Brava, Cape Verde
|Native name: Dja Braba|
Nickname: Ilha das flores (island of the flowers)
|Area||64 km2 (25 sq mi)|
|Length||10.5 km (6.52 mi)|
|Width||9.3 km (5.78 mi)|
|Highest elevation||976 m (3,202 ft)|
|Highest point||Monte Fontainhas|
|Largest settlement||Nova Sintra|
|Pop. density||93 /km2 (241 /sq mi)|
Brava (Portuguese for “wild” or "brave") is an island in Cape Verde, in the Sotavento group. At 64 km2 (25 sq mi), it is the smallest inhabited island of the Cape Verde archipelago,:21 but at the same time the greenest. First settled in the 1540s, its population grew after Mount Fogo on neighbouring Fogo erupted in 1680. For more than a century, its main industry was whaling, but the island economy is now primarily agricultural.
Brava was discovered in 1462 by Portuguese sailors. There is no evidence of human presence on the Cape Verde islands before the arrival of the Portuguese. The first settlement was founded here in 1573. Sir Francis Drake visited the island in 1579.
In 1680, Brava received many refugees from the nearby larger island of Fogo after its volcano erupted. In the 17th and the 18th centuries, pirates raided the bays of the island. In the 19th century, Brava was a port of call for whaling ships from Europe and North America.
Emigration began as US whaleships carried people from Brava to the northeastern part of North America, especially along the Eastern Seaboard. Most of the immigrants from Brava settled in Boston and New Bedford, Massachusetts, and Providence, Rhode Island, where there were numerous Cape Verdean and Portuguese immigrants. In the 19th century, many of the men continued to work in whaling. An American consulate was opened in 1843 and existed until 1978, when the US established an embassy in the capital city of Praia.
The island of Brava is 10.5 km long (north to south) and its width is 9.3 km. Its area is 64 km2 (25 sq mi).:21 Practically the whole island is a stratovolcano. It lies in the lee of the enormous Fogo volcano. Volcanic activity on the island has been mainly located along three lines, which all intersect at the crest of ground that forms the highest part of the island. Brava has no documented historical eruptions, but its youthful volcanic morphology and the fact that earthquake swarms still occur indicate the potential for future eruptions; its last eruption was during the Holocene era. 13% of the island area is forested.:25
Being highly mountainous this island has a quite diverse climate. Brava island has moderate tropical climate (As according to Köppen–Geiger climate classification system) along the coast and semi-arid mild tropical climate Bsh with very balanced temperatures year round in the interior. The average annual temperature on the coast is about 23–25 °C (73–77 °F), decreasing to some 17–20 °C (63–68 °F) in the mountains. There can be remarkably cool weather with warmer wet season starting in June and ending in November with colder dry season starting in December and ending in May.
|Climate data for Cachaço, south of Nova Sintra, 800 metres ASL|
|Average high °C (°F)||18.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.2
|Average low °C (°F)||13.8
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||11
As of 1832, the population was estimated at 8,000.
|Population of Brava, Cape Verde (1940—2010)|
The economy of the island is mainly based on (irrigated) agriculture and fishing. Main agricultural goods include coffee, potatoes including sweet potatoes, corn (maize), banana and sugar cane.
- Nova Sintra, a town with a museum, traditional Portuguese architecture, several churches and shops.
- Fajã de Agua, a small harbour on the West coast with a natural swimming pool.
- Nossa Senhora do Monte, a village in the mountains with a pilgrimage church.
- Cova Rodela, a village in the mountains with a dragon tree in its main street.
The Esperadinha Airport, inaugurated in 1992, was closed in 2004 because of persisting strong winds. The village of Furna has a commercial port, the other port is Fajã de Água which is only used for fishing. Ferries to the islands of Fogo and Santiago depart from Furna. On Brava the villages may be reached by "Aluguer" bus. There is no fixed schedule, as the aluguers travel only when there are sufficient passengers. A few taxis are available as well.
- Eugénio Tavares, musician; he used the traditional morna and wrote in Cape Verdean Creole. A statue dedicated to Eugénio Tavares is in the main square of Vila Nova Sintra, surrounded by a garden with trees, sunflowers, flowers, grass and other types of plants.
- Vinny deMacedo - Massachusetts State Representative & State Senate candidate was born in Brava.
- Estatísticas do Ambiente - 2016, Instituto Nacional de Estatística
- "Brava – sua situação geográfica" [Brava, its Geographic Location]. A Semana (in Portuguese). 31 March 2004. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
- Cabo Verde, Statistical Yearbook 2015, Instituto Nacional de Estatística, p. 25
- Climate-Data.org http://en.climate-data.org/location/789800/. Retrieved 28 December 2013. Missing or empty
- Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 17.
- Source: Statoids
- Source: Instituto Nacional de Estatísticas Archived 2008-11-18 at the Wayback Machine..
- Portal do Instituto Nacional de Estatística: INE - CENSO 2010.
- "Brava" (Armand d'Avezac et al., L'Univers. Îles de l'Afrique (The Universe, Islands of Africa), Firmin Didot frères, Paris, 1848, p. 208-210)
- Michel Lesourd, "Sal", Le Cap-Vert,, Jaguar, Paris, 2006, p. 116-125 ISBN 978-2-86950-408-0
- Richard A. Lobban Jr et Paul Khalil Saucier, "Sal", Historical dictionary of the Republic of Cape Verde, Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Maryland ; Toronto ; Plymouth, 2007, p. 43-44 ISBN 978-0-8108-4906-8
- Sabrina Requedaz et Laurent Delucchi, "Sal, le vent" ("Sal, the Wind"), Cap-Vert (Cape Verde), Olizane, Geneva, 2011 (6th ed.), p. 159-171 ISBN 978-2-88086-394-4
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