Believer's baptism

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A young man stands in a pool, arms crossed over his chest, with a man and a woman at either side.
Believer's baptism done by the mode of immersion, Northolt Park Baptist Church, in Greater London, Baptist Union of Great Britain, 2015.

Believer's baptism or adult baptism (occasionally called credobaptism, from the Latin word credo meaning "I believe") is the practice of baptizing those who are able to make a conscious profession of faith, as contrasted to the practice of baptizing infants. Credobaptists believe that infants incapable of consciously believing should not be baptized.

The mode of believer's baptism depends on the Christian denomination, and is done either by pouring (the normative method in Mennonite, Amish, and Hutterite churches) or by immersion (the normative method practiced by Schwarzenau Brethren, River Brethren, Baptists, and the Churches of Christ, among others).[1][2][3][4][5] Certain denominations of Methodism, including the Free Methodist Church and Evangelical Wesleyan Church, practice infant baptism for families who desire it for their children, but provide a rite for child dedication for those who have a preference for believer's baptism only after their child has made a personal acceptance of Jesus as their savior.[6][7]

Denominations and groups who practice believer's baptism were historically referred to as Anabaptist (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά-, "re-", and βαπτισμός, "baptism"), though this term is used to primarily to categorize the denominations and adherents belonging to the Anabaptist branch of Christianity that emerged in the era of the Radical Reformation.[8]

History[edit]

The Anabaptists regard their ideas as being based on the teaching of Jesus Christ, who, according to the Gospel of Matthew chapter 28, invited to make disciples in all nations and to baptize them in the name of the Father, of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.[9] According to some theologians, it is natural to follow the order thus suggested, either to baptize someone who has become a disciple before, which is not possible with a baby or a child.[10] They contend that in the New Testament, references to the baptized relate only to believers who have experienced a new birth.[11]

Patristics[edit]

Apostolic Fathers[edit]

The Didache has been a matter of discussion among Protestants on what it teaches about baptism. The Didache has been argued to have assumed believer's baptism, as it assumes discipleship before baptism and doesn't mention infant baptism. Against this, Philip Schaff argued that the silence of the Didache about infant baptism "cannot be fairly used as an argument against it".[12][13][14]

Similar to Tertullian later, the Shepherd of Hermas implies support for delaying baptism, for the practical reasons of the fear of post-baptismal sins.[15]

Polycarp stated, "I have served him eighty-six years and in no way has he dealt unjustly with me". Some argue that this quote shows Polycarp being baptized as an infant, the argument being that if Polycarp was a servant of Christ for 86 years, he would have been a servant of Christ from infancy, suggesting infant baptism. However, against the argment, it has been argued that the quote is ambiguous as regards to baptism, and that Polycarp meant by paraphrasing: "I have always served Jesus and I am not going to cease even at the age of 86."[16]

Ante-Nicene Christianity[edit]

Tertullian advised the postponement of baptism in the case of little children.[17][18][19][20]

Infant baptism in this time was affirmed by Hippolytus of Rome and Cyprian, who announced the decision of the African synod to require the baptism of infants.[21] The practice is also clearly practiced in the churches of Egypt very early, as seen from the writings of Origen, who claimed it as apostolic tradition.[22] However, according to Schreiner, Origen's need to make an apology for infant baptism implies it was not a universal belief.[23] Tertullian (c. 198–203), in his treatise on baptism, advises the postponement of baptism in the case of little children, arguing that it is better to wait until one is ready to live what he professes in baptism rather than to repudiate the profession by wickedness. He however also advises to postpone the baptism of the unmarried, and mentions that the baptism of infants existed during his time, having sponsors speaking on their behalf.[17][18][19][20]

Philip Schaff among many others have argued that Justin Martyr affirmed infant baptism, Justin stating that some in his day have been disciples of Jesus since childhood, while Dan Taylor instead claimed that Justin Martyr is "clear and full evidence" that infant baptism wasn't practiced during his time. He highlighted Justin's statements that one was "persuaded that the things spoken and taught by us are true", before baptism. Dan Taylor argued against the interpretation of the quote used to justify infant baptism, stating that by "discipleship", Justin wasn't referring to baptism but to teaching.[24][22]

Thomas Schreiner argued that the Apology of Aristedes indirectly excludes infant baptism, stating that the children of believers were considered part of the Christian community only after conversion.[25]

Clement of Alexandria made no clear statements on infant baptism, [26] though Philip Schaff wrote that some statements that he makes can unclearly imply infant baptism.[22]

Eusebius mentioned that an earlier presbyter who took a child and "committed to him, reared, kept, cherished, and finally baptized him".[27]

In inscriptions from the end from the second century and later in which the date of baptism and death are mentioned, there is a close correlation between the time of baptism and their time of death. For example, Antonia Cyriaceti died and received baptism on the same day, Felite received baptism March 26 and died April 29. Multiple other inscriptions mention people of varying ages, who died as "neophytes" which implies someone whose baptism was a recent event, such as a Greek inscription that mentioned Achillia, who died in their 5th year as a neophyte.[28]

The policy of the Montanists discouraged baptism of infants.[29] Additionally, some have argued that the schismatic Novatians did not baptize infants, though the stance of the Novatians is disputed and by this point infant baptism had become common and clear among the orthodox writers.[30]

Post-Nicene Christianity[edit]

Thomas Schreiner pointed out that many of the Cappadocian Fathers were not baptized until adulthood, including Basil the Great, Gregory of Naziansus, and Gregory of Nyssa. Schreiner argued that Gregory of Naziansus was generally opposed to infant baptism, preferring children who were old enough to understand the "basic outlines of the faith" to be baptized, except when there was a danger of death for the infant. Shcreiner also argued that Cyril of Jerusalem implies the baptized should be old enough to understand.[31]

Basil of Caesarea defined baptism as an expression of faith, stating: "baptism is established by faith, and each is carried out by the same names. For as we believe in the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, so also we are baptized in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The confession that brings salvation comes first and there follows baptism which seals our assent."[32]

Monica did not baptize Augustine as a child because of the fear of post-baptismal sins, the situation of Basil and Augustine are however different, there are no indications that St. Emmelia, who was the mother of Basil, feared post-baptismal sins like Monica did for Augustine.[33][34]

Augustine argued that the custom infant baptism has been handed down from Jesus and the apostles to the church.[35] The practice was also affirmed by the council of Carthage, affirming that infant baptism cleanses original sin.[36] John Chrysostom likewise affirmed infant baptism.[33]

Medieval[edit]

Walafrid Strabo, despite being in support of infant baptism, said that baptism ”in the ancient times” was performed on those who had already matured.[37][38][39]

During the medieval age, infant baptism was opposed by the Arnoldists, Waldensians, and Peter of Bruys. The Waldensians also practiced baptism by full immersion.[40][41][42][43] Reinerius mentioned that the Waldensians believed that the ”ablution which is given to infants profits nothing”.[44]

The Paulicians strongly opposed infant baptism; they only gave baptism to adults after instruction, confession, and repentance.[45] The Bogomils and Cathars also rejected the baptism of infants. However, they did not believe anyone should be baptized in water at all, and instead believed baptism to be of a spiritual character.[46][47]

Though infant baptism was practiced in the Bohemian reformation, a few also practiced believer's baptism.[48] This includes Petr Chelčický who preferred to baptize those of older age, however without proposing re-baptism and the radical Taborite Pierre Kanis, who believed baptism should be withheld until the age of 30.[49]

Sebastian Frank wrote that "The Picards in Bohemia are divided into two, or some say three parties, the large, the small, the very small, who hold in all things with the Anabaptists".[50]

It has been argued that the Celtic Christians practiced believer's baptism and baptized infants only if the infant was in danger.[51][52]

Protestant Reformation[edit]

John Smyth started the Baptist movement.[53]

In the early church, instances of baptisms following conversion to Christianity are recorded.[54] Advocates of believers' baptism argue that this implies infants would not be baptized since they could not profess faith for themselves. Beginning with Augustine, the church solidified the practice of infant baptism and there is little mention of competing practices until the 1500s.[55] Augustine held the view that baptism was a requirement for the washing away of sins. He was faced with the issue of whether an unconscious or unwilling individual on their deathbed should be baptized; he felt it was better to err on the side of caution and baptize such a person.[56]

Michael Servetus and the Zwickau prophets opposed infant baptism.[57][58] Additionally, Andreas Karlstad opposed infant baptism but did not demand rebaptism of once baptized infants.[59]

In the early 16th century, the Anabaptist movement began demanding that baptismal candidates be able to make a freely chosen confession of faith, thus rejecting the baptism of infants. This, and other doctrinal differences, led both Catholics and Protestants to persecute the Anabaptists, executing them by fire, sword, or drowning.[60] Major Anabaptist theologians included: Balthasar Hubmaier, Jakob Hutter, Melchior Hofmann, John of Leiden and Menno Simons.[61] Ulrich Zwingli once met Balthasar Hubmaier and agreed that infant baptism should be discontinued, however Zwingli would later become a persecutor of those who denied infant baptism.[62]

Historians trace the earliest "Baptist" church to 1609 in Amsterdam in the Dutch Republic, with English Separatist John Smyth as its pastor.[53] In 1641, the Baptist movements began adopting baptism by immersion. Some of them may have insisted on credobaptism by affusion a few decades earlier.[63]

Advocates of believer's baptism contend that non-Biblical records are not authoritative, and that no evidence exists from the Bible or early Christian literature that infant baptism was practiced by the apostles.[11]

Arguments for credobaptism[edit]

Scripture[edit]

Advocates of believer's baptism argue that the New Testament does not describe instances of infant baptism, and that during the New Testament era, the early church required converts to have conscious, deliberate faith in Jesus Christ.[64]

Advocates for believer's baptism use Acts 2 to support their view, where Peter commanded to believe before baptism took place. Credobaptists also argue that Jesus' baptism as an adult, and not as an infant, is supportive of believer's baptism.[65]

Gavin Ortlund argued that the parallel with circumcision supports believer's baptism, arguing that since circumcision was given to the children of Abraham (Genesis 17:9) and that in the New Testament, only believers are called sons of Abraham (Galatians 3:7), thus supporting believer's baptism.[66]

Age of accountability[edit]

Believer's baptism by immersion at Eastside Christian Church, Anaheim, United States, 2018

Believer's baptism is administered only to persons who have passed the age of accountability or reason, which is based upon a reading of the New Testament that only believers should be baptized. Some claim that it is also based upon the Jewish tradition of Bar Mitzvah at the age of 12 or 13, at which point Jewish children become responsible for their actions and "one to whom the commandments apply". This analogy is not very helpful since a Jew who is not bar mitzvah is nonetheless considered to be fully a Jew—whereas the notion of an "unbaptized Christian" is more problematic. However, many (pedobaptist) Christian theologians, including Calvin and Zwingli, regard baptism as analogous to the Jewish practice of circumcision, rather than analogous to the bar mitzvah ceremony, although there are no explicit sections of the New Testament that support this idea.[a]

It is common for churches that practice believer's baptism to administer the ordinance to children aged eight or nine following some training in the rudiments of the faith. Seventh-day Adventists generally consider that around age 12, young people are equipped to make reasoned decisions and may choose to be baptized. There is no stated lower age limit, however, and when a young child voices a desire for baptism, it is strongly encouraged that they enter an instructional program that may lead to baptism.[68]

Practice[edit]

Believer's baptism of an adult by immersion at The Foursquare Church in Aracaju, Brazil, 2015.

In areas where those who practice believer's baptism are the physical or cultural majority, the ritual may function as a rite of passage by which the child is granted the status of an adult.[64]

Denominational practices[edit]

Evangelical denominations adhering to the doctrine of the believers' Church practice believer's baptism, after the new birth and a profession of faith.[69][70]

Anabaptist[edit]

Believer's baptism is one of several distinctive doctrines associated closely with Anabaptist (literally, rebaptizer) denominations, inclusive of Mennonites, Amish, Hutterites, Bruderhof, Schwarzenau Brethren, River Brethren, and Apostolic Christians. For Anabaptists, "believer’s baptism consists of three parts, the Spirit, the water, and the blood—these three witnesses on earth."[71] According to Anabaptist theology: (1) In believer's baptism, the Holy Spirit witnesses the candidate entering into a covenant with God.[71] (2) God, in believer's baptism, "grants a baptized believer the water of baptism as a sign of His covenant with them—that such a one indicates and publicly confesses that he wants to live in true obedience towards God and fellow believers with a blameless life".[71] (3) Integral to believer's baptism is the candidate's mission to witness to the world even unto martyrdom, echoing Jesus' words that "they would be baptized with His baptism, witnessing to the world when their blood was spilt".[71] Anabaptist denominations, such as the Mennonites, Amish, and Hutterites, use pouring as the mode to administer believer's baptism, whereas Anabaptists of the Schwarzenau Brethren and River Brethren traditions baptize by immersion.[1][2][3][4]

Baptist, Pentecostal, and Nondenominational Christianity[edit]

Believer's baptism is also practiced by Baptists,[63] as well as many Pentecostals.[72][73][69] In many nondenominational evangelical, Baptist, and Pentecostal churches, a ritual known as child dedication is performed,[74]

Methodism[edit]

In the Methodist Churches, baptism is a sacrament of initiation into the visible Church.[75] Wesleyan covenant theology further teaches that baptism is a sign and a seal of the covenant of grace:[76]

Of this great new-covenant blessing, baptism was therefore eminently the sign; and it represented "the pouring out" of the Spirit, "the descending" of the Spirit, the "falling" of the Spirit "upon men," by the mode in which it was administered, the pouring of water from above upon the subjects baptized. As a seal, also, or confirming sign, baptism answers to circumcision.[76]

Infant baptism, in Methodism, is celebrated as "an acceptance of the prevenient grace of God and as a confession on the part of the church of its responsibility for children in general and for every child in particular".[77][78] Methodists teach that people receive justifying grace, which is integral to salvation, after they repent and personally accept Jesus as Savior.[79][6] Many Methodist denominations, such as the Free Methodist Church and Evangelical Wesleyan Church, practice infant baptism for families who desire it for their children, but provide a rite for child dedication for those who have a preference for believer's baptism only after their child has made a personal acceptance of Jesus as his/her saviour.[6][7] Both infant baptism and believer's baptism may be received via pouring, sprinkling, or immersion—with the candidate or the candidate's parents or sponsors choosing the mode of administration.[7]

Restorationism[edit]

In the Seventh-day Adventist Church, rebaptism by immersion is not required for church membership. However, it is available to those who feel that they have received new information that makes a difference or have experienced a reconversion.[80]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints completely rejects infant baptism.[81] Little children are considered both born without sin[82] and incapable of committing sin.[83] They have no need of baptism until age eight,[84] when they can begin to learn to discern right from wrong, and are thus accountable to God for their own actions.[85] People completely incapable of understanding right from wrong, regardless of age, are also considered as not accountable for their actions, and are not baptized.[85]

Prevalence[edit]

Statistics based on membership totals reported by various denominations state that churches that practice infant baptism represent about 80% of Christians.[86]

Theological objections[edit]

Many churches that baptize infants, such as the Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Reformed, Anglican, Methodist, Lutheran, Moravian, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox denominations, previously functioned as national, state-established churches in various European and Latin American countries. Defenders of infant baptism have attempted to trace the practice to the New Testament era, but generally acknowledge that no unambiguous evidence exists that the practice existed prior to the 2nd century. During the Reformation, the relationship of the church to the state was a contentious issue, and infant baptism was seen as a way to ensure that society remained religiously homogeneous. As a result, groups that rejected infant baptism were seen as subversive and were often persecuted.[87]

Churches of Christ[edit]

Among the Churches of Christ, baptism is seen as a passive act of faith rather than a meritorious work; it "is a confession that a person has nothing to offer God".[88] While the Churches of Christ do not describe baptism as a "sacrament", their view of it can be described as "sacramental".[89][90] They see the power of baptism coming from God, who chose to use baptism as a vehicle, rather than from the water or the act itself,[89] and understand baptism to be an integral part of the conversion process, rather than just a symbol of conversion.[91] A recent trend is to emphasize the transformational aspect of baptism. Instead of describing it as just a legal requirement or sign of something that happened in the past, it is seen as "the event that places the believer 'into Christ' where God does the ongoing work of transformation".[90] Because of the belief that baptism is a necessary part of salvation, some Baptists hold that the Churches of Christ endorse the doctrine of baptismal regeneration.[92] However, members of the Churches of Christ reject this, arguing that since faith and repentance are necessary, and that the cleansing of sins is by the blood of Christ through the grace of God, baptism is not an inherently redeeming ritual.[92][93][94] One author from the Churches of Christ describes the relationship between faith and baptism: "Faith is the reason why a person is a child of God; baptism is the time at which one is incorporated into Christ and so becomes a child of God" (italics in the source).[95] Baptism is understood as a confessional expression of faith and repentance,[96] rather than a "work" that earns salvation.[95]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Calvin dedicated a whole chapter of his Institutes of the Christian Religion to the matter of infant baptism (Institutes, IV, 16), in which he states that "baptism succeeds circumcision" as a sign of belonging to the People of God and as a promise of salvation, resulting from the Covenant between God and humankind.[67]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kurian, George Thomas; Day, Sarah Claudine (14 March 2017). The Essential Handbook of Denominations and Ministries. Baker Books. ISBN 978-1-4934-0640-1. The Conservative Mennonite Conference practices believer's baptism, seen as an external symbol of internal spiritual purity and performed by immersion or pouring of water on the head; Communion; washing the feet of the saints, following Jesus's example and reminding beleivers of the need to be washed of pride, rivalry, and selfish motives; anointing the sick with oil--a symbol of the Holy Spirit and of the healing power of God--offered with the prayer of faith; and laying on of hands for ordination, symbolizing the imparting of responsibility and of God's power to fulfill that responsibility.
  2. ^ a b Kraybill, Donald B. (1 November 2010). Concise Encyclopedia of Amish, Brethren, Hutterites, and Mennonites. JHU Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-8018-9911-9. All Amish, Hutterites, and most Mennonites baptized by pouring or sprinkling.
  3. ^ a b Nolt, Steven M.; Loewen, Harry (11 June 2010). Through Fire and Water: An Overview of Mennonite History. MennoMedia. ISBN 978-0-8316-9701-3. ...both groups practiced believers baptism (the River Brethren did so by immersion in a stream or river) and stressed simplicity in life and nonresistance to violence.
  4. ^ a b Brackney, William H. (3 May 2012). Historical Dictionary of Radical Christianity. Scarecrow Press. p. 279. ISBN 978-0-8108-7365-0. The birthdate in 1708 marked the baptism by immersion of the group in the River Eder, thus believer's baptism became one of the primary tenets of The Brethren.
  5. ^ Foster, Douglas A.; Dunnavant, Anthony L.; Blowers, Paul M.; Williams, D. Newell (2004). The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-8028-3898-8. Across the board, Christian Churches/Churches of Christ immerse new believers and strongly encourage those who transfer from non-immersing churches to undergo immersion.
  6. ^ a b c "Baptism and Dedication". Free Methodist Church. 3 December 2008. When they baptize babies, pastors should make sure that their prayers include clear requests that God will bring the children to a personal faith that "owns" what the parents are promising at a time when the children (who "belong" from day one) cannot act for themselves. And when they dedicate children, pastors should make sure that their prayers include clear gratitude to God for the fact that he is already at work in the life of that child, who already "belongs" in the Christian community. Here's what must be stressed: whether at the time of baptism (in the adult baptism tradition) or at the time of confirmation when the vows made earlier by the parents are personally “owned” (in the infant baptism tradition), it is faith in Jesus (dependent trust, not mere cognitive affirmation) that is crucial. Paul goes so far as to say that without faith and obedience, the old rite of circumcision has no value (Romans 2:25). The same is true of baptism. With either rite, clear evangelistic follow-through is crucial.
  7. ^ a b c The Discipline of the Evangelical Wesleyan Church. Evangelical Wesleyan Church. 2015. pp. 29, 169–178.
  8. ^ "Anabaptist". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  9. ^ Mark Dever, Jonathan Leeman, Baptist Foundations: Church Government for an Anti-Institutional Age, B&H Publishing Group, USA, 2015, p. 108
  10. ^ Mark Dever, Jonathan Leeman, Baptist Foundations: Church Government for an Anti-Institutional Age, B&H Publishing Group, USA, 2015, p. 93
  11. ^ a b Stanley J. Grenz, Theology for the Community of God, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, USA, 2000, p. 528
  12. ^ Schaff, Philip (1885). The Oldest Church Manual, Called The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles ...: The Didache and Kindred Documents in the Original, with Translations and Discussions of Post-apostolic Teaching, Baptism, Worship, and Discipline, and with Illustrations and Facsimiles of the Jerusalem Manuscript. Funk and Wagnalls.
  13. ^ Taylor, Justin. "17 Statements that a Paedobaptist and a Credobaptist Can Both Affirm". Archived from the original on 2020-09-20.
  14. ^ Clark, Elizabeth A. (2011-04-12). Founding the Fathers: Early Church History and Protestant Professors in Nineteenth-Century America. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0432-2.
  15. ^ Wright, David F. (2009-11-16). Baptism: Three Views. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0-8308-7819-2.
  16. ^ Schoedel, William R. (2020-06-03). The Apostolic Fathers, A New Translation and Commentary, Volume V: Polycarp, Martyrdom of Polycarp, Fragments of Papias. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-7252-8086-1.
  17. ^ a b "The delay of baptism is preferable; principally, however, in the case of little children. For why is it necessary . . . that the sponsors likewise should be thrust into danger? . . . For no less cause must the unwedded also be deferred—in whom the ground of temptation is prepared, alike in such as never were wedded by means of their maturity, and in the widowed by means of their freedom—until they either marry, or else be more fully strengthened for continence" ([1] 18).
  18. ^ a b Florens, Tertullian. On Baptism. the delay of baptism is preferable; principally, however, in the case of little children. For why is it necessary — if (baptism itself) is not so necessary — that the sponsors likewise should be thrust into danger? Who both themselves, by reason of mortality, may fail to fulfil their promises, and may be disappointed by the development of an evil disposition, in those for whom they stood? The Lord does indeed say, Forbid them not to come unto me. Let them come, then, while they are growing up; let them come while they are learning, while they are learning whither to come; let them become Christians when they have become able to know Christ.
  19. ^ a b "Did the Early Church Practice Infant Baptism or Full Immersion?". Zondervan Academic. Retrieved 2021-09-19.
  20. ^ a b Jewett, Paul King (1978). Infant Baptism and the Covenant of Grace: An Appraisal of the Argument that as Infants Were Once Circumcised, So They Should Now be Baptized. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-1713-6.
  21. ^ Schreiner, Thomas R.; Wright, Shawn (2007-01-01). Believer's Baptism: Sign of the New Covenant in Christ. B&H Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4336-6905-7.
  22. ^ a b c "Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume II: Ante-Nicene Christianity. A.D. 100-325 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". www.ccel.org. Retrieved 2022-07-25.
  23. ^ Schreiner, Thomas R.; Wright, Shawn (2007-01-01). Believer's Baptism: Sign of the New Covenant in Christ. B&H Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4336-6905-7.
  24. ^ Pollard, Richard T. (2018-07-31). Dan Taylor (1738-1816), Baptist Leader and Pioneering Evangelical. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-5326-3619-6.
  25. ^ Schreiner, Thomas R.; Wright, Shawn D. (2006). Believer's Baptism: Sign of the New Covenant in Christ. B&H Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8054-3249-7.
  26. ^ Jewett, Paul King (1978). Infant Baptism and the Covenant of Grace: An Appraisal of the Argument that as Infants Were Once Circumcised, So They Should Now be Baptized. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-1713-6.
  27. ^ "CHURCH FATHERS: Church History, Book III (Eusebius)". www.newadvent.org. Retrieved 2022-07-25. 7. When he had come to one of the cities not far away (the name of which is given by some ), and had consoled the brethren in other matters, he finally turned to the bishop that had been appointed, and seeing a youth of powerful physique, of pleasing appearance, and of ardent temperament, he said, 'This one I commit to you in all earnestness in the presence of the Church and with Christ as witness.' And when the bishop had accepted the charge and had promised all, he repeated the same injunction with an appeal to the same witnesses, and then departed for Ephesus. 8. But the presbyter taking home the youth committed to him, reared, kept, cherished, and finally baptized him. After this he relaxed his stricter care and watchfulness, with the idea that in putting upon him the seal of the Lord he had given him a perfect protection.
  28. ^ Ferguson, Everett (2009-03-23). Baptism in the Early Church: History, Theology, and Liturgy in the First Five Centuries. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-2748-7.
  29. ^ Killen, W. D. (2020-07-29). The Ancient Church. BoD – Books on Demand. ISBN 978-3-7523-6403-3.
  30. ^ Hodges, William (1844). Infant Baptism Tested by Scripture and History: Or, The Infants Claim to Church Membership Defended and Established, on Testimony Scriptural and Historical. Stavely and M'Calla ; New York : Stanford and Swords ; Alexandria : Bell and Entwisle.
  31. ^ Schreiner, Thomas R.; Wright, Shawn (2007-01-01). Believer's Baptism: Sign of the New Covenant in Christ. B&H Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4336-6905-7.
  32. ^ Bird, Michael F. (2020-10-20). Evangelical Theology, Second Edition: A Biblical and Systematic Introduction. Zondervan Academic. ISBN 978-0-310-09398-5.
  33. ^ a b Hildebrand, Stephen M. (2014-03-18). Basil of Caesarea (Foundations of Theological Exegesis and Christian Spirituality). Baker Academic. ISBN 978-1-4412-4529-8.
  34. ^ "Chapters 8-11". www.cliffsnotes.com. Retrieved 2022-07-24.
  35. ^ FITZGERALD, ed (1999). Augustine Through the Ages: An Encyclopedia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-3843-8.
  36. ^ "Canons of the Council of Carthage (418) on sin and grace". earlychurchtexts.com. Retrieved 2022-08-13. Likewise it seemed good that whosoever denies that infants newly from their mother’s wombs should be baptized, or says that baptism is for remission of sins, but that they derive from Adam no original sin, which needs to be removed by the laver of regeneration, from whence the conclusion follows, that in them the form of baptism for the remission of sins, is to be understood as false and not true, let him be anathema. For no otherwise can be understood what the Apostle says, “By one man sin is come into the world, and death through sin, and so death passed upon all men in that all have sinned,” than the Catholic Church everywhere diffused has always understood it. For on account of this rule of faith even infants, who could have committed as yet no sin themselves, therefore are truly baptized for the remission of sins, in order that what in them is the result of generation may be cleansed by regeneration.
  37. ^ Ford, David Barnes (1879). Studies on the Baptismal Question: Including a Review of Dr. Dale's "Inquiry Into the Usage of Baptizo.". H. A. Young.
  38. ^ Robinson, Robert (1817). The History of Baptism. From the Press of Lincoln & Edmands.
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