Early Lê dynasty
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The Early Lê dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Tiền Lê; Hán Nôm: 家前黎; pronounced [ɲâː tjə̂n le]) was a dynasty that ruled Vietnam after the Đinh dynasty and before the Lý dynasty. The dynasty ruled for a total of three generations and was known for repelling the Song invasion.
|Early Lê dynasty|
|Nhà Tiền Lê (家前黎)|
|Capital||Hoa Lư (華閭)|
|-||980-1005||Lê Đại Hành Hoàng Đế|
|-||1005-1009||Lê Ngọa Triề|
|Historical era||Postclassical Era|
Lê Đại Hành Hoàng Đế Period (980–1005)
Following threats from Song China, the Dowager Empress Dương Vân Nga granted Lê Hoàn (later proclaimed Lê Đại Hành Hoàng Đế) rule of the country, with the previous heir still an infant. Seeking to halt the oncoming Song forces, Lê Đại Hành made preparations for war. Although defeated at the Battle of Bạch Đằng (981) on the Bạch Đằng River, Lê Đại Hành's forces, under the command of General Phạm Cự Lượng, were successful at halting the overland advance of the Song Chinese. Seeking peace, Lê Đại Hành sent emissaries to negotiate for peace; thus the annual show of homage, and offerings to the Celestial Emperor of China was resumed, as a means to appease the Song dynasty.
Lê Đại Hành died in 1005, at the age of 65 and after 25 years of rule. In his will, Lê Đại Hành gave succession of the throne to his youngest son Lê Long Việt.
Lê Long Việt, Lê Trung Tông Period (1005)
Lê Long Việt's reign was very brief; he was assassinated by a coalition of his brothers Lê Ngân Tích, Lê Long Kính, and Lê Long Đĩnh who refused to recognize him out of jealousy. Lê Long Việt's emperor-name was Lê Trung or (Trang) Tông. After the assassination, all three brothers vied against one another for one throne. Lê Ngân Tích was captured and beheaded while attempting to flee the country. Lê Long Kính "disappeared" and was never heard from again. The last remaining brother, Lê Long Đĩnh, took control of the country and proclaimed himself emperor.
Lê Ngọa Triều Period (1005–1009)
Lê Long Đĩnh's reign and court was famous for its "lying sessions," earning him the name Lê Ngọa Triều - the one who rules while lying. Lê Long Đĩnh's rule was characterized by debaucheries, wild orgies and decadence. Historians compare him to the Roman Emperor Nero as he was well known for his cruelties, not the least of which were sadism and torture (of relatives, prisoners, thieves, beggars, traitors, etc.) in which he loved to participate. The only person under his rule who did not fear or run away from him was the future emperor, Lý Công Uẩn (973–1028), a high-ranking mandarin counselor in the court.
Transition to the Later Lý dynasty (1009)
Resentment from the public and the imperial court culminated, proceeding Lê Long Đĩnh's death. Under pressure from the public and from the Buddhist monks, the court agreed to enthrone Lý Công Uẩn as the new emperor, thus ending the Early Lê Dynasty. In its place, the Lý dynasty ushered in a new age for Vietnam, with a combination of Confucian and Buddhist influences making a recurrence in the new dynasty.
- Corfield, Justin (28 Feb 2008). The History of Vietnam. ABC-CLIO. p. 7. ISBN 031334194X. Retrieved 21 Dec 2014.
- АНТОЛОГИЯ ТРАДИЦИОННОЙ ВЬЕТНАМСКОЙ МЫСЛИ. X начало XIII вв.
|Ruler of Vietnam