating familial dynasties. This secular form of government went as far as Machu.
The Muslim warlord Ma Qi waged war in the name of the Republic of China against the Labrang monastery and Ngoloks. After ethnic rioting between Muslims and Tibetans emerged in 1918, Ma Qi defeated the Tibetans, then commenced to tax the town heavily for 8 years. In 1925, a Tibetan rebellion broke out, with thousands of Tibetans driving out the Muslims. Ma Qi responded with 3,000 Chinese Muslim troops, who retook Labrang and machine gunned thousands of Tibetan monks as they tried to flee. Ma Qi besieged Labrang numerous times, the Tibetans and Mongols fought against his Muslim forces for control of Labrang, until Ma Qi gave it up in 1927. His forces were praised by foreigners who traveled through Qinghai for their fighting abilities. However, that was not the last Labrang saw of General Ma. The Muslim forces looted and ravaged the monastery again.
In 1928, the Ma Clique formed an alliance with the Kuomintang. In the 1930s, the Muslim warlord Ma Bufang, the son of Ma Qi, seized the northeast corner of Amdo in the name of Chiang Kai-shek's weak central government, effectively incorporating it into the Chinese province of Qinghai. From that point until 1949, much of the rest of Amdo was gradually assimilated into the Kuomintang Chinese provincial system, with the major portion of it becoming nominally part of Qinghai province and a smaller portion becoming part of Gansu province. Due to the lack of a Chinese administrative presence in the region, however, most of the communities of the rural areas of Amdo and Kham remained under their own local, Tibetan lay and monastic leaders into the 1950s. Tibetan region of Lho-Jang and Gyarong in Kham, and Ngapa (Chinese Aba) and Golok in Amdo, were still independent of Chinese hegemony, despite the creation on paper of Qinghai Province in 1927.
The 14th Dalai Lama was born in the Amdo region, in 1935, and when he was announced as a possible candidate, Ma Bufang tried to prevent the boy from travelling to Tibet. He demanded a ransom of 300,000 dollars, which was paid and then he escorted the young boy to Tibet.
In May 1949, Ma Bufang was appointed Military Governor of Northwest China, making him the highest-ranked administrator of the Amdo region. However, by August 1949, the advancing People's Liberation Army had annihilated Ma's army, though residual forces took several years to defeat. By 1949, advance units of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (the PLA) had taken much of Amdo from the Nationalists. By 1952, the major towns in the region were fully under the control of People's Republic of China, though many of the rural areas continued to enjoy de facto autonomy for several more years.
In 1958, Chinese communists assumed official control of Tibetan regions in Kham and Amdo. Many of the nomads of Amdo revolted. Some areas were reported virtually empty of men: They either had been killed or imprisoned or had fled. The largest monastery in Amdo was forced to close. Of its three thousand monks, two thousand were arrested.
In July 1958 as the revolutionary fervor of the Great Leap Forward swept across the People’s Republic of China, Zeku County in the Amdo region of cultural Tibet erupted in violence against efforts by the Chinese Communist Party to impose rapid collectivization on the pastoral communities of the grasslands. Rebellion also stirred the region at the beginning of the 1950s as “Liberation” first settled on the northeastern Tibetan plateau. The immediate ramifications of each disturbance both for the Amdo Tibetan elites and commoners, and for the Han cadres in their midst, elucidates early PRC nation-building and state-building struggles in minority nationality areas and the influence of this crucial transitional period on relations between Han and Tibetan in Amdo decades later.
Amdo was traditionally a place of great learning and scholarship and contains many great monasteries including Kumbum Jampa Ling (Chin. Ta'er Si) near Xining, Labrang Tashi Khyil south of Lanzhou, and the Kirti Monasteries of Ngaba and Taktsang Lhamo in Dzoge County (Ch: Ruanggui /Zoige Xian).
Traditional pastoral economy
Amdo Tibetans' traditional lifestyle and economy is centred on agriculture. Depending on the region and environment they live in they are either nomads (Drog pa) or farmers (Sheng pa). This economy has been prevalent throughout history and has changed little in the modern time. It typically consists of a dual homes or bases for the families as, in the summer they move up the mountains with their animals for better grazing, then in the harsh winters come down to the valleys, where they have small agricultural fields that grow fodder for their livestock. Some villages have less of a trek involved as their pasture may be near by and they can come home every night.
After 1949, the Chinese communists inherited and adopted the earlier Republican county system, and the basic arrangements of local government in Amdo have changed little up to the present day. With the advent of communist administrators in Amdo during the 1950s, a series of larger Tibetan autonomous prefectures were newly established on top of the existing county system in those places where Tibetans formed the majority of the population. This development was in line with the policy towards minority nationalities set down in the new constitution of the PRC.
- Note: The identically-named, sparsely-populated Amdo County in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) is not part of the historical Amdo province. It was directly administered by the Dalai Lama from Lhasa and is today a part of the Changthang region administered by Nagqu in the northern part of the TAR.
- Kolmas 1967, pp. 41-2 quoted by Goldstein
- Grunfield 1996, p. 245
- Stein 1972, p. 20
- Stein 1972, p. 23
- Stein 1972, p. 22
- Huber 2002, pp. xiii-xv
- Stein 1972, p. 24
- Stein 1972, p. 62
- Hoiberg 2010, p. 1
- Stein 1972, p. 63
- Yeh 2003, p. 508
- Van Schaik 2011, pp. 49–50
- Stein 1972, pp. 23–24
- Van Schaik 2011, pp. 50–51
- Stein 1972, p. 29
- Van Schaik 2011, p. 76
- Petech 1990, pp. 7–8
- Schirokauer 2006, p. 174
- Patterson 1960, pp. 87–88
- Van Schaik 2011, p. 80
- Craig 2000, pp. 33–34
- Petech 1990, pp. 136–137
- Davis 2008, p. 242
- Richardson 1986, pp. 48–49
- Schirokauer 2006, p. 242
- Van Schaik 2011, pp. 140–141
- Pirie 2005, p. 85 Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Pirie_F_2005" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- Davis 2008, p. 243
- Goldstein 1994, pp. 80–81
- Ekvall 1977, p. 6
- Van Schaik 2011, pp. 182–183
- Barney 2008, p. 71
- Tyson Jr. & Tyson 1995, p. 123
- Nietupski 1999, p. 87
- Nietupski 1999, p. 90
- Fletcher 1980, p. 43
- Laird 2006, p. 262
- Anon 2013
- Tibet Environmental Watch 2013
- Richardson 1962, pp. 151–153
- Craig 2000, p. 44
- Jiao 2013
- Laird 2006, p. 382
- Weiner 2012, pp. 398–405,427
- Van Schaik 2011, pp. 265–266
- Stein 1972, pp. 123–124
- Huber 2002, p. xviii
- Anon (2013). "A-mdo". Britannica Online. Retrieved 10 Feb 2014.
- Barney, Austin (2008). "Tibet, and My Time Spent There" (PDF). Columbia East Asia Review. 1 (Spring): 71–75.
- Craig, Mary (2000) . Tears Of Blood: A Cry for Tibet. Counterpoint. ISBN 978-1582431024.
- Davis, Michael C. (May 2008). "Establishing a workable Autonomy in Tibet" (PDF). Human Rights Quarterly. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 30 (2): 227–258. doi:10.1353/hrq.0.0001.
- Ekvall, Robert B. (1977) . "I: The Kansu-Tibetan Border". Cultural Relations on the Kansu-Tibetan Border. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226200804. Archived from the original on 18 Mar 2008.
- Fletcher, Joseph (1980). Alonso, Mary Ellen, ed. China's Inner Asian Frontier: Photographs of the Wulsin Expedition to Northwest China in 1923. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674119680.
- Goldstein, Melvyn C. (1994). "Change, Conflict and Continuity among a community of nomadic pastoralists—A Case Study from western Tibet, 1950-1990". In Barnett, Robert; Akiner, Shirin. Resistance and Reform in Tibet. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253311313. Retrieved 2 Mar 2010.
- Grunfield, A. Tom (1996). The Making of Modern Tibet. M.E. Sharpe Inc. ISBN 978-1563247149.
- Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "A-mdo". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- Huber, Toni (2002). Huber, Toni, ed. Amdo Tibetans in Transition: Society and Culture in the Post-Mao Era. The Netherlands: Brill Academic Pub. ISBN 978-9004125964.
- Jiao, Xu (2013). "青海解放：1950年1月1日青海省人民政府正式成立中央任命赵寿山为主席] (Liberation of Qinghai: January 1, 1950: Qinghai Provincial People's Government established. Central government appoints Zhao Shoushan as Governor)" (in Chinese).
- Laird, Thomas (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama. New York, NY: Grove Press. ISBN 978-0802118271.
- Nietupski, Paul Kocot (1999). Labrang: A Tibetan Buddhist Monastery at the Crossroads of Four Civilizations. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 978-1559390903. Retrieved 28 Jun 2010.
- Patterson, George N. (Mar 1960). "China and Tibet: Background to the Revolt". The China Quarterly. 1: 87–102. doi:10.1017/S0305741000022724. ISSN 1468-2648.
- Petech, Luciano (1990). Central Tibet and The Mongols. Serie Orientale Roma. 65. Rome: Instituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente. ASIN B0006F23TK.
- Pirie, Fernanda (Jan 2005). "Segmentation within the state: the reconfiguration of Tibetan tribes in China's reform period". Nomadic Peoples. Berghahn Journals. 9 (1-2): 83–102. doi:10.3167/082279405781826074.
- Richardson, Hugh E. (1962). A Short History of Tibet. New York, NY: E. P. Dutton & Co. Inc. LCCN 61-6023.
- Richardson, Hugh E. (1986). Tibet and its History (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Shambhala. ISBN 978-0877733768.
- Schirokauer, Conrad (2006). A Brief History of Chinese Civilization. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-534-64305-1.
- Stein, R. A. (1972). Tibetan Civilization. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0901-7.
- Tibet Environmental Watch (2013). "Historical Map of Tibet IV: The End of Isolation, [1940-49]".
- Tyson Jr., James L.; Tyson, Ann Scott (1995). Chinese Awakenings: Life Stories From The Unofficial China. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0813324739. Retrieved 28 Jun 2010.
- Van Schaik, Sam (2011). Tibet: A History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15404-7.
- Weiner, Benno Ryan (2012). "The Chinese Revolution on the Tibetan Frontier: State Building, National Integration and Socialist Transformation, Zeku (Tsékhok) County, 1953-1958". 2012 Dissertation. Columbia University: 1–470.
- Yeh, Emily T. (2003). "Tibetan Range Wars: Spatial Politics and Authority on the Grasslands of Amdo". Development and Change. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing. 34 (3): 499–523. doi:10.1111/1467-7660.00316.
- Dhondup, Yangdon; Diemberger, Hildegard (2002). "Introduction: Mongols and Tibetans". Inner Asia. The White Horse Press for the Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unit at the University of Cambridge. 4 (2): 171–180.
- Goldstein, Melvyn C. (2007). A History of Modern Tibet. 2: The Calm Before the Storm, 1951-1955. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24941-7.
- Gruschke, Andreas (2001). The Cultural Monuments of Tibet's Outer Provinces: Amdo. Bangkok: White Lotus Press. ISBN 978-9747534597.
- Kolmas, Josef (1967). "Tibet and Imperial China: A Survey of Sino-Tibetan Relations up to the End of the Manchu Dynasty in 1912". Occasional Paper. Canberra, Australia: The Australian National University, Centre of Oriental Studies (7).
||This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
- The Tibetan Phrasebook - A Phrasebook of Modern Amdo Tibetan
- The East Tibet Website
- Bilgi Sitesi
- Amdo - delineation and history in brief (PDF file; 216 kb) (engl.)
- The Huge Thangka of Amdo
- The Skor lam and the Long March: Notes on the Transformation of Tibetan Ritual Territory in Southern A mdo in the Context of Chinese Developments
- Photographs of animist Shaman Festival in Repkong/Tongren in Amdo
- AHP43 Amdo Tibetan Language