Qapaghan Qaghan

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Qapaghan Qaghan or Qapghan Qaghan (Old Turkic: Old Turkic letter N1.svgOld Turkic letter G1.svgOld turkic letter Q.png Old Turkic letter N1.svgOld Turkic letter G1.svgOld Turkic letter P.svgOld Turkic letter Q.svg, Qapaγan qaγan,[1] simplified Chinese: 迁善; traditional Chinese: 遷善; pinyin: Qiānshàn, Chinese: 阿史那•默啜; pinyin: Āshǐnà Mòchuò-716) was the second Khaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate during Wu Zetian's reign and was the younger brother of the first kaghan, Ilterish Qaghan.

Ashina Mo-ch'o was a member and descendant of the Ashina clan that had ruled over the previous Eastern Turkic Khaganate, which fell in 659. In 681, Mo-ch'o assisted his brother, Ilterish Qaghan, in a revolt against Tang dominion, and succeeded in reviving the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.

The revived Turkic Khaganate reached its greatest extent during the reign of Qapagan Khaghan. He notably encouraged the Khitan's Li-Sun Rebellion (696–697) to eventually attack and plunder successful Khitan on their rear, to his full benefit. Qapagan, who was on his way back from suppressing the revolting Tiele tribes of Huihe, Tongluo, Baixi, Bayegu and Pugu, was ambushed killed by a Bayegu tribesman named Xiezhilue (颉质略) on July 22, 716. The name Qapagan (in Turkish sources Kapgan, Kapagan or Kapağan ) comes from the Old Turkic word "kap-" meaning "to conquer", so the derivative Kapgan means "the Conqueror". He was succeeded by his son Inel Qaghan (716).

The Bayirku on the upper Kerulen (part of the Toquz Oghuz) revolted. After cutting them to pieces he was attacked and killed while passing through a forest and his severed head was sent to Changan.[2][3] After his death, Kul Tigin and Tonyukuk carried out a coup d'état and killed Qapaghan's son and brothers and made Bilge Qaghan a qaghan.[2]

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Tonyukuk’s Memorial Complex, TÜRIK BITIG
  2. ^ a b Old Book of Tang, Vol. 194-I
  3. ^ Grousset, Empire of the Steppes, page110

Qapaghan Qaghan
Preceded by
Ilterish Qaghan
Khagan of the Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate
Succeeded by
Inel Qaghan