Hohhot

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Hohhot
呼和浩特市 · ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠬᠣᠲᠠ
Prefecture-level city
Clockwise from top: monument of Genghis Khan, Governor of Suiyuan General, Temple of the Five Pagodas, Zhaojun Tomb.
Clockwise from top: monument of Genghis Khan, Governor of Suiyuan General, Temple of the Five Pagodas, Zhaojun Tomb.
Hohhot (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange)
Hohhot (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange)
Hohhot is located in Inner Mongolia
Hohhot
Hohhot
Location of the city centre in Inner Mongolia
Coordinates: 40°49′N 111°39′E / 40.817°N 111.650°E / 40.817; 111.650Coordinates: 40°49′N 111°39′E / 40.817°N 111.650°E / 40.817; 111.650
Country People's Republic of China
Region Inner Mongolia
County-level divisions 10
Township divisions 116
Established 1580
Government
 • CPC Committee Secretary Nasanmunkh (那顺孟和)
 • Mayor Qin Yi (秦义)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city 17,186.1 km2 (6,635.6 sq mi)
 • Urban 2,065.1 km2 (797.3 sq mi)
 • Metro 2,065.1 km2 (797.3 sq mi)
Elevation 1,065 m (3,494 ft)
Population (2012 estimate)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city 2,866,615
 • Density 170/km2 (430/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,980,774
 • Urban density 960/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,980,774
 • Metro density 960/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
 • Major nationalities Han - 87.16%
Mongolian - 9.98%
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 010000
Area code(s) 471
License plate prefixes A
GDP (2012)[1] CNY 247.6 billion
(US $39.47 billion)[2]
GDP per capita CNY 84,074
(US $13,400)
Local Dialect Jin: Zhangjiakou-Hohhot dialect
Administrative division code 150100
ISO 3166-2 CN-15-01
Website www.huhhot.gov.cn
Hohhot
HHHT name.svg
Hohhot as written in Chinese
HHHTM.svg
Hohhot as written in Mongolian
Chinese name
Chinese 呼和浩特
Literal meaning blue city or calling for peace, abundant, & unique(in Mongolian)
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Хөх хот
Mongolian script ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠬᠣᠲᠠ
Russian name
Russian Хух-Хото
Romanization Chuch-Choto

Hohhot (Chinese: 呼和浩特; pinyin: Hūhéhàotè; Mongolian: ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠬᠣᠲᠠ Kökeqota; Khalkha: Хөх хот Khökh khot; also romanized as Huhehot or Huhhot), abbreviated Hushi (Chinese: 呼市; pinyin: Hūshì), formerly known as Kweisui (simplified Chinese: 归绥; traditional Chinese: 歸綏; pinyin: Gūisūi), is the capital of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region in North China,[3] serving as the region's administrative, economic, and cultural centre.[4]

Its population was 2,866,615 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 1,980,774 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made up of 4 urban districts.[5]

The name of the city in Mongolian means "Blue City"—Kuku-Khoto in Mongolian—although it is also wrongly referred to as the "Green City."[6] The color blue in Mongol culture is associated with the sky, eternity and purity; in Chinese, the name can be translated as Qīng Chéng (Chinese: 青城), literally, "Blue/Green City."[7]

History[edit]

Early History[edit]

The old town, now converted into an artifact shopping street

In 1557, the Tümed Mongol leader Altan Khan began building the Da Zhao Temple in the Tümed plain in order to convince the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) government of his leadership of the southern Mongol tribes.[8] The town that grew up around this temple was called the "Blue Town" (Kokegota in Mongolian).[9]:11 The Ming had been blockading the Mongols' access to Chinese iron, cotton, and crop seeds, in order to dissuade them from attacking the northern China plain. But in 1570, Altan Khan successfully negotiated the end of the blockade by the establishment of a vassal-tributary relationship with the Ming, for which the Ming renamed Kokegota to Guīhuà (歸化, "Return to Civilization") in 1575. The population of Guihua grew to over 150,000 in the early 1630s as local Mongol princes encouraged the settlement of Han Chinese merchants. Sometimes Mongol armies attacked Guihua, such as the total razing of the city by Ligdan Khan in 1631.[9]:12 Altan Khan and his successors constructed temples and fortress in 1579, 1602 and 1727. The Tümed Mongols had long been semiagricultural there. Hui merchants gathered north of the gate of the city's fortress, building a mosque in 1693.[10] Their descendants forms the nucleus of the modern Huimin district.

After the Manchus founded the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), the Kangxi emperor (reigned 1661–1722) sent troops to control the region,[6] which was interesting to the Qing as a center of study of Tibetan Buddhism. The Qing dynasty built a strong garrison town near Hohhot's northeast called Suiyuan (綏遠), supervising southwestern Inner Mongolia in 1735–39 against Mongol attacks from the north.[9]:13[11] Guihua and Suiyuan became Guihua County (歸化縣) of Qing China. French missionaries established a Catholic church in Guihua in 1874, but the Christians were forced to flee to Beijing during the antiforeign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901.[9]:14

Republican Era[edit]

Wanbu-Huayanjing-Pagoda in Hohhot, 1942

In 1913, the government of the new Republic of China united the garrison town of Suiyuan and the old town of Guihua as Guisui (Kweisui) (Chinese: 歸綏; pinyin: Guīsuī; Wade–Giles: Kweisui). Guisui town was the center of Guisui County (歸綏縣) and the capital of Suiyuan Province in northern China. A bubonic plague outbreak in 1917 and the connection of Guisui to railway links in Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Hebei helped renew the economy of Guisui town, by forming links between eastern China and western China's Xinjiang province.[9]:15 In 1918, the American specialist of Inner Asia Owen Lattimore noted Guisui's ethnic composition as "A town purely [Han] Chinese except for the Lama monasteries ... the Tümeds are now practically nonexistent and the nearest Mongolians are to be sought at 50 or 60 miles distance on the plateau."[9]:15 During the progressive Japanese invasion of China in the 1930s, the Japanese created the puppet state of Mengjiang headed by Prince De, who renamed Guisui to "Blue City" ("Hohhot" or Huheshi).[12] After the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China renamed the city back to its original name, Guisui.[9]:16 The Communist Party of China's forces drove out the Republic's General Fu Zuoyi in Suiyuan during the Chinese Civil War. After the Chinese Revolution in 1949, Guisui was renamed Hohhot.[9]:16

Post World War II[edit]

China 10th Anniversary Parade in Hohhot

During the Civil War, in order to gain the support of separatist Mongols, the Communists established the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in Mongol-minority areas from the Republic's provinces of Suiyuan, Xing'an, Chahar, and Rehe. Guisui was chosen as the region's administrative centre in 1952, replacing Zhangjiakou. In 1954, the new People's Republic of China renamed Guisui to Hohhot, though with a different Chinese pronunciation of Huhehaote.[9]:16

The city has seen significant development since China's reform and opening began. The city's far east side began development around 2000 and is now home to an artificial lake called Ruyi He, a large number of condominiums mostly built by the biggest local real estate company Gold Horse International Inc.,[13] the municipal government, and most of the Autonomous Region's government buildings.[14] The Hohhot City Stadium was built on the city's north side, finished in 2007.[15]

A city with a rich cultural background, Hohhot is known for its historical sites and temples and is one of the major tourist destinations of Inner Mongolia. It is also nationally known as the home of China's dairy giants Mengniu and Yili,[16][17] and was declared "Dairy Capital of China" by the China Dairy Industry Association and the Dairy Association of China in 2005.

Geography[edit]

Huhhot and vicinities, LandSat-5 satellite image, 2005-07-12

Located in the south central part of Inner Mongolia, Hohhot is encircled by the Daqing Shan (大青山, lit. Great blue Mountains) to the north and the Hetao Plateau to the south.[18]

Climate[edit]

Hohhot features a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), marked by long, cold and very dry winters, hot, somewhat humid summers, strong winds (especially in spring) and monsoonal influence. The coldest month is January, with a daily mean of −11.6 °C (11.1 °F), while the July, the hottest month, averages 22.6 °C (72.7 °F). The annual mean temperature is 6.73 °C (44.1 °F), and the annual precipitation is 398 millimetres (15.7 in), with more than half of it falling in July and August alone. Variability can be very high, however: in 1965 Hohhot recorded as little as 155.1 mm (6.11 in) but six years before than, as much as 929.2 mm (36.58 in), including 338.6 mm (13.33 in) in July of that year.[19] Hohhot is a popular destination for tourists during the summer months because of the nearby Zhaohe grasslands. More recently, due to desertification, the city sees sandstorms on almost an annual basis. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 58 percent in July to 71 percent in October, sunshine is abundant year-round, the city receives 2,862 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −32.8 °C (−27 °F) to 38.9 °C (102 °F).[20]

Climate data for Hohhot (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −5
(23)
−0.4
(31.3)
7.0
(44.6)
16.3
(61.3)
23.2
(73.8)
27.3
(81.1)
28.5
(83.3)
26.4
(79.5)
21.2
(70.2)
14.1
(57.4)
4.4
(39.9)
−3.2
(26.2)
13.32
(55.97)
Average low °C (°F) −16.8
(1.8)
−12.8
(9)
−5.5
(22.1)
1.6
(34.9)
8.2
(46.8)
13.3
(55.9)
16.4
(61.5)
14.8
(58.6)
8.3
(46.9)
1.0
(33.8)
−7
(19)
−14.2
(6.4)
0.61
(33.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.6
(0.102)
5.2
(0.205)
10.2
(0.402)
13.5
(0.531)
27.6
(1.087)
47.2
(1.858)
106.5
(4.193)
109.1
(4.295)
47.4
(1.866)
20.7
(0.815)
6.2
(0.244)
1.8
(0.071)
398.0
(15.669)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.5 2.8 3.4 3.7 6.0 8.9 12.9 12.7 8.3 4.5 2.4 1.8 69.9
Avg. relative humidity (%) 58 52 46 37 39 47 61 66 62 59 59 59 53.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 180.7 198.3 245.5 268.6 294.5 291.3 264.9 255.2 252.1 244.8 195.3 171.0 2,862.2
Percent possible sunshine 61 66 67 68 66 65 58 60 68 71 66 60 64.7
Source #1: China Meteorological Administration[21]
Source #2: Weather China[22]

Administrative divisions[edit]

The city is administratively at the prefecture-level, meaning that it administers both its urban area and the rural regions in its vicinity. The administrative area includes 4 counties, 4 districts, and a county-level banner; they are further divided into 20 urban sub-districts, and 96 townships. The data here represented is in km² and uses data from 2010 Census.

Map
English Name Mongolian Simplified Chinese Pinyin Area Population Density
City Proper
Huimin District ᠬᠣᠳᠣᠩ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Qotoŋ Arad-un toɣoriɣ)
回民区 Huímín Qū 194.4 394,555 2,030
Xincheng District ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Sin-e Qota toɣoriɣ)
新城区 Xīnchéng Qū 660.6 567,255 859
Yuquan District ᠢᠤᠢ ᠴᠢᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Iui čiuvan toɣoriɣ)
玉泉区 Yùquán Qū 207.2 383,365 1,850
Saihan District ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Sayiqan toɣoriɣ)
赛罕区 Sàihǎn Qū 1,002.9 635,599 634
Rural
Togtoh County ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Toɣtaqu siyan)
托克托县 Tuōkètuō Xiàn 1,407.8 200,840 143
Wuchuan County ᠦᠴᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Üčuvan siyan)
武川县 Wǔchuān Xiàn 4,682.3 108,726 23
Horinger County ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Qorin Ger siyan)
和林格尔县 Hélíngé'ěr Xiàn 3,447.8 169,856 49
Qingshuihe County ᠴᠢᠩ ᠱᠦᠢ ᠾᠧ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Čiŋ šüi hė siyan)
清水河县 Qīngshuǐhé Xiàn 2,859 93,887 33
Tumed Left Banner ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠳ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Tümed Jegün qosiɣu)
土默特左旗 Tǔmòtè Zuǒ Qí 2,765 312,532 113

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1953 792,600 —    
1964 1,118,600 +41.1%
1982 1,645,200 +47.1%
1990 1,911,600 +16.2%
2000 2,437,900 +27.5%
2010 2,866,600 +17.6%
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

According to the 2010 Census, the population of Hohhot reached 2,866,615, counting 428,717 inhabitants more than in 2000 (the average annual demographic growth for the period 2000–2010 was of 1.63 percent).[5][23] Its built-up (or metro) area is home to 1,980,774 inhabitants (4 urban districts). The urban population of Huhhot is increasing rapidly in recent 20 years.

The majority of the population of Hohhot are Han Chinese, representing 87.16 percent of the total population in 2010. Most Han in Hohhot, if their ancestry is traced several decades back, have ancestors from Shanxi, northeast China, or Hebei. Most Mongols in the city speak Standard Chinese. A survey from 1993 of the Inner Mongolia University found that only 8 percent of Tümed Mongols (the majority tribe in Hohhot) could speak the Mongolian language.[9]:15 A significant portion of the population is of mixed ethnic origin. According to the anthropologist William Jankowiak, who wrote the book Sex, Death, and Hierarchy in a Chinese City (1933) about Huhehot, there is "relatively little different between minority culture and Han culture" in the city. with differences concentrating around minor attributes like food and art choices, and similarities abounding over fundamental issues in ethics, status, life goals, and worldview.[9]:5

Ethnic groups in Hohhot, according to the 2000 census, were:

Ethnicity Population Percentage
Han Chinese 2,115,888 88.42%
Mongol 204,846 8.56%
Hui Chinese 38,417 1.61%
Manchu 26,439 1.10%
Daur 2,663 0.11%
Korean 1,246 0.05%
Miao 443 0.02%

Economy[edit]

Hailiang Plaza, tallest building in Hohhot

Hohhot is a major industrial center within Inner Mongolia. Hohhot, together with Baotou and Ordos, account for more than 60 percent of the total industrial output of Inner Mongolia.[24] After Baotou and Ordos, Hohhot is the third-largest economy of the province, with GDP of RMB 247.56 billion in 2012, up 11.0 percent year on year.[2] Hohhot accounted for approximately 15.5 percent of the province's total GDP in 2012.[25] Hohhot is also the largest consumer center in the region, recording ¥102.2 billion retail sales of consumer goods in 2012, an increase of 14.9 percent from 2011.[2] Huhhot has been a central developmental target for the China Western Development project that the Central Government is pursuing. There are many famous enterprises located in Hohhot, including China's biggest dairy producer by sales revenue Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group and China Mengniu Dairy Co.[26][27]

As the economic center in Inner Mongolia, Huhhot has expanded its urban area since the 1990s. The CBDs in the city increased rapidly all around the major districts. The completion of the new office tower for Huhhot Municipal Government in Eastern Huhhot region marked a shift of the city center to the east. Hailiang Plaza (海亮广场), a 41-floor tower constructed in the city center, became one of the few notable department stores for luxury merchandise in the city.

Major Development Zones[edit]

  • Hohhot Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Hohhot Export Processing Zone

Culture[edit]

Typical street scene in Hohhot. Shops panels and taxi markers are written in both Mongolian classical script and Chinese characters.

Due to its relatively diverse cultural make-up, and despite its characteristics as a mid-sized Chinese industrial city, the Hohhot street scene has no shortage of ethnic minority elements. Tongdao Road, a major street in the old town area, is decorated with Islamic and Mongol exterior designs on all its buildings. A series of government initiatives in recent years have emphasized Hohhot's identity with ethnic minority groups, especially in increasing Mongol-themed architecture around the city. All street signs as well as public transportation announcements are regulated to be in both Chinese and Mongolian.[28]

Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot

Dialect[edit]

Older Hohhot residents mostly tend to converse in raw Hohhot dialect, a branch of the Jin language from neighbouring Shanxi province. This spoken form can be difficult to understand for speakers of other Mandarin Chinese dialects. The newer residents, mostly concentrated in Xincheng and Saihan Districts, speak Hohhot-based Mandarin, the majority also with a noticeable accent and some unique vocabulary.

See also: Hohhot dialect

Cuisine[edit]

Milk Tea provided in Huhhot's Bayandelehai Mongolian restaurant

Food specialty in the area is mostly focused on Mongol cuisine and dairy products. Commercially, Hohhot is known for being the base of nationally renowned dairy giants Yili and Mengniu. The Mongol drink suutei tsai ("naicha" 奶茶 in Chinese, "milk tea" in English), which has become a typical breakfast selection for anyone living or visiting the city.[29] The city also has rich traditions in the making of hot pot and shaomai, a type of traditional Chinese dumpling served as dim sum.[30]

Transport[edit]

Airport[edit]

Hohhot's Baita International Airport (IATA:HET) is about 14.3 km (8.9 mi) eastwards from the city centre by car. It has direct flights to larger domestic cities including Beijing, Tianjin,[31] Shanghai, Shenzhen, Chengdu, etc. It also has international flights to Taichung,[32] Hong Kong, and to Ulan Bator, Mongolia.

Railway[edit]

The Hohhot Railway Station, c. 2008

Hohhot lies on the Jingbao Railway from Beijing to Baotou, and is served by two railway stations: Hohhot Station and Hohhot East Station.[33] The line began operation since 1921.[34] Trains to Beijing link to destinations to the south and the northeast. The most prominent rail link with Beijing is the overnight K90 train, which has served the Hohhot-Beijing line since the 1980s and is referred to colloquially as the "9-0". Westbound trains go through Baotou and Lanzhou. There are also rail links to most major Inner Mongolian cities and to Ulan Bator, Mongolia.

Because the quickest trip to Beijing takes around eight and a half hours despite the close distance of the cities, plans for high-speed rail has been discussed for years, and construction of a high-speed railway station began in 2008. The station was completed in 2011 and initially serviced only ordinary lines. In January 2015, CRH opened its first D-series (dongchezu) route in Inner Mongolia in the Baotou-Hohhot-Jining corridor, shortening travel time between Inner Mongolia's two largest cities a mere 50 minutes.[35] This line reached a maximum speed of 200 km/h between Hohhot and Baotou. Another high-speed rail linking Hohhot to Zhangjiakou and the planned Beijing-Zhangjiakou 200 km/h railway is due for completion in 2017, and designed to operate at 250 km/h.[36]

Expressways[edit]

Genghis Khan Drive, on the North side of the city

An expressway built in 1997 links Hohhot with Baotou, then known as the Hubao Expressway. In recent years this expressway has been expanded eastwards to Jining and Zhangjiakou, and onto Beijing as part of the Jingzang Expressway. The city is en route of China National Highway 110, which runs from Yinchuan to Beijing. China National Highway 209 begins in Hohhot and is southbound towards southern China, with its southern terminus in Guangxi. Hohhot is connected to its northern counties through the Huwu Highway, which was completed in 2006. Previously travel to the northern counties consisted of lengthy navigation through mountainous terrain.

Long distance buses connect Hohhot to outlying counties, the cities of Baotou, Wuhai, Ordos, and other areas in Inner Mongolia.

Public transport[edit]

Hohhot's major north–south thoroughfares are called "Lu" and its east–west thoroughfares are called "Jie". This is roughly equivalent to dividing roads into "street" and "avenue" designation according to direction, a practice used in some North American cities. The largest elevated interchange is near the site of the city's Drum Tower, after which it is named. Several major streets are named after Inner Mongolian leagues and cities; among these, Hulun Buir, Jurim(now Tongliao), Juud(Now Chifeng), Xilin Gol, and Xing'an run north–south, while Bayannaoer, Hailar, Ulanqab and Erdos runs east–west.

The city's public transit system is composed of nearly one hundred bus routes and a large fleet of taxicabs, which are normally green or blue. The bus fare is 1 yuan. The taxi fare begins at 8 yuan.

Education[edit]

Affiliated Middle School to Inner Mongolia Normal University

Universities located in Hohhot include:

High Schools located in Hohhot include:

Sports[edit]

Hohhot didn't have a professional soccer team until Shenyang Dongjin F.C. relocated in Hohhot and changed their name to Hohhot Dongjin in 2012.[38] They played at Hohhot City Stadium, which was newly built in 2007.[39] The club finished in the bottom of the league this season and relegated to League Two. After playing half a season at Hohhot in 2013, the team relocated in Liaoning and chose Benxi City Stadium as their new home court.[40]

On 14 January 2015, Taiyuan Zhongyou Jiayi F.C. moved to the city of Hohhot and changed their name to Nei Mongol Zhongyou F.C.[41] The team play in China League One and chose Hohhot City Stadium as their home court in 2015. The team was first established as Shanxi Jiayi F.C. on 8 October 2011.[42]

Notable landmarks[edit]

There are over 50 sets of murals in southeastern Hohhot, including a "Horse-tending Image" (牧馬圖). Over 50 pre-modern Buddhist temples and towers.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "城市概况". City of Hohhot. April 12, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c "呼和浩特市2012年国民经济和社会发展统计公报". 呼和浩特市统计局 (in Chinese). 1 April 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  3. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2001. Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  4. ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th Edition (1977), Vol. I, p. 275.
  5. ^ a b 彤, 王. "呼和浩特市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据". 内蒙古新闻网. 内蒙古日报. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  6. ^ a b Perkins (1999), p. 212.
  7. ^ Chinese "qing" has traditionally been a color between "blue" and "green" in English, leading some modern sources to translate Qing Cheng into English as "Green City" instead of "Blue City," including, for example, the official website of Hohhot.
  8. ^ "Dazhao Temple". Travel China Guide. Retrieved 12 January 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jankowiak, William R (1993). Sex, Death, and Hierarchy in a Chinese City: An Anthropological Account. Columbia University Press. pp. 5, 11–16. 
  10. ^ Zhang, Guanglin (2005). Islam in China. 五洲传播出版社. p. 75. ISBN 978-7-5085-0802-3. Retrieved 29 August 2012. 
  11. ^ Traditional dwellings and settlements review: journal of the International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments. International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments. 1998. p. 12. Retrieved 29 August 2012. 
  12. ^ Lin, Hsiao-ting (2010), Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West, Taylor and Francis, pp. 43, 49, ISBN 9780415582643 
  13. ^ "Gold Horse International Inc". realpennies. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  14. ^ Wasserman, Adam. "Gold Horse International, Inc. Updates Status of Key Real Estate Development Projects for 2009.". Gale, Cengage Learning. PR Newswire Association LLC. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  15. ^ 内蒙古新建呼和浩特市体育场落成 可容纳近6万人 - 新农村商网
  16. ^ Background of Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group Co., Ltd.
  17. ^ Profile of Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group Company Limited
  18. ^ Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Incorporated. April 2001. p. 510. ISBN 978-0-7172-0134-1. Retrieved 29 August 2012. 
  19. ^ Huhehaote rainfall
  20. ^ 中国气象科学数据共享服务网
  21. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  22. ^ "呼和浩特城市介绍以及气候背景分析". 中国天气网 (in Chinese). 中国气象局公共气象服务中心. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  23. ^ (Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
  24. ^ "鄂尔多斯人均GDP超北京 房产业面临何种机遇" (in Chinese). 
  25. ^ "hktdc.com – Profiles of China Provinces, Cities and Industrial Parks". Tdctrade.com. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  26. ^ "PROGRAMA CONJUNTO FAO/OMS SOBRE NORMAS ALIMENTARIAS" (Archive). Food and Agriculture Organization. p. 30. Retrieved on July 10, 2014. "Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group Co. Ltd. No. 8, Jinsi Road, Jinchun Developing Zone 010080 Hohhot P.R. China"
  27. ^ Yili, Mengniu, Bright Dairy lose their status as 'national brands', China Central Television (22 September 2008)
  28. ^ "呼和浩特市社会市面蒙汉两种文字并用管理办法". 中华人民共和国国家民族事务委员会. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
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References[edit]

  • Perkins (1999). Encyclopedia of China: The Essential Reference to China, Its History and Culture. Dorothy Perkins. 1st paperback edition: 2000. A Roundtable Press Book, New York, N.Y. ISBN 0-8160-4374-4 (pbk).

External links[edit]

Media related to Hohhot at Wikimedia Commons