Automatic for the People
|Automatic for the People|
|Studio album by R.E.M.|
|Released||October 5, 1992|
|Recorded||Late 1991 – mid 1992 at various locations|
|Singles from Automatic for the People|
Automatic for the People is the eighth studio album by the American alternative rock band R.E.M., released in 1992 on Warner Bros. Records. Upon release, it reached number two on the U.S. album charts and yielded six singles. The album has sold 18 million copies worldwide and is widely considered one of the best records released in the 1990s.
Background and recording
After promotional duties for their previous album Out of Time in May 1991, the members of R.E.M. began work on their next album. Starting the first week of June, guitarist Peter Buck, bassist Mike Mills, and drummer Bill Berry met several times a week in a rehearsal studio to work on new material. Once a month they would take a week-long break. The musicians would often trade instruments: Buck would play mandolin, Mills would play piano or organ and Berry would play bass. Buck explained that writing without drums was productive for the band members. The band, intent on delivering an album of harder-rocking material after Out of Time, made an effort to write some faster rock songs during rehearsals, but came up with less than a half-dozen prospective songs in that vein.
When it came time to make demos, the musicians recorded them in their standard band configuration. According to Buck, the musicians recorded about 30 songs. Lead singer Michael Stipe was not present at these sessions; instead, the band gave him the finished demos at the start of 1992. Stipe described the music to Rolling Stone Magazine early that year as "[v]ery mid-tempo, pretty fucking weird [...] More acoustic, more organ-based, less drums". In February, R.E.M. recorded another set of demos at Daniel Lanois' Kingsway Studios in New Orleans.
The group decided to create finished recordings with co-producer Scott Litt at Bearsville Studios in Woodstock, New York, starting on March 30. The band recorded overdubs in Miami and New York City. String arrangements were recorded in Atlanta. After recording sessions were completed in July, the album was mixed at Bad Animals Studio in Seattle.
Music and lyrics
Despite R.E.M.'s initial desire to make an album of rocking, guitar-dominated songs after Out of Time, music critic David Fricke noted that instead Automatic for the People "seems to move at an even more agonized crawl" than the band's previous release. Peter Buck took the lead in suggesting the new direction for the album. The album dealt with themes of loss and mourning inspired by "that sense of [...] turning 30", according to Buck. "The world that we'd been involved in had disappeared, the world of Hüsker Dü and The Replacements, all that had gone [...] We were just in a different place and that worked its way out musically and lyrically." "Sweetness Follows", "Drive", and "Monty Got a Raw Deal" in particular expressed much darker themes than any of the band's previous material.
The songs "Drive", "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite", "Everybody Hurts", and "Nightswimming" feature string arrangements by former Led Zeppelin bassist John Paul Jones. Fricke stated, "ballads, in fact, define the record," and noted that the album featured only three "rockers": "Ignoreland", "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite" and "Man on the Moon".
"It pretty much went according to plan," Litt reported. "Compared to Monster, it was a walk in the park. Out of Time had an orchestral arrangement – so, when we did Automatic, judging where Michael was going with the words, we wanted to scale it down and make it more intimate."
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The album name refers to the motto of Athens, Georgia eatery, Weaver D's Delicious Fine Foods. The photograph on the front cover is not related to the restaurant: it shows a star ornament that was part of the sign for the Sinbad Motel on Biscayne Boulevard in Miami, near Criteria Studios, where the bulk of the album was recorded. The motel is still there, but the star is not. The slanted support where it was once attached is still present. "The album was going to be called Star at one point, hence the object on the cover that Michael had photographed and really dug," Scott Litt told Mojo. "It helps to have some kind of focus in the studio, so the photo was stuck up."
The interior jacket shows a two–three story circular platform that was the sign for the old Bon Aire Motel on the former Motel Row on Miami Beach. The Bon Aire and other motel row establishments have mostly been demolished for new high-rise condominiums.
The front cover of the album shows a greyed-out photograph of a Miami motel sign placed over an embossed image, which is also included inside the album's booklet distorted on a white background. The back cover features a photograph of an old building with the track listing written over at the same angle from which the building is viewed. Other photographs, taken by Anton Corbijn, feature the band members on a beach.
The compact disc was issued in a jewel case with an odd yellow translucent spine/CD tray. The cassette shell was also issued with the same color. The yellow was made to match the colour of the CD disc. The band would later use a similar method for Monster which was released in an orange spine/CD tray (though this matched the album cover).
Automatic for the People was released in October 1992. In the United States, the album reached No. 2 on the Billboard 200 album charts. The album reached No. 1 in the United Kingdom, where it topped the UK Albums Chart on four separate occasions. Despite not having toured after the release of Out of Time, R.E.M. again declined to tour in support of this album. Automatic for the People has been certified four times platinum in the U.S. (four million copies shipped), six times platinum in the United Kingdom (1.8 million shipped), and three times platinum in Australia (210,000 shipped). The album has sold 3.5 million copies in the U.S., according to Nielsen SoundScan sales figures as of 2011.
Automatic for the People yielded six singles over the course of 1992 and 1993: "Drive", "Man on the Moon", "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite", "Everybody Hurts", "Nightswimming", and "Find the River". Lead single "Drive" was the album's highest-charting domestic hit, reaching No. 28 on the Billboard Hot 100. Other singles charted higher overseas: "Everybody Hurts" charted in the top ten in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia.
A re-recorded, slower version of "Star Me Kitten," featuring William S. Burroughs, was released on Songs in the Key of X: Music from and Inspired by the X-Files.
The music videos from the album were included in Parallel.
In 2005, Warner Bros. Records issued a two-disc edition of Automatic for the People which includes a CD, a DVD-Audio disc containing a 5.1-channel surround sound mix of the album done by Elliot Scheiner, and the original CD booklet with expanded liner notes.
|Los Angeles Times|||
|The Village Voice||B+|
R.E.M. biographer David Buckley wrote, "Automatic for the People is regarded by Peter Buck and Mike Mills, and by most critics, as being the finest R.E.M. album ever recorded." Rolling Stone gave the album five stars. Reviewer Paul Evans wrote, "Despite its difficult concerns, most of Automatic is musically irresistible." Melody Maker reviewer Allan Jones commented, "It's almost impossible to write about the record without mentioning the recent grim rumors concerning Stipe's health," in reference to the rumors at the time that the singer was dying of AIDS or cancer. Jones concluded his review by noting, "Amazingly, initial reactions to Automatic for the People in this particular vicinity have been mixed [...] Psshaw to them. Automatic for the People is R.E.M. at the very top of their form." Ann Powers, reviewing the album for The New York Times, noted that only three of the songs on the album went beyond mid-tempo and said, "Only 'Man on the Moon' shines with a wit that balances R.E.M.'s somber tendencies." Powers finished her review by saying, "Even in the midst of such disenchantment, R.E.M. can't resist its own talent for creating beautiful and moving sounds. [...] Buck, Mills and Berry can still conjure melodies that fall like summer sunlight. And Stipe still possesses a gorgeous voice that cannot shake its own gift for meaning." Guy Garcia, for Time, also noted the album's themes of "hopelessness, anger and loss". Garcia added that the album proves "that a so-called alternative band can keep its edge after conquering the musical mainstream" and that it "manages to dodge predictability without ever sounding aimless or unfocussed."
Automatic for the People placed third in the Village Voice Pazz & Jop year-end critics' poll. The album was nominated for Album of the Year at the Grammy Awards of 1994. It was also ranked #247 in Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Rolling Stone also ranked it at #18 on its "100 Greatest Albums of the 90s" list. The album was also included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.
"I'm not so crazy about 'The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite'," Buck reflected in 2001, "but overall I think it sounds great." Buck added in 2003, in regard to the song, "We included this song on Automatic in order to break the prevailing mood of the album. Given that lyrically the record dealt with mortality, the passage of time, suicide and family, we felt that a light spot was needed. In retrospect, the consensus among the band is that this might be a little too lightweight."
- Side one – "Drive side"
- "Drive" – 4:31
- "Try Not to Breathe" – 3:50
- "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite" – 4:06
- "Everybody Hurts" – 5:17
- "New Orleans Instrumental No. 1" – 2:13
- "Sweetness Follows" – 4:19
- Side two – "Ride side"
- "Monty Got a Raw Deal" – 3:17
- "Ignoreland" – 4:24
- "Star Me Kitten" – 3:15
- "Man on the Moon" – 5:13
- "Nightswimming" – 4:16
- "Find the River" – 3:50
The track listing on the vinyl and cassette editions of the album lists tracks 1–6 as "Drive" and 7–12 as "Ride"
- Michael Stipe – lead vocals
- Bill Berry – drums, percussion, keyboards, bass guitar, backing vocals, melodica
- Peter Buck – electric and acoustic guitars, mandolin, bass guitar
- Mike Mills – bass guitar, piano, keyboards, accordion, backing vocals
- Additional musicians
- Strings and oboe on "Drive", "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonight", "Everybody Hurts", and "Nightswimming":
- John Paul Jones – orchestral arrangements
- George Hanson – conductor
- Denise Berginson-Smith, Lonnie Ottzen, Patti Gouvas, Sandy Salzinger, Sou-Chun Su, Jody Taylor – violin
- Knox Chandler, Kathleen Kee, Daniel Laufer, Elizabeth Proctor Murphy – cello
- Reid Harris, Paul Murphy, Heidi Nitchie – viola
- Deborah Workman – oboe
- Scott Litt – producer, mixing engineer
- Ed Brooks – second engineer (Seattle)
- George Cowan – second engineer (Bearsville) *Alfonso Hernandez -assistant engineer (Hollywood)
- Adrian Hernandez -Second assistant engineer (Hollywood)
- John Keane – recording engineer (Athens)
- Mark Howard – second engineer (New Orleans)
- Tod Lemkuhl – second engineer (Seattle)
- Ted Malia – second engineer (Atlanta)
- Stephen Marcussen – mastering engineer (Precision Mastering)
- Clif Norrell – recording engineer, mixing engineer
- Andrew Roshberg – second engineer (Miami)
Charts and certifications
Certifications and sales
|Australia (ARIA)||4× Platinum||280,000^|
|Austria (IFPI Austria)||2× Platinum||100,000*|
|Canada (Music Canada)||7× Platinum||700,000^|
|Germany (BVMI)||5× Gold||1,250,000^|
|Netherlands (NVPI)||3× Platinum||300,000^|
|Spain (PROMUSICAE)||2× Platinum||200,000^|
|Sweden (GLF)||2× Platinum||200,000^|
|Switzerland (IFPI Switzerland)||2× Platinum||100,000^|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||7× Platinum||2,350,000+^|
|United States (RIAA)||4× Platinum||5,500,000|
^shipments figures based on certification alone
- Black, Johnny. Reveal: The Story of R.E.M. Backbeat, 2004. ISBN 0-87930-776-5
- Buckley, David. R.E.M.: Fiction: An Alternative Biography. Virgin, 2002. ISBN 1-85227-927-3
- Fletcher, Tony. Remarks Remade: The Story of R.E.M. Omnibus, 2002. ISBN 0-7119-9113-8.
- Platt, John (editor). The R.E.M. Companion: Two Decades of Commentary. Schirmer, 1998. ISBN 0-02-864935-4
- "Stereogum Presents... Drive XV: A Tribute to Automatic For The People – Stereogum". Stereogum. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "R.E.M.'s legacy: 6 ways the band changed American music". The Week. September 22, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
- Mendelsohn, Jason and Eric Klinger (October 7, 2011). "R.E.M.'s 'Automatic for the People'". PopMatters. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
- Robbins, Ira. "R.E.M." Pulse!. October 1992
- Fletcher, p. 208
- Fricke, David. "Living Up to Out of Time/Remote Control: Parts I and II". Melody Maker. October 3, 1992.
- Fletcher, p. 209
- Fricke, David. "The Rolling Stone Interview: Michael Stipe". Rolling Stone. March 5, 1992. Retrieved on March 12, 2009
- Black, p. 190
- Black, p. 191
- Buckley, p. 216
- Buckley, p. 218
- Mojo #21, August 1995
- Thompson, Jim. "Weaver D's deemed 'American Classic' by James Beard Foundation". OnlineAthens. April 18, 2007. Retrieved on March 17, 2009.
- "R.E.M. Automatic For The People "Star" Album Cover Location". feelnumb.comcom. 2009-09-04. Retrieved 2016-09-21.
- "Automatic for the People > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums". Allmusic. Retrieved on March 12, 2009.
- Buckley, p. 230
- Buckley, p. 358
- "R.E.M. Remembrances: 31 Chart Milestones of Their 31-Year Career". Billboard. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Automatic for the People – R.E.M.". AllMusic. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- "Back Catalogue: R.E.M.". Blender (67): 106. March 2008.
- Kot, Greg (October 4, 1992). "The New 'Automatic' Rings Low-key But Deep". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
- Sandow, Greg (October 16, 1992). "Automatic for the People". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
- Cromelin, Richard (October 4, 1992). "Record Rack: Playfulness, Profundity From a Rusticated R.E.M.". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
- "R.E.M.: Automatic for the People". NME: 36. October 3, 1992.
- "R.E.M.: Automatic for the People". Q (74): 117. November 1992.
- Evans, Paul (October 29, 1992). "Automatic For The People : R.E.M. : Review". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on January 16, 2009. Retrieved August 26, 2012.
- Cavanagh, David (November 1992). "Everybody Hurts". Select (29): 83.
- Christgau, Robert (March 2, 1993). "Between a Rock and a Hard Place". The Village Voice. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
- Buckley, p. 217
- Jones, Allan. "From Hearse to Eternity: Automatic for the People". Melody Maker. October 3, 1992.
- Powers, Ann (1992-10-11). "RECORDINGS VIEW; A Weary R.E.M. Seems Stuck in Midtempo". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
- Garcia, Guy (1992-11-23). "That Sinking Feeling". TIME. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
- Christgau, Robert (March 2, 1993). "The 1992 Pazz & Jop Critics Poll". Village Voice. Retrieved March 16, 2009.
- "Sting Leads Grammy Nominations With Six". Reading Eagle. Reading Eagle Company. January 7, 1994. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- Levy, Joe; Steven Van Zandt (2006) . "247 | Automatic for the People — R.E.M.". Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time (3rd ed.). London: Turnaround. ISBN 1-932958-61-4. OCLC 70672814.
- Robert Dimery; Michael Lydon (7 February 2006). 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die: Revised and Updated Edition. Universe. ISBN 0-7893-1371-5.
- "Oasis album voted greatest of all time". The Times. June 1, 2006. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- Q October 2001
- ‹See Tfm› Buck, Peter (2003). In Time: The Best of R.E.M. 1988–2003 (booklet). Warner Bros. Records.
- "R.E.M. – Automatic for the People (Album)". Australian-charts.com. Retrieved on March 12, 2009.
- "R.E.M. – Automatic for the People (Album)". Austriancharts.at (in German). Retrieved on March 12, 2009.
- "RPM100 Albums". RPM 56(19). Toronto: RPM Music Publications (November 7, 1992). Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved on March 12, 2009.
- "InfoDisc : Tous les Albums classés par Artiste > Choisir Un Artiste Dans la Liste : R.E.M.". infodisc.fr. Retrieved 2011-09-12.
- "Chartverfolgung – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People". Musicline.de. Retrieved on March 12, 2009.
- "Hit Parade Italia – Gli album più venduti del 1992" (in Italian). hitparadeitalia.it. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
- "Highest position and charting weeks of Automatic for the People by R.E.M.". oricon.co.jp (in Japanese). Oricon Style. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- "R.E.M. – Automatic for the People (Album)". Norwegiancharts.com. Retrieved on March 12, 2009.
- "R.E.M. – Automatic for the People (Album)". Swisscharts.com. Retrieved on March 12, 2009.
- Roberts, David (ed.) (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th edition). London: HiT Entertainment. p. 446–7. ISBN 1-904994-10-5.
- "R.E.M. – Automatic for the People (Album)". Dutchcharts.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved on March 12, 2009.
- "R.E.M. – Automatic for the People (Album)". Swedishcharts.com. Retrieved on March 12, 2009.
- "Complete UK Year-End Album Charts". Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- "Billboard.BIZ – Year-end Charts – Billboard 200 – 1992". billboard.biz. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
- "ARIA End Of Year Charts – Top 50 Albums 1993". Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
- "Austriancharts.at – Jahreshitparade 1993". Hung Medien. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- "RPM Top 100 Albums of 1993". RPM. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
- "Dutch charts jaaroverzichten 1993" (ASP) (in Dutch). Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- "Hitparade.ch – Schweizer Jahreshitparade 1993". Swiss Music Charts. Hung Medien. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- "Chart Archive – 1990s Albums". Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- "Billboard.BIZ – Year-end Charts – Billboard 200 – 1993". billboard.biz. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
- "Dutch charts jaaroverzichten 1994" (ASP) (in Dutch). Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- "Austriancharts.at – Bestenlisten – 90-er album" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 2001 Albums". Australian Recording Industry Association.
- "Austrian album certifications – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People" (in German). IFPI Austria. Enter R.E.M. in the field Interpret. Enter Automatic for the People in the field Titel. Select album in the field Format. Click Suchen
- "Canadian album certifications – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People". Music Canada.
- "French album certifications – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People" (in French). InfoDisc. Select R.E.M. and click OK
- "Les Albums Platine". infodisc.fr (in French). SNEP. Retrieved 2011-09-18.
- "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (R.E.M.; 'Automatic for the People')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie.
- "Dutch album certifications – REM – Automatic for the People" (in Dutch). Nederlandse Vereniging van Producenten en Importeurs van beeld- en geluidsdragers.
- "Solo Exitos 1959–2002 Ano A Ano: Certificados 1991–1995". Iberautor Promociones Culturales. ISBN 8480486392.
- "Guld- och Platinacertifikat − År 2000" (PDF) (in Swedish). IFPI Sweden.
- "The Official Swiss Charts and Music Community: Awards (R.E.M.; 'Automatic for the People')". IFPI Switzerland. Hung Medien.
- "British album certifications – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People". British Phonographic Industry. Enter Automatic for the People in the field Keywords. Select Title in the field Search by. Select album in the field By Format. Select Platinum in the field By Award. Click Search
- "American album certifications – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People". Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
- "Let's R.E.M.-ember: 31 Billboard Chart Milestones Over The Band's 31-Year Career". billboard.com. Billboard. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
ABBA Gold: Greatest Hits by ABBA
Black Tie White Noise by David Bowie
The Album by Cliff Richard
Republic by New Order
|UK number one album
October 10–16, 1992
April 24–30, 1993
May 8–14, 1993
May 22–28, 1993
Love Symbol by Prince
The Album by Cliff Richard
Republic by New Order
janet. by Janet Jackson
Unplugged by Eric Clapton
|New Zealand Chart number-one album
November 10, 1992
Glittering Prize 81/92 by Simple Minds