Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms

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In the 5th century, the historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms, originally written by Chen Shou in the 3rd century, was annotated by Pei Songzhi (372-451), who was born in present-day Yuncheng, Shanxi. After leaving his native land, he became the Gentleman of Texts under the Liu Song Dynasty, and was given the assignment of editing the book, which was completed in 429. This became the official history of the Three Kingdoms period, under the title Sanguozhi zhu (zhu meaning "notes"). He went about providing detailed explanations to some of the geography and other elements mentioned in the original. More importantly, he made corrections to the work, in consultation with records he collected of the period. In regard to historical events and figures, as well as Chen Shou's opinions, he added his own commentary. From his broad research, he was able to create a history which was relatively complete, without many of the loose ends of the original. Some of the added material was colourful and of questionable authenticity, possibly fictional. All the additional material made the book close to twice the length of the original.

List of texts used in Pei Songzhi's annotations[edit]

Official and private histories[edit]

Title Translation Author / Compiler Notes Locus of First Citation[note 1]
Diwang Shiji
The Era of Sovereigns Huangfu Mi Deeds of emperors and kings since legendary times 38.975, n 3
Yu Huan Believed to be based on parts of Weilüe 1.45, n 1
Gaoshi Zhuan
Huangfu Mi Contains biographies of people from the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors era to the Three Kingdoms period 11.355
Han Ji
Annals of Han Yuan Hong Annalistic history of the Later Han 2.57–8, n 3
Han Ji
Annals of Han Zhang Fan (張璠) Also known as Annals of the Later Han (後漢紀) May never have been completed.[note 2] 1.3, n 2
Han Jin Chunqiu
Chronicles of Han and Jin Xi Zuochi Records the history of Han Dynasty up to the Western Jin Dynasty 1.20
Han Shu
Book of Han Hua Qiao (華嶠) Hua Qiao was a grandson of Hua Xin. Records the history of the late Eastern Han Dynasty. Also known as Later Book of Han (漢後書). Not to be confused with the Book of Han by Ban Biao and his children. 6.177
Han Shu Zhu
Annotated Book of Han Ban Gu and Ban Zhao; Ying Shao, annotation Official history of the Western Han Dynasty. Extant. 1.36, n 5
Han Wei Chunqiu
Chronicles of Han and Wei Kong Yan (孔衍) Historical record of the late Han Dynasty and Wei Dynasty 1.46, n 2
Hou Han Shu
Book of the Later Han Xie Cheng (謝承) Records the history of the late Han Dynasty. Not to be confused with Fan Ye's Book of the Later Han. Xie Cheng was a younger brother of Sun Quan's wife Lady Xie. 1.6–7 n 5
Huayang Guo Zhi
Chronicles of Huayang Chang Qu Records the history of Bashu (巴蜀; present-day Sichuan and Chongqing) from the Han Dynasty to the Jin Dynasty 32.875, n 2
Jiaoguang Ji
Records of Jiao and Guang provinces Wang Yin (王隱) Records the geographical history of Jiao and Guang provinces 60.1385
Jin Huidi Qiju Zhu
Notes on Daily Life in Emperor Hui of Jin's Time Records about events in the reign of Emperor Hui of Jin 8.262, n 2
Jin Taishi Qiju Zhu
Notes on Daily Life in Taishi of Jin Records about events in the Taishi era (265-274) of the reign of Emperor Wu of Jin 35.932–3
Jin Ji
Annals of Jin Gan Bao Records the history of the Western Jin Dynasty[1] 3.145 n 1
Jin Shu
Book of Jin Wang Yin (王隱) Records the history of the Western Jin Dynasty. Co-written by Wang Yin's father Wang Quan (王銓). Not to be confused with the official history of the Jin Dynasty, the Book of Jin by Fang Xuanling et al. 1.49, n 3
Jin Shu
Book of Jin Yu Yu (虞預) Yu Yu's Book of Jin is believed to have been plagiarised from correspondence with Wang Yin (王隱)[2] 21.605–6
Jin Yang Qiu
Sun Sheng Records the history of the Jin Dynasty up to Emperor Ai of Jin's time 8.253, n 2
Jiuzhou Chunqiu
Annals of the Nine Provinces Sima Biao Records the history of the late Han Dynasty in ten fascicles 1.4
Jiuzhou Ji
Records of the Nine Provinces Xun Chuo (荀綽) Divided into nine volumes, each covering one of the Nine Provinces.[note 3] 11.336
Lingdi Ji
Annals of Emperor Ling Liu Ai (劉艾) Records about Emperor Ling of Han 1.45, n 1
Mo Ji
Records Written from Memory Zhang Yan (張儼) Records of Zhuge Liang and others 35.935–6
San Chao Lu
Records of the Three Dynasties Zhang Wen?[note 4] Information on Sun Lang (孫朗) 51.1213; biography of Sun Kuang
San Guo Ping
Commentary on the Three Kingdoms Xu Zhong (徐眾) Commentary on events in the Three Kingdoms period 7.237
Records of the Grand Historian Sima Qian First complete history. Extant. 19.568–9, n 2; biography of Cao Zhi[3]
Accounts of this Generation Guo Song (郭頒) Also known as Wei Jin Shiyu (魏晉世語). A particularly poor historical text.[note 5] 1.2, n 3
Shu Benji
Basic Annals of Shu Qiao Zhou Records about Liu Bei 32.889, n 1
Shu Ji
Records of Shu Wang Yin (王隱) Records about the history of Shu 18.547, n 2; biography of Pang De
Complete Accounts Yin Ji (殷基) Accounts of the beginnings of the Jin Dynasty 44.1062, n 1
Wei Ji
Annals of Wei Yin Dan (殷澹) 19.558, n 1; biography of Cao Zhi
Brief History of Wei Yu Huan 1.18
Wei Mo Zhuan
Records of the End of Wei Records events that occurred near the end of the Wei state 3.91, n 2
Wei Shi Chunqiu
Chronicles of the Ruling Family of Wei Sun Sheng Records the history of Wei in chronological order 1.18
Wei Shu
Book of Wei Wang Shen (王沈), Xun Yi (荀顗), Ruan Ji Compiled after the fall of Wei 1.1 n 1
Wu Ji
Annals of Wu Huan Ji (環濟) 53.1247, n 4
Wu Li
History of Wu Hu Chong (胡沖) 2.89
Wu Lu
Records of Wu Zhang Bo (張勃) 37.954, n 2
Wu Shu
Book of Wu Wei Zhao 1.11, n 1
Wu Zhi
Records of Wu 1.6, n 3
Xiandi Chunqiu
Chronicles of Emperor Xian Yuan Wei (袁暐)[4] Records about Emperor Xian of Han. 1.12
Xiandi Qiju Zhu
Notes on Emperor Xian's Daily Life Records the events in the reign of Emperor Xian of Han 1.22, n 2
Xu Han Shu
Continuation of the Book of Han Sima Biao Records about the late Eastern Han Dynasty 1.1–2

Government documents[edit]

Title Translation Author / Compiler Notes Locus of First Citation[note 1]
Baiguan Ming
Official Posts Register of Officials during the Jin Dynasty 12.390; biography of Sima Zhi (司馬芝)
Shan Jin Wen
On the Abdication to Jin Cao Wei court document outlining their position on the succession of power 14.455 n 2; biography of Jiang Ji
Taikang San Nian Diji
Land Survey of 282[note 6] Government survey of population and local conditions 22.637 n 1; biography of Chen Qun
Wei Jiaosi Zou
Memorandum on Wei's Biannual Nature Sacrifice Government document of Cao Wei 2.83
Wei Mingchen Zou
Memorials of Famous Ministers of Wei Chen Shou[5] Compiled in the Zhengshi era (240-249) of the reign of Cao Fang.[citation needed] 3.111–2
Xianxi Yuannian Baiguan Ming
Official Posts of the Opening Year of the Xianxi Period Register of officials of Cao Wei in 264 28.794
Xiandi Zhuan
Biography of Emperor Xian Records about Emperor Xian of Han. Supplementary to Xiandi Ji. Contains memorials sent by various officials to Emperor Xian, urging the latter to abdicate in favour of Cao Pi. 1.39–40, n 3

Individual, family, and group biographies[edit]

Title Translation Author / Compiler Notes Locus of First Citation[note 1]
Bing Yuan Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Bing Yuan Records and letters of Bing Yuan (邴原) and associates 11.351–4
Cao Man Zhuan
Biography of Cao Man Records about Cao Cao's life prior to his rise to power 1.1 n 1
Cao Zhi Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Cao Zhi Records about Cao Zhì (曹志), son of Cao Zhí 19.577 n 2; biography of Cao Zhi
Chenliu Qijiu Zhuan
Biographies of the Seniors of Chenliu Su Lin (蘇林)[6] Contains biographies of people from Chenliu (陳留) 24:683, n 2; biography of Gao Rou
Chen Shi Pu
Chen Family Genealogy Records about Chen Tai and his family 22:641 n 2; biography of Chen Qun
Cheng Xiao Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Cheng Xiao Records about Cheng Xiao (程曉) 14.431, n 2
Chuguo Xianxian Zhuan
Biographies of the Departed Worthies of Chu Contains biographies of people from Jing Province 4.141
Cui Shi Pu
Cui Family Genealogy Records about Cui Lie (崔烈) and his family, the Cui clan of Boling 35.911, n 3
Du Shi Xinshu
Mr Du's New Book [note 7] History of the Du family. Also known as Du Shi Youqiu Xinshu (杜氏幽求新書). 16.497; biography of Du Ji
Fei Yi Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Fei Yi Records about Fei Yi 44.1061, nn 1–3
Gu Tan Zhuan
Biography of Gu Tan Lu Ji[note 8] Biography of Gu Tan 52.1231, n 1
Guan Lu Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Guan Lu Guan Chen (管辰) Records about Guan Lu 29.811; biography of Guan Lu
Guanqiu Jian Zhi Ji
The Records of Guanqiu Jian Likely an unofficial, family-style biography of Guanqiu Jian[7] 3.112
Guo Linzong Zhuan
Biography of Guo Linzong Biography of Guo Tai (郭泰) 22.648
Guo Shi Pu
Guo Family Genealogy Records about Guo Huai and his family 26.734
Han Mo Mingshi Lu
Records of Famous People of the Late Han Dynasty 6.192
Hu Shi Pu
Hu Family Genealogy Records about Hu Zhi (胡質) and his family 27.741; biography of Hu Zhi
Hua Tuo Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Hua Tuo Records about Hua Tuo 29.802; biography of Hua Tuo
Ji Kang Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Ji Kang Ji Xi (嵇喜) 21.606; Biography of Ji Kang
Ji Shi Pu
Ji Family Genealogy Records about Ji Kang and his family 20.583; biography of Cao Lin (曹林)
Ji Yun Biezhuan
Unofficial Biographies of [Lu] Ji and [Lu] Yun Records about Lu Ji and Lu Yun (陸雲), sons of Lu Xun 58.1360–1, n 2
Jia Zhuan
The Story of My Family Cao Cao The Cao family's background and lineage 14.455 n 2; biography of Jiang Ji
Jiang Biao Zhuan
Yu Pu (虞溥) Contains biographies of people from the Jiangnan region 1.39–40
Jin Zhugong Zan
Appraisal of Officials of Jin Fu Chang (傅暢) Contains biographies of officials in the Wei and Jin courts 4.138
Kong Shi Pu
Kong Family Genealogy About Kong Yi (孔乂) and his family 16.514–5; biography of Cang Ci
Kuaiji Dianlu
Esteemed Records of Kuaiji Contains records of people from Kuaiji (會稽) 46.1100, n 10
Kuaiji Shao Shi Jia Zhuan
Genealogy of the Shao Family of Kuaiji Records about Shao Chou (邵疇) and his family 48.1170–1
Lingling Xianxian Zhuan
Biographies of the Departed Worthies of Lingling Contains biographies of people from Lingling (零陵) 6.216, n 5
Liu Shi Pu
Liu Family Genealogy Records about Liu Yi (劉廙) and his family 21.617, n 4
Liu Yi Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Liu Yu Records about Liu Yi (劉廙) 21.614–5, n 2
Lujiang He Shi Jia Zhuan
Genealogy of the He Family of Lujiang 21.622, n 5
Lu Chen Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Lu Chen 22.653
Lu Shi Citang Xiang Zan
Records about Lu Xun and his family 58.1343
Lu Shi Shisong
Lu Family Genealogy Records about Lu Xun and his family 58.1343
Lu Xun Ming
Obituary Inscription of Lu Xun Lu Ji[note 8] 58.1349
Pan Ni Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Pan Ni Records about Pan Ni (潘尼) 21.613, n 1
Pan Yue Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Pan Yue Records about Pan Yue (潘岳) 21.613, n 1
Pei Shi Jia Ji
Pei Family Genealogy Fu Chang (傅暢) 42.1024, n 3
Pingyuan Mi Heng Zhuan
Biography of Mi Heng of Pingyuan Life and letters of Mi Heng and associates 10.311, n 2
Pu Xu
Discussion of the Genealogy)[note 9] Hua Jiao (華嶠) Deeds of Hua Xin (華歆), family, and associates 13.402, n 3
Ren Gu Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Ren Gu Records about Ren Gu (任嘏) 27.748, n 6
Runan Xianxian Zhuan
Biographies of Departed Worthies of Runan Zhou Pei (周裴)[6] Contains biographies of people from Runan 23.658; biography of He Qia
Ruan Shi Pu
Ruan Family Genealogy About Ruan Wu (阮武) and his family 16.508; biography of Du Shu (杜恕)
Sanfu Jue Lu Zhu
Annotated Selected Records of Sanfu Zhao Qi; Zhi Yu (摯虞), annotation Records about people in the Sanfu area surrounding Guanzhong, Shaanxi 1.50, n 2
Shan Tao Xingzhuang
Records of Shan Tao (山濤) 21.607
Shanyang Gong Zaiji
Records of the Duke of Shanyang Yue Zi (樂資) Anecdotes related to Liu Xie (劉協, Emperor Xian of Han) 1.31, n 2
Shu Shi Pu
Shu Genealogy Sun Sheng 34.906, n 3
Sun Hui Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Sun Hui Records about Sun Hui (孫惠) 51.1211, n 3
Sun Shi Pu
Sun Family Genealogy Records about Sun Zi (孫資) and his family 14.462
Sun Zi Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Sun Zi Records about Sun Zi (孫資) 14.457–9, nn 1, 2, 4
Wang Bi Zhuan
Biography of Wang Bi He Shao (何劭) Biography of Wang Bi 14.449, n 2
Wang Lang Jia Zhuan
Wang Lang Family Biographies About Wang Lang and his family 13.407
Wang Shi Pu
Wang Family Genealogy Probably two separate documents,[note 10] one registering the Wang clan of Langye, the other recording the Wang clan of Taiyuan Langye: 24.679; biography of Cui Lin
Taiyuan: 27.744; biography of Wang Xu
Wei Shi Pu
Genealogy of Wei Sun Sheng 4.123, n 1
Wei Wu Gushi
Story of the Martial Emperor of Wei [Cao Cao] Records of people and events associated with Cao Cao 1.18
Wenshi Zhuan
Biographies of Scholars [note 11] Biographies of various people 9.280; 10.312, n 2; biography of Xun Yu
Wu Zhi Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Wu Zhi Records about Wu Zhi 21.609–610
Xianxian Xingzhuang
The Background of Departed Worthies Biographical information of various people including Xu Qiu (徐璆) 1.30
Xiandi Ji
Records of Emperor Xian [note 12] Records about Emperor Xian of Han. 1.13, n 2
Xiangyang Ji
Records of Xiangyang Xi Zuochi Contains biographies of people from Xiangyang (present-day Xiangyang, Hubei) 35.913, n 1
Xun Can Zhuan
Biography of Xun Can He Shao (何劭) Biography of Xun Can (荀粲) 10.319–320
Xun Shi Jia Zhuan
Xun Family Genealogy Records about Xun Yu, Xun You, and their family 10.316, n 1
Xun Xu Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Xun Xu Records about Xun Xu (荀勗) 10.332
Xun Yu Beiwen
Epitaph of Xun Yu Pan Xu (潘勗) Xun Yu's epitaph 10.312, n 2; biography of Xun Yu
Xun Yu Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Xun Yu Records about Xun Yu 10.315
Yishi Zhuan
Biographies of Hermits Huangfu Mi Stories of political recluses 1.31, n 1
Yi Bu Qijiu Zhuan
Biographies of the Seniors of the Yi Region [note 13] Contains biographies of people from Yi Province 31.866, n 4
Yingxiong Ji
Chronicles of Heroes and Champions Wang Can Also known as Han Mo Yingxiong Ji (漢末英雄記; Chronicles of Heroes of the Late Han Dynasty). Records about the warlords of the late Han Dynasty. 1.6
Yu Fan Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Yu Fan Records about Yu Fan 57.1317, n 3
Yu Shi Pu
Yu Family Genealogy Records about Yu Ni (庾嶷) and his family 11.363, n 3
Yuan Shi Shiji
Annals of the Yuan Family Records about Yuan Huan and his family 11.334
Zhao Yun Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Zhao Yun Records about Zhao Yun 36.948–9
Zheng Xuan Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Zheng Xuan Records about Zheng Xuan 4.142
Zheng Xuan Zhuan
Biography of Zheng Xuan) Biography of Zheng Xuan 38.970; biography of Sun Qian
Zhong Hui Mu Zhuan
The Biography of My Mother Zhong Hui Biography of Zhong Hui's mother 28.784, .785–6
Zhuge Ke Biezhuan
Unofficial Biography of Zhuge Ke Records about Zhuge Ke 64.1430, n 1
Zhuge Shi Pu
Zhuge Family Genealogy Records about Zhuge Liang and his family 35.932, n 2

Encyclopoediae, dictionaries, and references[edit]

Title Translation Author / Compiler Notes Locus of First Citation[note 1]
Bowu Ji
[note 14] Encyclopoedia. Also contains deeds and legacy of Wang Can, Wang Kai (王凱), and of the descendants of Chen Shi.[8] 11.339 n 1
Bowu Zhi
Zhang Hua Records about myths and legends, ancient history, natural science and miscellaneous things 1.54, n 2
Fangyan Zhu
Yang Xiong; Guo Pu, annotation Dictionary of topolectal terms 40.996; 50.1197
Fengsu Tongyi
Ying Shao Extant 6.179, n 6
Jue Yi Yao Zhu
Annotated Guide to Dispelling Doubts Zhi Yu (摯虞) Contains information on the manufacture of jade ornaments 21.599 n 3; biography of Wang Can
Lienü Zhuan
Biographies of Exemplary Women Huangfu Mi Extant 9.293
San Cang
Guo Pu, annotation Elementary educational text cited as a dictionary 1.30
Shen Yi Jing
Classic of Spirits and Oddities Dongfang Shuo Mythical places and creatures 4.118; biography of Cao Fang
Sitishu Shi Xu
Preface to Forms of the Four Modes of Writing Wei Heng (衛恆) Calligraphic treatise 1.31, n 1
Xu Zhuan
Prefaces to Biographies Sima Biao Errata and corrigenda to biographies of the Three Kingdoms period and early Jin Dynasty 1.49, n 3
Yiwu Zhi
Records of the Bizarre Yang Fu (楊孚) Mythological places and things 4.117, n 2
Forest of Records Yu Xi (虞喜) Information about the various kinds of imperial seal 46.1099, n 9

Poetry, essays, philosophy, and literature[edit]

Title Translation Author / Compiler Notes Locus of First Citation[note 1]
Bai Yi Shi
Ying Qu (應璩) Poetry 2.61–2
Bian Wang Lun
How Wu was Lost Lu Ji[note 8] Essay on the fall of Eastern Wu 48.1179–82
Ge Hong Daoist classic. Extant. 48.1162 n 2
Cao Gong Ji
Lord Cao Collection Compilation of the works of Cao Cao. Extant. 38.970, n 2
Chen Si Wang Ji
Collected Works of Prince Si of Chen [Cao Zhi] Cao Zhi Poetry, letters, essays. Exant. 2.76
Congjun Shi
Embedded Wang Can Poetry in praise of Cao Cao's military prowess 1.47
Da Mu Fu
Rhapsody on the Great Tomb Lu Ji[note 8] Poetry[note 15] 2.62
Di Ji
Collected Works of the Emperor Cao Mao Essays 4.138
Cao Pi 1.7, n 6
Fu Xian Ji
Collected Works of Fu Xian Fu Xian (傅咸) Compilation of the works of Fu Xian (傅咸) 22.649
Fu Zi
Fu Xuan Essays and poetry 1.26
Ji Kang Ji
Collected Works of Ji Kang Ji Kang Poetry and essays 21.606; Biography of Ji Kang
Jia Jie
Family Rules Du Shu (杜恕) Records of Zhang Ge (張閣) 11.354; biography of Bing Yuan
Jia Jie
Family Rules Wang Chang (王昶) 1.52
Kong Rong Ji
Collected Works of Kong Rong Kong Rong Essays, poetry, and memorials 11.345–6
Discussion on Proprieties Information on Xie Ci (謝慈) 59.1374
Lieyi Zhuan
Cao Pi? Collection of supernatural tales 13.405
Mingtang Lun
Cai Yong Meta-exegesis 4.142–3
Pan Yue Ji
Collected Works of Pan Yue Pan Yue (潘岳) Records the cognomina of members of the family of Yang Ji (楊暨) 26.728
Qi Lüe
Liu Xiang 38.974
Qi Meng Zhu
Gu Kaizhi 3.104
The Explanation of Matters Shan Tao (山濤) Also known as Shan Gong Qishi (山公啓事) 16.493, n 2; biography of Su Ze (蘇則)
Shenxian Zhuan
Stories of Immortals Ge Hong 32.891
Shengzhu De Xianchen Song
Ode to the Sagely Ruler Obtaining a Talented Minister Wang Bao (王褒) Poetry 42.1040, n 9; biography of Xi Zheng
Forest of Documents Ying Qu (應璩) Records the cognomen of Zhan Qian (棧潛) 25.719
Shu Du Fu
Rhapsody on the Capital of Shu Zuo Si Poetry 38.975, n 2
Garden of Stories Liu Xiang Historical and fictional stories. 19.568, n 1; biography of Cao Zhi
Soushen Ji
In Search of the Supernatural Gan Bao 2.75–6, n 3
頭責子羽 Zhang Min (張敏) 14.461, n 3
Wan Ji Lun
Jiang Ji (蔣濟) 37.954, n 3
Wang Lang Ji
Collected Works of Wang Lang Wang Lang 13.411, n 2
Wei Du Fu
Wei Capital Rhapsody Zuo Si One of the Three Capitals Rhapsodies (三都賦) 11.360
Wenzhang Xulu
Xun Xu (荀勗) Also known as 雜撰文章家集敘 (Collected Analyses of Various Selected Authors) 9.273, n 3
Wenzhang Zhi
Zhi Yu (摯虞) 6.216, n 5
Xin Lun
New Discourses Huan Tan Essays 42.1040, n 8
Xin Xu
New Prefaces Liu Xiang Collection of historical and fictional tales. Extant. 21.614; biography of Liu Yi (劉廙)
Yang Du Fu Zhu
Annotated Rhapsody on the Capital of Yang Yu Chan (庾闡) Poetry 47.1148, n 1
Yao Xin Ji
Collected Works of Yao Xin Yao Xin (姚信) Report praising Lu Yusheng (陸鬱生), daughter of Lu Ji (陸績) 57.1329
Lu Yun's (陸雲) nephew 13.396, n 3
Yitong Zayu
"Miscellaneous Words on Similarities and Differences Sun Sheng [note 16] 1.3, n 2
Yuanzi[note 17]
Yuan Zhun (袁準) Essays 20.591–2
Yue Jue Shu
Stories about the ancient state of Yue, and its final king Goujian 42.1039, n 4; biography of Xi Zheng
Military Strategy Sima Biao 6.211–2, n 2
Zhang Chao Ji
Collected Works of Zhang Chao Zhang Chao (張超) Letter of recommendation for Yuan Yi (袁遺) 1.7, n 6
Zhongchang Tong Mao Yan Biao
Zhongchang Tong's Report on Brave Speech Miao Xi (繆襲) Biography and reports of Zhongchang Tong (仲長統) 21.620
Zhuge Liang Ji
Collected Works of Zhuge Liang Chen Shou Also known as Zhuge Family Collection (諸葛氏集). Compilation of the works and writings of Zhuge Liang. 32.891


Title Translation Author / Compiler Notes Locus of First Citation[note 1]
Ma Xiansheng Xu
Introduction to Elder Ma Fu Xuan Letter in paise of Ma Jun (馬鈞) of Fufeng 29.807–8
untitled poem and response Cao Jia (曹嘉) and Shi Chong (石崇) 20.587–8, n 2; biography of Cao Biao (曹彪)
untitled letter Wang Biaozhi (王彪之) Letter to Yin Hao, advising him on a course of diplomacy 21.618; biography of Liu Shao
untitled announcement Wen Qin and Guanqiu Jian Announcement of the righteousness of their rebellion against Sima Yi 28.763–5; biography of Guanqiu Jian
untitled letter Wen Qin Letter enlisting the aid of Guo Zhun (郭准), who was inconveniently dead at the time 28.766–7 biography of Guanqiu Jian
untitled announcement Wen Qin Announcement of surrender to Eastern Wu 28.768; biography of Guanqiu Jian
untitled stories Guo Chong (郭沖) Five dubious stories about Zhuge Liang[note 18] 35.917–8, .921–2 n 5, .922–3 n 2, .926 n 2
untitled essay Zhang Zhao Essay on Ying Shao's policy regarding the taboo names of former monarchs 52.1219–1220; biography of Zhang Zhao


Quoting classics was an inescapable reality of Chinese political and academic life as early as the Eastern Zhou period.[9] Pei Songzhi often cites classics in order to contextualize quotations made by speakers in Chen Shou's original text,[10] and occasionally to explain the philosophy or background behind a person's actions.[11] These works do not constitute historical sources for Pei Songzhi's purposes, but are included here for sake of completeness.

Title Translation Author / Compiler Notes Locus of First Citation[note 1]
Chunqiu Gongyang Zhuan Jiegu
Exegesis of the Gongyang Zhuan Gongyang Gao (公羊高); He Xiu (何休), annotation Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals. Extant. 1.40, n 2; 5.161
Chunqiu Zuo Shi Zhuan Jijie
Collected Exegesis of the Zuo Zhuan Du Yu, annotation Ruist historical tradition of heterogenous origin[12] attached to the Spring and Autumn Annals. Extant. 24.678; biography of Han Ji (韓暨)
Deeds and philosophy of Guan Zhong, prime minister of the state of Qi who brought Duke Huan of Qi to the position of hegemony. Extant. 2.60
Sayings of the States Wei Zhao, annotation Speeches and rhetoric of the Eastern Zhou period. Extant. 1.40, n 8
Philosophical and scientific encyclopoedia, usually classified as a Daoist text. Extant. 42.1038
Liji Zhu
Annotated Record of Rites Zheng Xuan, annotation Prescriptive ritual text. Extant. 3.108, n 2
Analects Kong Qiu Confucian foundational text. Extant 38.974
Lüshi Chunqiu
Mr Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals Lü Buwei Encyclopoedia. Extant. 2.82, n 2
Mencius Meng Ke Confucian foundational text. Extant. 24.682
Shangshu Zhu
Annotated Book of Documents Zheng Xuan, annotation Records of persons, speeches, and events in the Western Zhou period. Extant. 1.40, nn 3, 5, 6, 7
Book of Odes Poetry of the Zhou culture, from the pre-dynastic period to the Eastern Zhou period. Extant. 1.40, n 5
Sunzi Bingfa
The Art of War Treatise on military strategy and tactics. Extant. 27.744; biography of Wang Xu
Zhan Guo Ce
Strategies of the Warring States Liu Xiang Fictional tales and exercises in persuasive rhetoric.[note 19] Extant. 21.615, n 3
Partially attributed to Zhuang Zhou Daoist foundational text. Extant. 11.366

Texts of uncertain identity or disputable citation[edit]

Title Translation Author / Compiler Notes Locus of First Citation[note 1]
Yitong Ping
Commentary on Similarities and Differences Sun Sheng [note 16] 1.21–2, n 2
Miscellaneous Records Sun Sheng [note 16] 1.5, n 2
Yitong Ji
Records of Similarities and Differences Sun Sheng [note 16] 35.933, n 2
Jin Shu
Book of Jin Gan Bao May have referred to Gan Bao's Jin Ji, may have been a separate work.[note 20] 3.94
Bian Dao Lun
Cao Zhi Records of contemporary Daoist masters Gan Shi (甘始), Zuo Ci, and Xi Jian (郤儉). Cited by Pei Songzhi as an independent work, now part of Chen Si Wang Ji. 29.805–6
Jin Baiguan Ming
Official Posts of Jin May be the same work as Baiguan Ming 16.493, n 2; biography of Su Ze (蘇則)
Jin Baiguan Biao
Report on Jin's Official Posts) May be the same work as Jin Baiguan Ming 35.933, n 1
Wudi Baiguan Ming
Official Posts Under the Martial Emperor [of Jin] Official register of government officials. May have been part of Baiguan Ming or Jin Baiguan Ming.[note 21] 18.538, n 3; biography of Zang Ba
Jizhou Ji
Records of Ji Province Xun Chuo (荀綽) Part of Jiuzhou Ji.[note 3] 9.305, n 2
Yanzhou Ji
Records of Yan Province Xun Chuo (荀綽) Part of Jiuzhou Ji.[note 3] 16.508; biography of Du Shu (杜恕)
Yizhou Qijiu Zhuan
Biographies of the Seniors of Yi Province [note 13] 38.967, n 1
Yizhou Qijiu Zaji
Miscellaneous Records of the Seniors of Yi Province Believed to be an appendix or companion to Yi Bu Qijiu Zhuan.[note 22] 31.867, n 1
On Seniors Cited once underneath Yi Bu Qijiu Zaji, very likely an abbreviated reference to same 45.1088
Baoshang Ling
Order on Appraisals and Rewards Cao Cao Part of the Cao Gong Ji[note 23] 1.23
Li Jiao Yi
Deliberations Regarding the Establishment of the Biannual Nature Sacrifice Jiang Ji Records the epitaph of Cao Teng[note 24] 14.455 n 2; biography of Jiang Ji
Jiu Shi
Old Matters The careers of the sons of Wei Zi (衛茲)[note 25] 22.649
Sun Chuo Ping
Sun Chuo's Critiques Sun Chuo Essays and commentary[note 26] 42.1031
Fu Chen Zan
In Praise of the Supportive Ministers Yang Xi (楊戲) Records of politicians of Shu Han[note 27] 37.956; Pang Tong
Yue Guang Zhuan
Biography of Yue Guang Xie Kun (謝鯤) Information on the activities and legacies of the descendants of Pei Qian[note 28] 23.674; biography of Pei Qian
Xin Xianying Zhuan
Biography of Xin Xianying Xiahou Zhan (夏侯湛) Biography of Xin Xianying, daughter of Xin Pi[note 29] 25.699–700
Lu Zhi Ming
Funerary Inscription for Lu Zhi Xiahou Zhan (夏侯湛) Life and deeds of Lu Zhi (陸芝)[note 30] 9.292
Han Guan Yi
Etiquette of the Officials of Han Ying Shao Information on Han government procedures[note 31] 46.1099, n 9

Other sources[edit]

Pei Songzhi occasionally quotes other historians without citing any book or document title. Sun Sheng, Gan Bao, and Xi Zuochi (習鑿齒) are especially common. These may have been marginal notes in Pei's copy of Records of the Three Kingdoms, or personal notes to which he had access. Rarely, Pei Songzhi will report hearsay without any attribution.[13]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h The references provided locate the first instance of the citation in Pei Songzhi's commentary, and for the vast majority of these sources, the reference can be understood to prepend an invisible "et passim". All are found in footnotes, whether or not a particular note is specified. The pagination follows the Zhonghua Publishing standard version, but the Dingwen Printing version (Taibei, 1977) uses identical pagination.
  2. ^ Pei Songzhi suspected Zhang Fan's (張璠) Hou Han Ji was unfinished because of the poor quality of the writing. See Records of the Three Kingdoms, 4.133.
  3. ^ a b c Most historiographers (including Zhao Yi and Qian Daxin, 1700s; and Shen Jiaben, early 1900s) consider Jiuzhou Ji to have been a single work which included both Jizhou Ji and Yanzhou Ji. Wang Zuyi (王祖彝), in 1956, considered the work to have been nine separate volumes, and listed them as distinct works cited by Pei Zongzhi. See Gao Min, p 13.
  4. ^ The historical bibliography in the Book of Sui does not record a San Chao Lu, but it does record a San Chao Lüe (三朝略), written by Zhang Wen. See Gao Min, 12.
  5. ^ Although he quotes from it extensively, Pei Songzhi had serious reservations about Guo Song's (郭頒) Wei Jin Shiyu, calling it "lame, shallow, and wholly without rhythm". He decries the Shiyu as the poorest history he has consulted, and laments that its errors have passed through sourcing into the works of Sun Sheng and Gan Bao. See Records of the Three Kingdoms, 4.133
  6. ^ The Book of Sui records a Yuankang San Nian Diji, which would be dated to 293 rather than 282. This may be the same record as quoted by Pei Songzhi. See Book of Sui, 33.984
  7. ^ Shen Jiaben gives Du Du (杜篤) as the eponymous Mr Du; the Book of Sui gives Du Yi (杜夷). See Gao, p 18.
  8. ^ a b c d Pei Songzhi cites a number of works written by Lu Ji, including Bian Wang Lun, Da Mu Fu, Lu Xun Ming, and Gu Tan Zhuan. A single collection of Lu Ji's works was available by the Liang Dynasty at the latest. See Book of Sui, volume 35, p 1063; Lu Ji Ji, preface, p 9. It is clear from his citation style that Pei Songzhi did not have access to a collection. When he does cite a collection by name (Cao Cao's Cao Gong Ji, or Cao Zhi's Chen Si Wang Ji, the collection is placed in the main table, while individual titles present in modern collections (Cao Cao's Bao Shang Ling, Cao Zhi's Bian Dao Lun) are placed in the second table to indicate uncertainty as to what title Pei Songzhi was citing. Since he never cites a collection of Lu Ji's works, all individual titles are placed in the main table to reflect the titles Pei Songzhi had available.
  9. ^ It is unknown whose genealogy Hua Jiao narrates in his Pu Xu. Shen Jiaben suggested it was an independent geneaology of his own family. See Lu Yaodong, p 16.
  10. ^ Gao Min reasons that based on the physical distance between the two Wang clans, and the fact that the Book of Sui records a family register of the Wangs of Taiyuan, the two instances in which Pei Songzhi cites Wang Shi Pu must have been citing two distinct documents. See Gao Min, 9.
  11. ^ According to the biography of Cao Xiu, the author of Wenshi Zhuan was Zhang Yin (張隱); according to the biography of Xun Yu, the author was Zhang Heng; according to the biography of Wang Can, the author was Zhang Zhi (張騭). Editors of historical bibliographies have concluded that the author was most probably Zhang Zhi (張騭). However we have no chronologically close proof of authorship, nor indeed any strong indication that there was only a single book named Wenshi Zhuan in circulation, rather than two or three written by different authors surnamed Zhang. See Gao Min pp 13–14.
  12. ^ Pei Songzhi does not name explicitly the compiler of Xiandi Ji. The Book of Sui gives Liu Fang (劉芳); modern scholars prefer Liu Ai (劉艾). See Gao, p 16.
  13. ^ a b At its first reference, Pei Songzhi explicitly attributes Yi Bu Qijiu Zhuan to Chen Shou. However, he later attributes both an Yi Bu Qijiu Zhuan and Yi Bu Qijiu Zhi (志) to one Chen Shu (陳術). See Records of the Three Kingdoms, 42.1027, biography of Li Zhuan (李譔). According to the biography of Chen Shou in the Chronicles of Huayang, Chen Shu was a contributor to a Ba–Shu Qijiu Zhuan, which prompted Chen Shou to compile Yi Bu Qijiu Zhuan. It is also attributed to Chen Shou in the Book of Jin. The Book of Sui attributes Yi Bu Qijiu Zhuan to a Chen Changshou (陳長壽). See Gao Min (2007), p 14. Yizhou Qijiu Zhuan, cited by Pei Songzhi only once, may be identified with Yi Bu Qijiu Zhuan.
  14. ^ The Bowu Ji may be identifiable with another work of Zhang Hua. See Gao Min, p 12.
  15. ^ The text quoted by Pei Songzhi does not appear in the transmitted poem. See Records of the Three Kingdoms p 62; Collected Works of Lu Ji, pp 26–7.
  16. ^ a b c d Pei Songzhi cites five similar titles of works compiled by Sun Sheng: Yitong Zaji, Zaji, Yitong Zayu, Zayu, and Yitong Ping. Of these, only Yitong Zayu appears in official bibliographies. Qian Daxin (1700s), Lin Guozan (林國贊; 1800s), and Shen Jiaben (early 1900s) treated the five titles as all referring to a single book, while Zhao Yi (1700s) took the opposite approach and considered treated the five titles as distinct works. Wang Zuyi (王祖彝; 1956) took Yitong Ping and Yitong Zayu to be two separate works, and the remaining three titles to refer to Yitong Zayu. Gao Min (2007) admits the possibility that all five titles refer to a single book, while raising the question of how the single scholar Pei Songzhi should come to cite the book by so many different monikers. Gao Min also quotes Sun Sheng's biography in the Book of Jin, which paints him as a prolific writer, in support of the theory that all five titles refer to distinct works. He advances a new theory, that Sun Sheng produced a work titled Yitong Ping, also referred to as Yitong Ji; and a work titled Zayu, also referred to as Zaji. He offers no explanation for Yitong Zayu, or why it should be the only title recorded by official bibliographies. See Gao Min, p 13. No theory is grounded in firm evidence.
  17. ^ Probably refers to Yuanzi Zheng Lun (袁子正論), or Yuanzi Zheng Shu (袁子正書), the latter of which may have been a more complete version of the former. See Book of Sui, volume 34, p 998.
  18. ^ Guo Chong's five stories on the deeds of Zhuge Liang are introduced in Records of the Three Kingdoms, 35.917. They are mentioned in the Shu Ji as being written essentially as propaganda to further Zhuge Liang's career. Pei Songzhi calls them "all dubious".
  19. ^ For the nature of the Zhan Guo Ce, see Crump, pp 11–22, esp. p 15.
  20. ^ The traditional view is that, since no Jin Shu by Gan Bao is recorded in official bibliographies, Gan Bao's Jin Shu as cited by Pei Songzhi must have been referring to Gan Bao's Jin Ji. Lin Guozan (林國贊) and Wang Zuyi (王祖彝) considered Gan Bao's Jin Shu to have been a separate work. Gao Min strengthens this claim by noting a paragraph in which Pei Songzhi cites both a Jin Shu and Jin Ji attributed to Gan Bao. There is not conclusive evidence to support one theory or the other (Records of the Three Kingdoms, 9.187, nn 1–2). Pei Songzhi uses language compatible with the possibility that Gan Bao and Sun Sheng, who were contemporaries, collaborated on a Jin Shu. See Records of the Three Kingdoms, 4.133; Gao Min, 13.
  21. ^ Only Shen Jiaben and Gao Min consider Wudi Baiguan Ming to be a separate work, rather than a chapter of Jin Baiguan Ming or Baiguan Ming. See Gao, p 18.
  22. ^ Yizhou Qijiu Zaji may be identifiable with Chen Shu's Yi Bu Qijiu Zhi or Xu (續) Yi Bu Qijiu Zhuan, listed without attribution in the Book of Sui. Gao Min, p 14
  23. ^ Zhao Yi, Qian Daxin, and the editors of Records of the Three Kingdoms consider Baoshang Ling to be part of the Cao Gong Ji. Shen Jiaben, Wang Zuyi (王祖彝), and Gao Min consider it a distinct title. See Gao Min, p 16.
  24. ^ The Book of Sui records a collection of works by Jiang Ji, but does not mention Li Jiao Yi by name. Gao Min raises the possibility that this document is part of the larger Wei Jiaosi Zou. See Gao Min, p 7.
  25. ^ Only Shen Jiaben and Gao Min consider Jiu Shi to be a book title; Zhao Yi, Qian Daxin, Wang Zuyi (王祖彝), and the editors of the modern, punctuated Records of the Three Kingdoms read jiu shi as a common noun. If it is a book title, Jiu Shi may be identifiable with HanWeiWuShu Jiu Shi (漢魏吳蜀舊事) or JinSong Jiu Shi (晉宋舊事). See Gao Min, p 12.
  26. ^ Pei Songzhi writes "孫綽評曰", which can be read as either "Sun Chuo critiqued, saying" or "Sun Chuo's Critiques say". Qian Daxin and Gao Min read the note in the latter fashion, proposing Sun Chuo's Critiques was part of his collected works, recorded in the Book of Sui as 晉衛尉卿孫綽集 (Collected Works of Sun Chuo, Chief Minister for the Palace Garrison of the Court of Jin). See Gao Min, 12. Zhao Yi, Shen Jiaben, Wang Zuyi (王祖彝), and the punctuators of the modern Records of the Three Kingdoms do not read the phrase in question as the title of a book.
  27. ^ Pei Songzhi quotes from the Xiangyang Ji, which states the deeds of Pang Tong's brother Pang Lin (龐林) and his wife Xi Zhen (習禎) are related in a text named Fu Chen Zan. The note goes on to paraphrase their story, but it is unclear whether Pei Songzhi is paraphrasing this text or the paraphrase is present in the Xiangyang Ji.
  28. ^ Pei Songzhi's reference to the Yue Guang Zhuan is beneath a citation from Jin Zhugong Zan, but Gao Min notes that the latter's compiler, Fu Chang (傅暢), predeceased at least one of the men discussed in the note, Pei Xian (裴憲), by a period of at least five years. Gao Min then goes on to undermine his own argument by stating that Xie Kun (謝鯤), author of the Yue Guang Zhuan, probably died a further four years prior to Fu Chang. See Gao Min, p 9.
  29. ^ The quotation from Xin Xianying Zhuan is below a citation from the Shiyu. The punctuators of the modern Records of the Three Kingdoms, following Zhao Yi and Qian Daxin, have made it clear they believe Pei Songzhi was quoting Xin Xianying Zhuan as carried by the Shiyu. Shen Jiaben, Wang Zuyi (王祖彝), and Gao Min accept Xin Xianying Zhuan as a work cited by Pei Songzhi, rather than a work cited by one of his sources.
  30. ^ Pei Songzhi simultaneously paraphrases from the funerary inscription of Lu Zhi (陸芝) and from Gan Bao's Jin Ji. The actual wording of the inscription is not directly quoted.
  31. ^ Pei Songzhi does not cite Han Guan Yi directly, and only mentions in passing that it and Huangfu Mi's Diwang Shiji agree with Yu Xi's Zhilin on the matter of imperial seals.


  1. ^ Gao Min, p 13, citing Lin Guozan (林國贊)
  2. ^ Book of Jin, 82.2143, biography of Wang Yin
  3. ^ Pei Songzhi quotes the Shiji here without attribution.
  4. ^ Records of the Three Kingdoms, 1.12. In idem, 57.1337, Xiandi Chunqiu is attributed to Yuan Ye (袁曄). Some premodern versions attribute the work to Yuan Yan (袁黶); see Gao Min, pp 14 and 16.
  5. ^ Book of Sui, 33.973
  6. ^ a b Book of Sui, volume 33, p 974
  7. ^ Gao Min, p 12
  8. ^ Records of the Three Kingdoms, 22.642
  9. ^ Schaberg, pp 234–5
  10. ^ Records of the Three Kingdoms, 1.40, nn 2–8
  11. ^ Records of the Three Kingdoms, 5.161
  12. ^ On the origins of the Zuo Zhuan, see Schaberg, pp 322–3.
  13. ^ For the first example of Pei Songzhi quoting a former historian directly, see 1.11 n 2. For an example of Pei Songzhi reporting hearsay, see 47.1144.


  • Crump, J.I., Jr., transl. Chan-Kuo Ts'e. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971.
  • Fang Xuanling inter al., eds. 晉書 (Book of Jin), 648. Beijing: Zhonghua Publishing, 1974. 10 vols.
  • Gao Min (高敏), 《三國志》裴松之注引書考 ("Books Used by Pei Songzhi on Noting of History of the Three Kingdoms"). Journal of Henan University of Science and Technology (Social Science), 25.3 (June 2007), pp 5–21.
  • Lu Ji, 陸機集 (Collected Works of Lu Ji), Jin Taosheng (金濤聲), ed. Beijing: Zhonghua Publishing, 1982.
  • Lu Yaodong (逯耀東), 裴松之三國志注引雜傳集釋 ("Collected Explanations of Various Biographies Cited in Pei Songzhi's Annotation of Records of the Three Kingdoms"). 台大歷史學報, 1 (May 1974), pp 1–18.
  • Pei Songzhi, 三國志注 (Annotated Records of the Three Kingdoms). 429. Hong Kong: Zhonghua Publishing, 1971. 5 vols.
  • Qian Daxin, 廿二史考異 (Examination of Discrepancies in the Twenty-Two Histories). 1797. Cited in Gao.
  • Schaberg, David, A Patterned Past: Form and Thought in Early Chinese Historiography. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.
  • Shen Jiaben, 沉簃籍先生遺書乙篇 (Mr Shen Yiji's Leftover Documents, Volume Two). 1910s. Cited in Gao.
  • Wang Zuyi (王祖彝), 三國志人名錄 (List of Personal Names in Records of the Three Kingdoms). Commercial Press, 1956. Cited in Gao.
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